ICAR Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute

Rajasthan, India

ICAR Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute

Rajasthan, India
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Khan F.A.,ICAR Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute | Sahoo A.,ICAR Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute | Karim S.A.,ICAR Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute
Small Ruminant Research | Year: 2017

Effect of moderate and high levels of dietary protein and repeated Haemonchus contortus infection on clinical-biochemical and production responses was studied in Chokla lambs. In a 2 × 2 factorial design, two levels of protein (moderate, MP and high, HP) was supplemented to control (C) and infected (I; challenged with H. contortus) lambs. Thus, twenty-four 4 to 5 months old Chokla lambs (16.8 ± 0.53 kg) were randomly distributed into a total of 4 treatment groups of 6 animals each, designated as MPC (moderate protein control), MPI (moderate protein infected), HPC (high protein control) and HPI (high protein infected). The infected groups were drenched with 300 infective larvae (L3)/kg LW on day 0 and subsequently with 400 L3/kg LW three times a week for 10 consecutive weeks. Concentrate was restricted to 2.5% of live weight (LW) and roughage was offered ad libitum. Weekly record of body weight and faecal egg counts (FEC) and bi-weekly assessment of haematological parameters such as haemoglobin, packed cell volume, differential leucocyte count and biochemical parameters such as serum protein, albumin, iron, urea, creatinine and cholesterol were followed during the experimental period of 10 weeks. A metabolism trial was conducted after 8 weeks of experimental feeding to assess N utilization pattern in different groups. Lambs in HP had higher feed and nutrient intake (DM, CP, OM, ME) than MP. Infection exerted a more significant adverse effect on feed and nutrient intake by lambs in MP. Lambs of MPI showed a lower N balance corresponding with a lower N uptake, but had similar utilization efficiency. They also had lower (P < 0.05) average daily gain, but no significant effect on body condition score. No clinical signs were evident in infected lambs on varied protein nutrition. Although FEC and adult worm counts were higher in MPI, a varied FEC peak during 4 and 5 weeks in HP and MP, respectively was indicative of non-significant effect of increasing protein nutrition on parasite establishment. However, there was significant improvement in the ability of lambs to withstand the pathogenic effects of H. contortus infection in HPI suggesting that the diet associated with increased resilience. A decreased performance in MPI could be overcome by increasing diet palatability that ensures adequate uptake of protein. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Sharma K.C.,ICAR Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute | Sharma K.C.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Range Management and Agroforestry | Year: 2015

A field experiment was conducted at Bikaner to find out an efficient agri-silviculture or silvi-pastoral model for cultivable wastelands of arid tropics of India. Three multipurpose tree species viz., khejri (Prosopis cineraria), ardu (Ailanthus excelsa) and rohida (Tecomella undulata) suitable for arid tropics were selected and planted, and evaluated in association of annual grain legumes/ pasture grass species viz., cluster bean (Cyamopsis tetragonoloba), moth bean (Vigna aconitifolia), sewan grass (Lasiurus sindicus) and anjan grass (Cenchrus ciliaris) in split plot design with three replications. Results indicated that tree species had no adverse effect on growth and grain/fodder yields of grain crops and pasture grasses. Similarly, annual crops/grasses did not exerted any significant effect on the growth attributes of all tree species. Among grain crops and grasses, cluster bean recorded higher grain 818 and 915 kg/ha, and straw 1970 and 2470 kg/ha yields during 2009 and 2010, respectively over moth bean. Whereas, sewan grass out-yielded anjan grass with green fodder yield of 12.07 and 16.74 t/ha, and dry matter yield 4.68 and 6.02 t/ha during 2009 and 2010, respectively. Cluster bean equivalent yields (CEY) recorded with cluster bean (1.21 and 1.41 t/ha) and moth bean (1.15 and 1.41 t/ha) were statistically at par but significantly higher over both grass species. Slightly higher values of net returns Rs. 8450 and Rs. 14949 and B: C ratio 1.56 and 2.08 were observed with khejri plantation in both the years as compared to other tree species, while among crops cluster bean gave maximum values of net returns Rs. 15066 and Rs. 18620, and B: C ratio 1.99 and 2.12. All the treatment variables substantially improved the soil fertility status viz., OC (%), available N, P and K of soil in comparison to initial soil fertility status. Thus, study suggested that growing of cluster bean or moth bean with any multi-purpose tree species viz., khejri, ardu and rohida plantation holds promise to provide higher and economical grain productivity with improved fertility status of soil under agri-silviculture system in arid tropics of Rajasthan. © 2015, Range Management Society of India. All rights reserved.

