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Smitha G.R.,Gandhi Krishi Vigyana Kendra University of Agricultural science | Smitha G.R.,ICAR Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research DMAPR | Umesha K.,Gandhi Krishi Vigyana Kendra University of Agricultural science | Sreeramu B.S.,Gandhi Krishi Vigyana Kendra University of Agricultural science
Open Access Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants | Year: 2015

Long pepper (Piper longum L.) spikes and roots forms one of the important constituents in the treatment of various human ailments under ayurveda, siddha and unani medicine systems of India. An experiment was conducted in this crop to study the effect of various combinations of organic manures and bio-fertilizers on crop growth, nutrition and soil fertility status including microbial population after harvesting of the crop. Varied levels of farm yard manure (FYM - 30 and 40 t ha-1), vermicompost (VC - 1 and 2 t ha-1), neem cake (NC - 1 and 2 t ha-1) and bio-fertilizers (Azospirilum, phosphate solubilizing bacteria and vesicular arbuscular mycorrhizae each at 10 kg ha-1) were tried in sixteen different combinations. After three years of experimentation the impact of organic farming on soil and plant nutrient status has been analyzed. The results revealed that the application of organic manures has a significant impact on plant and soil nutrient status after three years of cropping. The highest tissue nutrient content and nutrient uptake were recorded in the treatment FYM 40 t + VC 2.0 t + NC 2.0 t + BF 10 kg ha-1 where the organic manures and bio-fertilizers were applied at highest level. The same treatment has also increased the organic carbon, available NPK and microbial population in the soil after three years of cropping. All these parameters were lowest in treatment FYM 30 t + VC 1.0 t + NC 1.0 t ha-1 where manures were applied in lowest quantity without bio-fertilizers. Hence, we conclude that the long pepper is an organic matter loving crop and application of higher levels of organic manures improved both plant and soil nutrient status. © 2015, Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Association of India. All rights reserved. Source


Abirami K.,ICAR Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research DMAPR | Rana V.S.,ICAR Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research DMAPR | Geetha K.A.,ICAR Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research DMAPR | Maiti S.,ICAR Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research DMAPR
Open Access Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants | Year: 2014

The paper reports the Good Agricultural Practices (GAP) of Enicostema axillare (Lam.) A. Raynal(= Enicostemma littorale auct. non Blume). Details of the GAP which includes growing environment, soil type, propagation material, nursery technique, transplanting details, manure application, optimum spacing, Intercultural operations, harvest and post harvest management are described along with a calendar of operation schedule. © 2014, Open Access Journal of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants. All rights reserved. Source


Reddy N.R.R.,ICAR Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research DMAPR | Mehta R.H.,ICAR Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research DMAPR | Soni P.H.,ICAR Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research DMAPR | Makasana J.,ICAR Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research DMAPR | And 3 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

Senna (Cassia angustifolia Vahl.) is a world's natural laxative medicinal plant. Laxative properties are due to sennosides (anthraquinone glycosides) natural products. However, little genetic information is available for this species, especially concerning the biosynthetic pathways of sennosides. We present here the transcriptome sequencing of young and mature leaf tissue of Cassia angustifolia using Illumina MiSeq platform that resulted in a total of 6.34 Gb of raw nucleotide sequence. The sequence assembly resulted in 42230 and 37174 transcripts with an average length of 1119 bp and 1467 bp for young and mature leaf, respectively. The transcripts were annotated using NCBI BLAST with 'green plant database (txid 33090)', Swiss Prot, Kyoto Encylcopedia of Genes & Genomes (KEGG), Cluster of Orthologous Gene (COG) and Gene Ontology (GO). Out of the total transcripts, 40138 (95.0%) and 36349 (97.7%) from young and mature leaf, respectively, were annotated by BLASTX against green plant database of NCBI. We used InterProscan to see protein similarity at domain level, a total of 34031 (young leaf) and 32077 (mature leaf) transcripts were annotated against the Pfam domains. All transcripts from young and mature leaf were assigned to 191 KEGG pathways. There were 166 and 159 CDS, respectively, from young and mature leaf involved in metabolism of terpenoids and polyketides. Many CDS encoding enzymes leading to biosynthesis of sennosides were identified. A total of 10,763 CDS differentially expressing in both young and mature leaf libraries of which 2,343 (21.7%) CDS were up-regulated in young compared to mature leaf. Several differentially expressed genes found functionally associated with sennoside biosynthesis. CDS encoding for many CYPs and TF families were identified having probable roles in metabolism of primary as well as secondary metabolites. We developed SSR markers for molecular breeding of senna. We have identified a set of putative genes involved in various secondary metabolite pathways, especially those related to the synthesis of sennosides which will serve as an important platform for public information about gene expression, genomics, and functional genomics in senna. © 2015 Rama Reddy et al. This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited. Source

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