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Kamala S.,ICAR Central Tuber Crops Research Institute | Makeshkumar T.,ICAR Central Tuber Crops Research Institute
Journal of Virological Methods | Year: 2015

Dasheen mosaic virus (DsMV), the pathogen causing mosaic disease of elephant foot yam (Amorphophallus paeoniifoilius) is disseminated mainly through vegetative propagation of the tubers. For the rapid and sensitive detection of the virus, a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay based on the coat protein gene has been developed. A final concentration of 5.4. mM magnesium sulphate and 0.7. M betaine in the reaction mixture was found to be optimum for getting characteristic ladder like bands of the amplified product after gel electrophoresis. The reaction was set at 65. °C for 50. min followed by reaction termination at 86. °C for 5. min in a water bath. The sensitivity of the assay was found to be 100 times higher than that of RT-PCR. The virus was indexed successfully from tubers of elephant foot yam. In tube detection of the DsMV was carried out using fluorescence detection reagents. The assay was validated with field samples from various regions of Kerala state, India. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Pati K.,ICAR Central Tuber Crops Research Institute | Munshi A.D.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Behera T.K.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Genetika | Year: 2015

The inheritance pattern of gynoecious sex expression in cucumber was studied by utilizing a gynoecious line (GBS-1) and two monoecious lines (Pusa Uday and Punjab Naveen). Crosses were made between gynoecious line (GBS-1) and monoecious lines (Pusa Uday and Punjab Naveen). The F1 and F2 population along with parental lines were evaluated to study the inheritance of this trait. All F1 hybrids showed gynoecious sex in both crosses and in the F2 generation, the observed distribution of plant phenotypes fitted the expected mendelian ratio of 3 (gynocious plant) : 1 (monoecious plant). The segregation of plant sex types suggested monogenic dominant control of gynoecious sex form in cucumber using genotype GBS-1.


Kamala S.,ICAR Central Tuber Crops Research Institute | Makeshkumar T.,ICAR Central Tuber Crops Research Institute | Sreekumar J.,ICAR Central Tuber Crops Research Institute | Chakrabarti S.K.,ICAR Central Tuber Crops Research Institute
Virology Reports | Year: 2015

Dasheen mosaic virus (DsMV) the main causative agent of mosaic disease in elephant foot yam (Amorphophallus paeoniifolius) belongs to Potyviridae. The complete genome sequence of DsMV infecting A. paeoniifolius in Kerala state, India was assembled from the whole transcriptome sequencing reads of diseased host samples. The sequence of the virus which showed 83% identity with DsMV infecting Zantedeschia aethiopica (China) was confirmed through amplification and sequencing with primers designed based on the assembled sequence. Unambiguous recombination events mainly confined to the 5' terminal 4000 nucleotides of the genome with phylogenetically related potyviruses were recognized. The length and genome composition towards the 3' end comprising NIb, CP and 3' UTR were not dependent on the host or the source region. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.


Soman S.,ICAR Central Tuber Crops Research Institute | Byju G.,ICAR Central Tuber Crops Research Institute | Sreekumar J.,ICAR Central Tuber Crops Research Institute
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2016

Cassava (Manihot esculenta Crantz) is an important food crop of India cultivated in an area of 228 000 ha for food, feed and fuel, contributes to food security, equity, poverty alleviation and environmental protection. This study examined the projected climatic changes in the major cassava growing environments of India and also calibrated and evaluated the EcoCrop model to study the impact of 2030 climate on cassava climate suitability in the major growing environments of India. The current climate and future climate projections of 22 GCMs from the SRES-A1B emission scenario were used for the study. The projected change in annual mean temperature and total annual precipitation in the major growing areas ranged from 0.9 to 1.2°C and from 6.8 to 112.4 mm, respectively. The calibrated data were used to drive the EcoCrop model to find out the suitability of current and future climatic conditions. The change in suitability for all the 22 GCMs used was calculated on pixel basis and the mean suitability change indicate that cassava is actually positively impacted in the current growing areas of India with -2.2 to 15% changes in climate suitability. This study concluded that cassava is potentially highly resilient to future climatic changes and it can become a future crop in India, where other crops would fail due to climate change. © 2016, Indian Council of Agricultural Research. All rights reserved.


Kamala S.,ICAR Central Tuber Crops Research Institute | Makeshkumar T.,ICAR Central Tuber Crops Research Institute
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2015

The most characterised Dasheen mosaic virus and many other unreported putative viruses are involved in the mixed viral mosaic infection of elephant foot yam (Amorphophallus paeoniifolius). The in vitro propagation of corm bud tips for virus free plantlet production was carried out in three different culture phases consisting of callusing, shoot regeneration and rooting. A 100 % survival rate was recorded on hardening in sand: soil: coir pith (1:1:1) mixture. A total of 84 % of regenerated plantlets were found to be virus free on indexing of 21 in vitro lines with species specific/genus specific serological and molecular diagnostic techniques. Transcriptome sequencing was carried out for two randomly selected in vitro plants and a mosaic infected field sample. Not any of the known potyviruses were traced in the transcriptome profiles of supposed virus free plants thus confirming the complete potyviruses elimination. Disease symptoms or re-occurrence was not observed in the hardened virus-free lines of the plant. © 2015, Koninklijke Nederlandse Planteziektenkundige Vereniging.


