ICAR Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute

Rajasthan, India

ICAR Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute

Rajasthan, India

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de K.,ICAR Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute | Kumar D.,ICAR Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute | Saxena V.K.,ICAR Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute | Thirumurugan P.,ICAR Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute | Naqvi S.M.K.,ICAR Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute
International Journal of Biometeorology | Year: 2017

High environmental temperature is a major constraint in sheep production under semi-arid tropical environment. Behavior is the earliest indicator of animal’s adaptation and responses to the environmental alteration. Therefore, the objective of this study was to assess the effects of high ambient temperature on the behavior of sheep under a semi-arid tropical environment. The experiment was conducted for 6 weeks on 16 Malpura cross (Garole × Malpura × Malpura (GMM)) rams. The rams were divided equally into two groups, designated as C and T. The rams of C were kept in comfortable environmental conditions served as control. The rams of T were exposed to a different temperature at different hours of the day in a climatic chamber, to simulate a high environmental temperature of summer in semi-arid tropic. The behavioral observations were taken by direct instantaneous observation at 15-min intervals for each animal individually. The feeding, ruminating, standing, and lying behaviors were recorded twice a week from morning (0800 hours) to afternoon (1700 hours) for 6 weeks. Exposure of rams to high temperature (T) significantly (P < 0.05) decreased the proportion of time spent in feeding during the observation period in most of the hours of the day as compared to the C. The proportion of time spent in rumination and lying was significantly (P < 0.05) lower in the T group compared to the C. The animals of T spent significantly (P < 0.05) more time in rumination in standing position as compared to the C. The overall proportion of time spent in standing, panting in each hour, and total panting time was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in the T as compared to the C. The result of the study indicates that the exposure of sheep to high ambient temperature severely modulates the behavior of sheep which is directed to circumvent the effect of the stressor. © 2017 ISB


Khan F.A.,ICAR Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute | Sahoo A.,ICAR Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute | Karim S.A.,ICAR Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute
Small Ruminant Research | Year: 2017

Effect of moderate and high levels of dietary protein and repeated Haemonchus contortus infection on clinical-biochemical and production responses was studied in Chokla lambs. In a 2 × 2 factorial design, two levels of protein (moderate, MP and high, HP) was supplemented to control (C) and infected (I; challenged with H. contortus) lambs. Thus, twenty-four 4 to 5 months old Chokla lambs (16.8 ± 0.53 kg) were randomly distributed into a total of 4 treatment groups of 6 animals each, designated as MPC (moderate protein control), MPI (moderate protein infected), HPC (high protein control) and HPI (high protein infected). The infected groups were drenched with 300 infective larvae (L3)/kg LW on day 0 and subsequently with 400 L3/kg LW three times a week for 10 consecutive weeks. Concentrate was restricted to 2.5% of live weight (LW) and roughage was offered ad libitum. Weekly record of body weight and faecal egg counts (FEC) and bi-weekly assessment of haematological parameters such as haemoglobin, packed cell volume, differential leucocyte count and biochemical parameters such as serum protein, albumin, iron, urea, creatinine and cholesterol were followed during the experimental period of 10 weeks. A metabolism trial was conducted after 8 weeks of experimental feeding to assess N utilization pattern in different groups. Lambs in HP had higher feed and nutrient intake (DM, CP, OM, ME) than MP. Infection exerted a more significant adverse effect on feed and nutrient intake by lambs in MP. Lambs of MPI showed a lower N balance corresponding with a lower N uptake, but had similar utilization efficiency. They also had lower (P < 0.05) average daily gain, but no significant effect on body condition score. No clinical signs were evident in infected lambs on varied protein nutrition. Although FEC and adult worm counts were higher in MPI, a varied FEC peak during 4 and 5 weeks in HP and MP, respectively was indicative of non-significant effect of increasing protein nutrition on parasite establishment. However, there was significant improvement in the ability of lambs to withstand the pathogenic effects of H. contortus infection in HPI suggesting that the diet associated with increased resilience. A decreased performance in MPI could be overcome by increasing diet palatability that ensures adequate uptake of protein. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Meena L.R.,ICAR Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute | Jat H.S.,CIMMYT
Legume Research | Year: 2016