Kumawat T.K.,University of Rajasthan | Sharma A.,ICAR Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute | Bhadauria S.,University of Rajasthan
International Journal of Recycling of Organic Waste in Agriculture | Year: 2017

Purpose: Keratinous wastes are the solid environmental pollutant generated from poultry farms, slaughterhouses and barber’s shops. The aim of the present study is the degradation of keratinous wastes in an eco-friendly way by biological methods, which should further be helpful to reduce the wastes and recycled into valuable feed and fertilizers. Methods: Degradation of keratinous substrates was assessed by highly potent keratinophilic fungi, namely Chrysosporium queenslandicum TKKASb Apinis and R.G. Rees. This chicken feather degrading fungal strain previously isolated and identified by morphological and 18 s rDNA sequencing in laboratory, was used in the present study. Ch. queenslandicum was inoculated into the basal salt medium (BSM) with keratinous substrates for 12 and 24 days at 28 ± 2 °C to observe degradation. The rate of degradation was expressed as weight loss of keratin substrate over incubation days and pH variation. Results: In this study, Ch. queenslandicum showed maximum degradation on chicken feathers followed by human nail clippings, animal hair and human hair. The degradation rate on chicken feather was 38.40 ± 0.80 and 46.40 ± 2.50% after 12 and 24 days, respectively. The basal salt medium’s pH was increased over incubation time. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) examination also demonstrated the degradation of chicken feathers. Conclusions: The results suggest that Ch. queenslandicum possess the potential biotechnological applications which can be used in the hydrolysis of keratinous waste and recycling of poultry waste for environmental protection. The hydrolyzed keratinous material can also be utilized as the source of fertilizers for plants and feed for animals. © 2017, The Author(s).

De K.,ICAR Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute | Kumar D.,ICAR Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute | Saxena V.K.,ICAR Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute | Naqvi S.M.K.,ICAR Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute
Physiology and Behavior | Year: 2017

The present study aimed to evaluate the circadian rhythmicity of some physiological variables, including rectal temperature (RT), respiration rate (RR), heart rate (HR) and skin temperature (ST) in sheep during the summer and winter in semi-arid tropical environment. Eight Malpura rams of 3–4 year of age with an average body weight of 37.1 ± 1.99 kg were selected for the study. All the animals were fed individually for a maintenance requirement on a body weight basis. The RT, RR, HR and ST values were measured in each animal at 3 hour intervals for 24 consecutive hours. Ambient temperature (DBT) and relative humidity (RH) was also recorded inside the shed at the time of physiological parameter study. The cosinor analysis showed a daily circadian rhythm (P < 0.01) in RR, HR and ST values during the summer and winter in sheep under semi-arid environment. The RR, HR and ST differ significantly (P < 0.05) between summer and winter. The amplitude of RR, RT and ST differ significantly (P < 0.05) between the seasons. The results indicate that the circadian rhythmicity of RR, HR, RT and ST during summer and winter changed as expected in compliance to the seasonal requirements of animal's adaptability. © 2016

Swarnkar C.P.,ICAR Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute | Singh D.,ICAR Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute | Prince L.L.L.,ICAR Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2017

The present study aimed to determine the variation in intensity of strongyle infection and performance in lambs of three divergent lines (selected for resistance or susceptibility to Haemonchus contortus and unselected) in semiarid Rajasthan. From the year 2004 to 2014, a total of 13,515 faecal samples from lambs (5-6 month of age) naturally infected with gastrointestinal nematodes (GINs) were evaluated for intensity of strongyle infection and estimated pasture contamination rate by them. The monthly mean intensity of strongyle infection remained significantly higher in susceptible line compared to other lines. In the month of peak parasitism (September), minimum proportion (34.54-45.61%) of animals possess higher FEC in resistant lambs followed by unselected (44.32-50.50%) and maximum (53.58-56.27%) by susceptible lambs. In majority of months, resistant lambs had lower contamination rate (>30%) compared to susceptible lambs. The magnitude of average daily gain (ADG) in body weight exhibited significant variation among different lines only between 6-9 months of age in Malpura (31.1±1.2 g/day in unselected line to 38.5±2.3 g/day in resistant line) and Avikalin breed (27.1±1.8 g/day in unselected line to 35.6±1.7 g/day in resistant line). During peak wormy season, a significant and negative correlation was found between FEC and weight at 6 and 9 month of age in susceptible line only. The study suggested that management of gastrointestinal nematodosis in flock through selection of sheep for resistance to strongyle worms led to decreased pasture contamination, lower intensity of infection with better performance in resistant flock.

