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Bhaduri D.,ICAR Directorate of Groundnut Research | Saha A.,ICAR Directorate of Groundnut Research | Saha A.,ICAR Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research | Desai D.,ICAR Directorate of Groundnut Research | Meena H.N.,ICAR Directorate of Groundnut Research
Chemosphere | Year: 2016

For the present study, soil samples of four artificially-induced salinity gradients (S0: control, S1: 2.0, S2: 4.0, S3: 6.0 ECiw) was incubated with fine-textured peanut shell biochar at various ratios (B0: control, B1: 2.5%, B2: 5.0%, B3: 10% w/w) for 30 days. At 1, 3, 7, 15, 30 days of incubation, samples were analyzed for soil carbon and selected enzyme activities. Results showed that biochar could increase soil organic carbon on application of highest rate of biochar addition (B3), hence potentially restored the saline soils by less C mineralization, and more sequestration of soil C. However, soil enzyme activities were biochar rate(s), day(s) of incubation and enzyme dependent. The lowest rate of biochar addition (B1) showed highest dehydrogenase (20.5 μg TPF g-1 soil h-1), acid phosphatase (29.1 μg PNP g-1 soil h-1) and alkaline phosphatase (16.1 μg PNP g-1 soil h-1) whereas the higher rate (B2) increased the urease (5.51 μg urea-N g-1 soil h-1) and fluorescein diacetate hydrolyzing activities (3.95 μg fluorescein g-1 OD soil h-1) in soil. All the positive changes persisted at higher levels of salinity (S2, S3) suggesting biochar-amended soil may be potential for better nutrient cycling. Soil enzymes were found to be correlated with soil carbon and with each other while principal component analysis (PCA) extracted the most sensitive parameters as the acid and alkaline phosphatases and urease activities in the present experimental condition. This is the first time report of examining soil microbial environment using peanut shell biochar under a degraded (saline) soil. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Basak B.B.,ICAR Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research | Biswas D.R.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Geoderma | Year: 2016

Most of the Indian rock phosphates (RPs) are not suitable for production of commercial phosphate fertilizer because of their low phosphorus (P) content (low-grade). They are suitable as source of P in acid soil, but not effective for direct use in neutral to alkaline soil. The main aim of this study was to evaluate the potentiality of these RPs as liming material and subsequently their effect on P availability in acid soil. Four Indian RPs namely, Udaipur, Mussoorie, Jhabua and Purulia were evaluated for their liming potential through theoretical calculations, laboratory titration and soil incubation studies. The incubation experiment was carried out for 90days to quantify more accurate per cent calcium carbonate equivalence (%CCE) values of RPs as well as the changes in pH, exchangeable aluminum (Al) and P availability in an acid soil having pH4.53. Results emanated from the theoretical calculation showed that the %CCE of Indian RPs varied from 59 to 62. While, laboratory studies on quantification of %CCE (AOAC method 955.01) of RPs by titration ranged between 39.9 and 53.7 which were lesser than the theoretical values. The %CCE values obtained in soil incubation study at lower rate of RP application followed the similar pattern as those values obtained in the theoretical calculation. Though RP was less effective in increasing soil pH as compared to CaCO3, there was an increase in soil pH due to application of RPs, which is sufficient enough to decrease the content of Al much below the toxic and safe limit for supplying available P for plant growth. Thus, application of low-grade RPs could be a potential option as liming material in acid soil in addition to a source of P for crop production. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

Smitha G.R.,ICAR Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research | Das M.,Krishi Anusandhan. Bhawan II
Medicinal Plants | Year: 2016

An investigation was carried out during 2009-10 with an objective to determine the effects of seed storage and temperature on seed germination of Asoca (Saraca asoca (Roxb.) de Wilde). As there is a great demand for its bark coupled with shortage in supply, this plant is thus highly exploited and threatened. In this study a correlation between seed moisture content and seed germination was established. It was observed that the rate of moisture loss in seeds is indirectly proportional to the seed germination. Highest germination percentage (83.7%) was recorded at open nursery at 4 weeks after harvest followed by 25°C and 30°C at 3 weeks after harvest. The seed germinated immediately after harvest in open nursery whereas; at 25°C and 30°C, germination commenced only at two weeks after harvest. Under open nursery conditions, seeds failed to germinate eight weeks after harvest when the seed moisture content was below 22.8%. However, at 30°C, the seed germination continued up to nine weeks after harvest where the seed moisture content was <20%. The experimental results revealed that the seeds of S. asoca could not tolerate drying to lower moisture content of 20-23% and might be considered as recalcitrant. © 2016, IndianJournals.com. All rights reserved. Source