The experiment was conducted during kharif 2011 and 2012 at Avikanagar on different genotypes of cluster bean to assess the response of Zn on productivity and profitability under tropical environment of Rajasthan. The results reveal that maximum seed (2.55 t ha-1) and stover yield (7.32 t ha-1), protein content (27.2 %) and protein yield and (168.10 kg ha-1), gum content (27%) and gum yield (180 kg ha-1) were recorded with application of Zn @20 kg ha-1. Further, quality traits viz. ADF, NDF, cellulose and lignin were also highest in grains. Maximum net return of ₹ 33,037 ha-1 with benefit: cost ratio (2.39) was received with the use of Zn @ 20 kg ha-1. Highest seed yield (2.21 t ha-1), protein content (25.6%), protein yield (166.20 kg ha-1), gum content (25.4%) and gum yield (172.37 kg ha-1) were obtained from genotype ‘RGC 936’ with the highest net returns of Rs 28,188 ha-1. Application of Zn@20 kg ha-1 to cluster bean genotype ‘RGC 936’ gives highest yield and economic returns under tropical condition of Rajasthan. © 2016, Agricultural Research Communication Centre. All rights reserved.


Mukherjee J.,WBUAFS | De K.,ICAR Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute | Chaudhury M.,Government of West Bengal | Dang A.K.,National Dairy Research Institute
Biological Rhythm Research | Year: 2015

Immunity of mammary gland in terms of in vitro activity of milk leukocytes has been evaluated during hot-humid, summer, and winter season in elite (n = 10) and non-elite (n = 10) crossbred cows. Milk samples were collected from all the cows throughout the year at 15-day interval. Milk somatic cell counts (SCC) and differential leukocyte counts (DLC) were evaluated microscopically. Milk neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes were isolated and cultured in vitro. In vitro PI of milk neutrophils and macrophages was evaluated by colorimetric NBT (nitro-blue tetrazolium) reductive assay. Mitogen-induced milk lymphocyte blastogenic response was measured by colorimetric MTT (thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide) assay. Milk SCC was found to be significantly (p < 0.01) higher in elite cows compared to non-elite cows irrespective of season. There was significant (p < 0.05) increase in milk SCC during hot-humid season compared to winter season in both the group of the cows. There was no significant difference between group and season in terms of DLC. In vitro phagocytic index of elite cows was significantly (p < 0.01) higher than non-elite cows. The phagocytic index was significantly (p < 0.01) decreased in summer and hot-humid season compared to winter season in both the group of animals. Macrophages isolated from elite cows having significantly (p < 0.01) lower phagocytic index than non-elite cows which significantly (p < 0.01) decreased during summer and hot-humid season compared to winter. In vitro milk lymphocyte proliferative response was significantly (p < 0.01) lower in elite cows. Activity of B-lymphocytes decreased significantly (p < 0.01) during summer and hot-humid season than winter, but activity of T-lymphocytes remains unaltered during different seasons. In conclusion, the mammary immunity in terms of in vitro activity of milk leukocytes is compromised during summer and hot-humid season in elite crossbred cows; therefore, better care and management should be taken in high-yielding cows during summer and hot-humid season to minimize intramammary infections. © 2015 Taylor & Francis.


Bhatt R.S.,ICAR Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute | Agrawal A.R.,ICAR Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute | Sahoo A.,ICAR Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute
Journal of Applied Animal Research | Year: 2016

Forty-five weaner Chinchilla rabbits (42-d-old, average weight 619 g) randomly assigned to three equal treatments, control with no probiotic and the other two with probiotics (107 CFU/g concentrate) Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactococcus lactis. They were reared in individual cages and fed on ad libitum concentrate and wilted Lucerne (Medicago sativa) up to 91 d of age. Compared to control L. acidophilus improved weight gain (24.5 vs. 22.5 g/d, P < .05), whereas it was intermediate with L. lactis. Both probiotics improved the feed conversion ratio (3.91 and 3.96 vs. 4.34, P < .05) but no effect on dry matter intake (95.8 and 92.7 vs. 98.0 g). Dry matter and organic matter digestibility improved with L. acidophilus (72.8 vs. 67.0%, P < .05), whereas it was intermediate with L. lactis. Probiotics also improved (P < .05) digestibility of crude protein (82.7 vs. 74.9%) and neutral detergent fibre (41.9 vs. 29.4%). Nitrogen utilization improved with reduced faecal excretion in probiotics-supplemented groups. Probiotics had non-significant effect on carcass traits and fatty acid profile (P > .05). Thus L. acidophilus supplementation enhanced digestibility and utilization of nutrients, weight gain and feed conversion ratio with no negative effect on carcass traits and fatty acid profile. © 2016 Indian Council of Agricultural Research. Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group


PubMed | ICAR Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute
Type: | Journal: Physiology & behavior | Year: 2016

