Port Blair, India
Port Blair, India

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Singh S.,Indian Council of Agricultural Research | Swain S.,ICARI CIARI | Singh D.R.,Indian Council of Agricultural Research | Salim K.M.,Indian Council of Agricultural Research | And 2 more authors.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2015

The present study investigated the changes in phytochemicals and antioxidant activities in 25 leafy vegetables with two common boiling practices viz., with 5% NaCl solution (BSW) and normal water (BNW) in a domestic microwave oven. Fresh samples (100 g) were rich in polyphenols (58.8-296.9 mg), tannin (402.0-519.4 mg), flavonoids (148.9-614.4 mg), carotenoids (69.0-786.3 mg), anthocyanin (11.7-493.7 mg) and ascorbic acid (245.0-314.2 mg). Microwave boiling significantly (p < 0.05) decreased/increased phytochemicals but none of the compounds followed same trend in all vegetables. Boiling process reduced anti-nutrients from fresh samples (FS) as observed for nitrate (4.5-73.6% by BSW and 22.5-98.8% by BNW); phytate (6.2-69.7% by BSW and 10.6-57.3% by BNW) and oxalate (14.7-88.9% by BSW and 14.5-87.3% by BNW) but saponin increased in 18 vegetables by BNW while 8 vegetables by BSW. The study revealed differential pattern of change in phytochemical matrix and anti-nutrients in vegetables by microwave boiling which will help in devising efficient cooking practices and contribute in health and nutritional security. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Singh S.,Indian Council of Agricultural Research | Gautam R.K.,ICAR CIARI | Singh D.R.,Indian Council of Agricultural Research | Sharma T.V.R.S.,ICAR CIARI | And 2 more authors.
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2015

Bacterial wilt, caused by Ralstonia solanacearum (Smith, US Department of Agriculture, 12, 1–28, 1986) Yabuuchi et al. (Microbiology and Immunology, 39, 897–904, 1995) (formerly Pseudomonas solanacearum), causes 35–90 % yield loss in tomato production in hot-humid tropical regions. Commonly used strategies for minimizing incidence of bacterial wilt include choosing resistant varieties, cocopith based growing media, chemical methods, grafting on resistant rootstocks, application of biocontrol agents and field management practices. The cultivation of resistant varieties is the most appropriate and eco-friendly way to manage the soil borne diseases in crops but the same is not fitting well with bacterial wilt in tomato. In this review, a systematic analysis has been made on reaction of 526 genotypes of tomato to R. solanacearum pathogen tested over a 30 year period in Andaman Islands and identified 37 genotypes as highly resistant (HR), 58 as resistant (R) and 151 as moderate resistant (MR). None of the claimed resistant genotypes exhibited stable and durable resistance against this pathogen and no single genotype reported in HR category (after 2002) except only two genotypes in R category. The period for a genotype to shift from resistance to susceptible is very short because of pathogen evolution hence, it is necessary to constantly develop new resistant varieties in tomato against R. solanacearum. The review also suggests breeding strategies for rapid development of bacterial wilt resistant varieties in tomato in order to minimize the yield losses especially in the tropical conditions. © 2015, Koninklijke Nederlandse Planteziektenkundige Vereniging.

Singh S.,Indian Council of Agricultural Research | Swain S.,Food Process Engineering Laboratory | Nisha M.,Horticultural Biochemistry and Biotechnology Laboratory | Banu V.S.,Horticultural Biochemistry and Biotechnology Laboratory | And 2 more authors.
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2015

The study investigated phytochemical changes in aril and pulp of Momordica subangulata ssp. renigera (G. Don) de Wilde fruit during ripening process. Aril had higher lycopene (57.0. ±. 2.2. μg/g), carotenoids (149.8. ±. 0.3. μg/g), flavonoids (396.0. ±. 2.3. mg/100. g), phenolics (297.7. ±. 2.2. mg/100. g), tannin (495.4. ±. 2.8. mg/100. g), and xanthophylls (111.8. ±. 0.9. mg/100. g) than pulp at stage-1. Carotenoids, lycopene and xanthophylls in aril fraction increased from turning yellow to ripe stage by 205.0%, 524.5%, and 303.7%, respectively while in pulp by 633.2%, 557.4%, and 1113.2%, respectively. Flavonoids (18.3%, 16.5%), tannins (24.4%, 26.8%), phenolic (20.2%, 19.5%), β-carotene (87.4%, 70.6%), and chlorophyll (55.1%, 82.0%) were decreased in aril and pulp. The ABTS and DPPH activities reduced in both fractions with ripening. The ABTS anti-activity had strong correlation with lycopene (r= 0.984; p<. 0.01), phenolics (r= 0.976; p<. 0.01), tannin (r= 0.984; p<. 0.01), β-carotene (r= 0.951; p<. 0.01), carotenoids (r= 0.923; p<. 0.01), and chlorophyll (r= 0.951; p<. 0.01). Ripe fruits of M. subangulata ssp. renigera can be used for higher recovery of lycopene for herbal industry. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

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