Chakraborty K.,ICAR Directorate of Groundnut Research | Bhaduri D.,ICAR Directorate of Groundnut Research | Meena H.N.,ICAR Directorate of Groundnut Research | Kalariya K.,ICAR Directorate of Groundnut Research | Kalariya K.,ICAR Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research
Plant Physiology and Biochemistry | Year: 2016

Achieving salt-tolerance is highly desirable in today's agricultural context. Apart from developing salt-tolerant cultivars, possibility lies with management options, which can improve crop yield and have significant impact on crop physiology as well. Thus present study was aimed to evaluate the ameliorative role of potassium (K+) in salinity tolerance of peanut. A field experiment was conducted using two differentially salt-responsive cultivars and three levels of salinity treatment (control, 2.0 dS m-1, 4.0 dS m-1) along with two levels (with and without) of potassium fertilizer (0 and 30 kg K2O ha-1). Salinity treatment incurred significant changes in overall physiology in two peanut cultivars, though the responses varied between the tolerant and the susceptible one. External K+ application resulted in improved salinity tolerance in terms of plant water status, biomass produced under stress, osmotic adjustment and better ionic balance. Tolerant cv. GG 2 showed better salt tolerance by excluding Na+ from uptake and lesser accumulation in leaf tissue and relied more on organic osmolyte for osmotic adjustment. On the contrary, susceptible cv. TG 37A allowed more Na+ to accumulate in the leaf tissue and relied more on inorganic solute for osmotic adjustment under saline condition, hence showed more susceptibility to salinity stress. Application of K+ resulted in nullifying the negative effect of salinity stress with slightly better response in the susceptible cultivar (TG 37A). The present study identified Na+-exclusion as a key strategy for salt-tolerance in tolerant cv. GG 2 and also showed the ameliorating role of K+ in salt-tolerance with varying degree of response amongst tolerant and susceptible cultivars. © 2016 Elsevier Masson SAS. Source

Saha A.,ICAR Directorate of Groundnut Research | Saha A.,ICAR Directorate of Medicinal and Aromatic Plants Research | Pipariya A.,ICAR Directorate of Groundnut Research | Bhaduri D.,ICAR Directorate of Groundnut Research
Environmental Earth Sciences | Year: 2016

Field experiments in peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) soil ecosystem were conducted during the summer seasons (February–June) of the year 2013 and 2014 in black clay soil treated with tebuconazole at field rate (FR), 2-times FR (2FR) and 10-times FR (10FR) as foliar spray to determine the impact of tebuconazole on soil microbial properties and enzymatic activities. Tebuconazole application at FR and 2FR resulted in a short-lived and transitory toxic effect on soil microbial properties and enzymatic activities. The duration of this disturbance was slightly longer at 10FR. Incorporation of tebuconazole in soil resulted in stimulating the soil microbial activity as evidenced by increased ammonification and nitrification rates and increased soil microbial biomass at later stage. However, it was more toxic to soil ergosterol which is the indicator of the presence of viable fungi. Soil enzymatic activities like fluorescein diacetate-hydrolyzing activity, urease, phosphatase and aryl sulfatase are either unaffected or shortly inhibited and then recovered. However, dehydrogenase and nitrate reductase activity decreased more drastically and can be used as valuable indicator to assess the impact of tebuconazole application on soil health. The results indicated that instead of single assays, a broad spectrum analysis of soil microbial and enzymatic activities gives a better insight about the impacts of pesticide on soil health. From this study, it is also concluded that the application of tebuconazole at 10FR had adverse effects on the microbial variables and the effect on long-term application should be studied further. © 2016, Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg. Source

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