The present study aimed to evaluate the circadian rhythmicity of some physiological variables, including rectal temperature (RT), respiration rate (RR), heart rate (HR) and skin temperature (ST) in sheep during the summer and winter in semi-arid tropical environment. Eight Malpura rams of 3-4year of age with an average body weight of 37.11.99kg were selected for the study. All the animals were fed individually for a maintenance requirement on a body weight basis. The RT, RR, HR and ST values were measured in each animal at 3hour intervals for 24 consecutive hours. Ambient temperature (DBT) and relative humidity (RH) was also recorded inside the shed at the time of physiological parameter study. The cosinor analysis showed a daily circadian rhythm (P<0.01) in RR, HR and ST values during the summer and winter in sheep under semi-arid environment. The RR, HR and ST differ significantly (P<0.05) between summer and winter. The amplitude of RR, RT and ST differ significantly (P<0.05) between the seasons. The results indicate that the circadian rhythmicity of RR, HR, RT and ST during summer and winter changed as expected in compliance to the seasonal requirements of animals adaptability.


PubMed | ICAR Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute
Type: | Journal: International journal of biometeorology | Year: 2016

GPR50, formerly known as a melatonin-related receptor, is one of the three subtypes of melatonin receptor subfamily, together with MTNR1A and MTNR1B. GPR50, despite its high identity with the melatonin receptor family, does not bind melatonin and is considered to be an ortholog of MTNR1C in mammals. GPR50-expressing cells have been found in the dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, the periventricular nucleus, and the median eminence. Genetic and functional evidence have been recently investigated linking GPR50 to adaptive thermogenesis and torpor, but still, it is an orphan receptor and is yet to be studied conclusively. The aims of the study were to characterize the GPR50 gene of sheep and to study the sequence variability of the gene in Indian sheep breeds of two different thermo-varied agroclimatic conditions. Genomic DNA isolation was done and a 791-bp sequence was amplified using self-designed primers and SNP profiling done out of samples of all the breeds to study the relative frequency of SNPs in each of the breed. Five important non-synonymous mutations were observed in the various breeds studied. T698G, G1097A, G1270A, G1318A, and C1334G lead to the following substitution: valine by glycine, arginine by glutamine, threonine by alanine, isoleucine by valine, and serine by cytosine, respectively. Two synonymous mutations (T663G and C888T) were also observed in some of the studied breeds. G1270A and C888T were the most prevalent SNPs observed in nearly all of the breeds. C888T SNPs were observed in higher prevalence in Chokla, Marwari, and Magra in comparison to Gaddi and Bharat Merino. A PolyPhen-2 analysis, which is used to assess the potential damaging nature of an SNP, revealed that mutation T698G and G1270A were benign while G1097A, G1318A, and C1334G were damaging with a score of 0.987, 0.993, and 0.739, respectively. A 3-D homology model of the protein was prepared using c4zwjA (UniProt sequence ID) as a template using the online version of Phyre2 protein modeling software. The structure demonstrated closed similarity with other G-coupled receptor and it had a 45% -helical content. G1270A and C888T may be taken up for SNP correlation in a larger population study for their association with heat stress protection.


PubMed | ICAR Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute and National Research Center on Equines
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Veterinary world | Year: 2016

This study was aimed to detect ovine pulmonary adenocarcinoma (OPA) in sheep flocks affected with pulmonary disorders at organized farm.A total of 75 sheep died naturally were thoroughly examined for the lesions of OPA during necropsy. Tissue sections from affected portion of the lungs from each animal were collected aseptically and divided into two parts; one each for polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and another for histopathology.On PCR examination of lung tissues, six sheep (8%) were found to be positive for JSRV. Two of them were 3-6 months of age and did not show clinical signs/gross lesions of OPA. Four adult sheep positive on PCR revealed characteristic lesions of OPA on gross and histopathological examination.In the absence of known specific antibody response to the infection with JSRV, there is no diagnostic serological test available. The PCR assay employed in this study on lung tissues, using primers based on the U3 region of the viral long terminal repeat for JSRV would be helpful in the screening of preclinical and clinical cases of OPA in sheep.