Athira G.K.,ICAR Central Tuber Crops Research Institute | Jyothi A.N.,ICAR Central Tuber Crops Research Institute
Starch/Staerke | Year: 2015

Curcumin, a natural yellow pigment with a wide spectrum of bioactivities, was incorporated in nanocomposite films of cassava starch with poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) for achieving sustained release properties which improves its potential for use in cancer treatment. The ultra structure of the films was studied by scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and the formation of nanoparticles was confirmed by transmission electron microscopic (TEM) analysis. The curcumin incorporation in the films was confirmed by Fourier transform infra red spectroscopy (FTIR). The swelling capacity and erosion of the films were also recorded. It was observed that pH of the medium and storage conditions greatly affected the release of curcumin from the polymer matrices. The release behaviour of curcumin from starch-PVA matrices was studied and the kinetics behind the curcumin release was fitted to Higuchi model. The mechanism obtained from Korsemeyer-Peppas equation was a combination of diffusion and erosion controlled. Cytotoxicity study of the incorporated curcumin was carried out with normal as well as cancer cells and the results showed that it was non-toxic to normal cells and it also showed anticancer potential. The cell viability (%) in the case of cancer cells was lower for nanocomposite incorporated curcumin than pure curcumin which indicates higher anti cancer potential of the former. The size of curcumin was reduced in the nanocomposites as evidenced from TEM and SEM analysis results, which might have resulted in its greater cell availability and resultant higher anticancer activity. © 2015 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.


Menon R.,ICAR Central Tuber Crops Research Institute | Padmaja G.,ICAR Central Tuber Crops Research Institute | Sajeev M.S.,ICAR Central Tuber Crops Research Institute
Food Chemistry | Year: 2015

The effect of a resistant starch source, NUTRIOSE® FB06 at 10%, 15% and 20% in sweet potato flour (SPF) and 5% and 10% in sweet potato starch (SPS) in reducing the starch digestibility and glycaemic index of noodles was investigated. While NUTRIOSE (10%) significantly reduced the cooking loss in SPF noodles, this was enhanced in SPS noodles and guar gum (GG) supplementation reduced CL of both noodles. In vitro starch digestibility (IVSD) was significantly reduced in test noodles compared to 73.6 g glucose/100 g starch in control SPF and 65.9 g in SPS noodles. Resistant starch (RS) was 54.96% for NUTRIOSE (15%) + GG (1%) fortified SPF noodles and 53.3% for NUTRIOSE (5%) + GG (0.5%) fortified SPS noodles, as against 33.8% and 40.68%, respectively in SPF and SPS controls. Lowest glycaemic index (54.58) and the highest sensory scores (4.23) were obtained for noodles with 15% NUTRIOSE + 1% GG. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd All rights reserved.


PubMed | ICAR Central Tuber Crops Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of food science and technology | Year: 2016

Sweet potato starch (SPS) noodles despite being gluten-free, has low nutritional value as it lacks proteins, minerals, vitamins etc. The objective of this study was to develop gluten-free starch noodles from sweet potato with enhanced protein content through fortification with whey protein concentrate (WPC) and to study the effect of protein fortification and blending SPS with banana (BS), cassava (CS) and mung bean (MBS) starches and annealed cassava starch (ACS) in reducing the starch digestibility. The highest protein retention in cooked noodles was obtained for 20% WPC fortification, while the lowest starch digestibility was observed for 40% BS fortified noodles followed by 50% ACS fortified noodles. The highest resistant starch (RS) retention was for BS and ACS fortified noodles, which also had medium glycemic index of 66.3 (BS) and 67.2 (ACS). High sensory scores were obtained for the BS and 20% WPC fortified noodles. The study showed that protein and/or BS fortification with SPS could enhance the acceptability as well as functional value of SPS noodles.


PubMed | ICAR Central Tuber Crops Research Institute
Type: | Journal: Journal of virological methods | Year: 2015

Dasheen mosaic virus (DsMV), the pathogen causing mosaic disease of elephant foot yam (Amorphophallus paeoniifoilius) is disseminated mainly through vegetative propagation of the tubers. For the rapid and sensitive detection of the virus, a reverse transcription loop-mediated isothermal amplification (RT-LAMP) assay based on the coat protein gene has been developed. A final concentration of 5.4 mM magnesium sulphate and 0.7 M betaine in the reaction mixture was found to be optimum for getting characteristic ladder like bands of the amplified product after gel electrophoresis. The reaction was set at 65C for 50 min followed by reaction termination at 86C for 5 min in a water bath. The sensitivity of the assay was found to be 100 times higher than that of RT-PCR. The virus was indexed successfully from tubers of elephant foot yam. In tube detection of the DsMV was carried out using fluorescence detection reagents. The assay was validated with field samples from various regions of Kerala state, India.


PubMed | ICAR Central Tuber Crops Research Institute
Type: | Journal: Food chemistry | Year: 2015

The effect of a resistant starch source, NUTRIOSE FB06 at 10%, 15% and 20% in sweet potato flour (SPF) and 5% and 10% in sweet potato starch (SPS) in reducing the starch digestibility and glycaemic index of noodles was investigated. While NUTRIOSE (10%) significantly reduced the cooking loss in SPF noodles, this was enhanced in SPS noodles and guar gum (GG) supplementation reduced CL of both noodles. In vitro starch digestibility (IVSD) was significantly reduced in test noodles compared to 73.6g glucose/100g starch in control SPF and 65.9 g in SPS noodles. Resistant starch (RS) was 54.96% for NUTRIOSE (15%)+GG (1%) fortified SPF noodles and 53.3% for NUTRIOSE (5%)+GG (0.5%) fortified SPS noodles, as against 33.8% and 40.68%, respectively in SPF and SPS controls. Lowest glycaemic index (54.58) and the highest sensory scores (4.23) were obtained for noodles with 15% NUTRIOSE+1% GG.

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