PubMed | ICAR Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute and National Research Center on Equines
Type: | Journal: International journal of mycobacteriology | Year: 2017

Paratuberculosis or Johnes disease is a chronic infectious granulomatous enteritis, mainly of cattle, sheep, goats, and other domestic and wild animals caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Currently, MAP has been recognized as an important animal pathogen with significant zoonotic and public health concerns. The early detection of infected animals using suitable diagnostic methods helps in developing control and preventive strategies for the herd. Therefore, the present study was aimed to determine the comparative efficacy of certain diagnostic methods used in the identification and confirmation of MAP in the ovine tissues with distinct pathology of paratuberculosis.The ileum and mesenteric lymph node (MLN) tissues were collected from 38 sheep infected with paratuberculosis from organized farms of Rajasthan. These animals were further classified as paucibacillary (PB; n=15) or multibacillary (MB; n=23) on the basis of histopathological findings and mycobacterial loads. The ileum and MLN tissues of these animals were subjected to IS900 and 251 gene polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and bacterial culture. The tissue sections from MB, PB, and uninfected control sheep groups were stained using indirect immunoperoxidase technique (IPT) and Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) method.On bacterial culture examination of the ileum and MLN tissues using Herrolds egg yolk medium, MAP was isolated in 14 (60.9%) MB and 5 (33.3%) PB sheep. Of 38 sheep, IS900 PCR detected 21 (55.2%) positive for MAP, of which 19 (82.6%) were MB and 2 (13.3%) were PB sheep. Similarly, 251 gene PCR detected 25 (65.7%) sheep positive for MAP infection, of which 21 (91.3%) were MB and 4 (27%) were PB sheep. Thus, 251 gene PCR was found superior to IS900 PCR in the detection of MAP from the tissues. In PB sheep, IPT and ZN tests were positive in 87.5% and 50% of ileum sections and 70% and 37.5% in MLN sections, respectively. In MB sheep, IPT and ZN tests detected all animals as positive for MAP organisms or antigen and had equal sensitivity in the detection of MAP. The overall sensitivity of IPT was found superior (95%) to ZN staining (80%) in the demonstration of acid-fast bacteria or its antigen in the tissues.The sensitivity of all the tests in the detection of MAP was lower in PB sheep than in MB sheep. Bacterial culture detected MAP in only 50% of sheep and was found less sensitive than other tests used in the present study. Comparing the overall sensitivity of both the PCR assays, 251 gene PCR was found superior to IS900 gene PCR. The sensitivity of IPT was found superior (95%) to the ZN staining (80%) in the demonstration of acid-fast bacteria in the tissues. In the present study, IPT was found superior in the detection of MAP in PB and MB form of ovine paratuberculosis. This test can be used in the confirmation of post mortem diagnosis and research of paratuberculosis along with histopathology. However, 251 gene PCR assay was found easier to perform than IPT and could be used as paratuberculosis screening test in endemic sheep farms for blood and fecal samples.


Saxena V.K.,ICAR Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute | Kumar D.,ICAR Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute | Naqvi S.M.K.,ICAR Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute
International Journal of Biometeorology | Year: 2016

GPR50, formerly known as a melatonin-related receptor, is one of the three subtypes of melatonin receptor subfamily, together with MTNR1A and MTNR1B. GPR50, despite its high identity with the melatonin receptor family, does not bind melatonin and is considered to be an ortholog of MTNR1C in mammals. GPR50-expressing cells have been found in the dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, the periventricular nucleus, and the median eminence. Genetic and functional evidence have been recently investigated linking GPR50 to adaptive thermogenesis and torpor, but still, it is an orphan receptor and is yet to be studied conclusively. The aims of the study were to characterize the GPR50 gene of sheep and to study the sequence variability of the gene in Indian sheep breeds of two different thermo-varied agroclimatic conditions. Genomic DNA isolation was done and a 791-bp sequence was amplified using self-designed primers and SNP profiling done out of samples of all the breeds to study the relative frequency of SNPs in each of the breed. Five important non-synonymous mutations were observed in the various breeds studied. T698G, G1097A, G1270A, G1318A, and C1334G lead to the following substitution: valine by glycine, arginine by glutamine, threonine by alanine, isoleucine by valine, and serine by cytosine, respectively. Two synonymous mutations (T663G and C888T) were also observed in some of the studied breeds. G1270A and C888T were the most prevalent SNPs observed in nearly all of the breeds. C888T SNPs were observed in higher prevalence in Chokla, Marwari, and Magra in comparison to Gaddi and Bharat Merino. A PolyPhen-2 analysis, which is used to assess the potential damaging nature of an SNP, revealed that mutation T698G and G1270A were benign while G1097A, G1318A, and C1334G were damaging with a score of 0.987, 0.993, and 0.739, respectively. A 3-D homology model of the protein was prepared using c4zwjA (UniProt sequence ID) as a template using the online version of Phyre2 protein modeling software. The structure demonstrated closed similarity with other G-coupled receptor and it had a 45 % α-helical content. G1270A and C888T may be taken up for SNP correlation in a larger population study for their association with heat stress protection. © 2016 ISB

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