Das S.,ICAR Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute
Construction and Building Materials | Year: 2017

In the present work, unshredded waste newspaper based composites have been prepared in polyester resin matrix. Reinforcing material, waste newspaper is characterized by chemically, X-ray diffraction (XRD) methods, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and tensile properties. Three different fibre content composite samples, namely 25%, 34%, and 50% (by weight) are prepared by hand lay-up techniques. Water absorption and thickness swelling tests are conducted by immersing composite samples in distilled water at room temperature. It is found that the percentage of moisture uptake and thickness swelling are increased as the fibre volume fraction is increased due to the high cellulose content. The tensile, flexural and interlaminar shear strength properties of water immersed samples are investigated and compared with dry composite samples. It is observed that after swelling the mechanical properties of composites are found to decrease with increase in percentage moisture uptake. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Das S.,ICAR Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute
Carbohydrate Polymers | Year: 2017

Hybrid composites were prepared with jute fabric and un-shredded newspaper in polyester resin matrix. The experiment was designed 1:2 weights ratio jute and unshredded newspaper to have 42 (w/w)% fibre content hybrid composites and two different sequences jute/paper/jute and paper/jute/paper of waste newspaper and jute fabric arrangement. Reinforcing material is characterized by chemically, X-ray diffraction methods, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and tensile testing. The tensile, flexural and interlaminar shear strength and fracture surface morphology of composites were evaluated and compared. It was found that tensile and flexural properties of the hybrid composite are higher than that of pure paper-based composite but less than pure woven jute composite. The hybridization effect of woven jute fabric and layering pattern effect on mechanical properties of newspaper/woven jute fabric hybrid composites were studied. The test results of composites were analyzed by one-way ANOVA (α = 0.05), it showed significant differences among the groups. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

Meena L.R.,ICAR Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute | Jat H.S.,CIMMYT
Legume Research | Year: 2016

The experiment was conducted during kharif 2011 and 2012 at Avikanagar on different genotypes of cluster bean to assess the response of Zn on productivity and profitability under tropical environment of Rajasthan. The results reveal that maximum seed (2.55 t ha-1) and stover yield (7.32 t ha-1), protein content (27.2 %) and protein yield and (168.10 kg ha-1), gum content (27%) and gum yield (180 kg ha-1) were recorded with application of Zn @20 kg ha-1. Further, quality traits viz. ADF, NDF, cellulose and lignin were also highest in grains. Maximum net return of ₹ 33,037 ha-1 with benefit: cost ratio (2.39) was received with the use of Zn @ 20 kg ha-1. Highest seed yield (2.21 t ha-1), protein content (25.6%), protein yield (166.20 kg ha-1), gum content (25.4%) and gum yield (172.37 kg ha-1) were obtained from genotype ‘RGC 936’ with the highest net returns of Rs 28,188 ha-1. Application of Zn@20 kg ha-1 to cluster bean genotype ‘RGC 936’ gives highest yield and economic returns under tropical condition of Rajasthan. © 2016, Agricultural Research Communication Centre. All rights reserved.

PubMed | ICAR Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute and National Research Center on Equines
Type: | Journal: International journal of mycobacteriology | Year: 2017

Paratuberculosis or Johnes disease is a chronic infectious granulomatous enteritis, mainly of cattle, sheep, goats, and other domestic and wild animals caused by Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (MAP). Currently, MAP has been recognized as an important animal pathogen with significant zoonotic and public health concerns. The early detection of infected animals using suitable diagnostic methods helps in developing control and preventive strategies for the herd. Therefore, the present study was aimed to determine the comparative efficacy of certain diagnostic methods used in the identification and confirmation of MAP in the ovine tissues with distinct pathology of paratuberculosis.The ileum and mesenteric lymph node (MLN) tissues were collected from 38 sheep infected with paratuberculosis from organized farms of Rajasthan. These animals were further classified as paucibacillary (PB; n=15) or multibacillary (MB; n=23) on the basis of histopathological findings and mycobacterial loads. The ileum and MLN tissues of these animals were subjected to IS900 and 251 gene polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and bacterial culture. The tissue sections from MB, PB, and uninfected control sheep groups were stained using indirect immunoperoxidase technique (IPT) and Ziehl-Neelsen (ZN) method.On bacterial culture examination of the ileum and MLN tissues using Herrolds egg yolk medium, MAP was isolated in 14 (60.9%) MB and 5 (33.3%) PB sheep. Of 38 sheep, IS900 PCR detected 21 (55.2%) positive for MAP, of which 19 (82.6%) were MB and 2 (13.3%) were PB sheep. Similarly, 251 gene PCR detected 25 (65.7%) sheep positive for MAP infection, of which 21 (91.3%) were MB and 4 (27%) were PB sheep. Thus, 251 gene PCR was found superior to IS900 PCR in the detection of MAP from the tissues. In PB sheep, IPT and ZN tests were positive in 87.5% and 50% of ileum sections and 70% and 37.5% in MLN sections, respectively. In MB sheep, IPT and ZN tests detected all animals as positive for MAP organisms or antigen and had equal sensitivity in the detection of MAP. The overall sensitivity of IPT was found superior (95%) to ZN staining (80%) in the demonstration of acid-fast bacteria or its antigen in the tissues.The sensitivity of all the tests in the detection of MAP was lower in PB sheep than in MB sheep. Bacterial culture detected MAP in only 50% of sheep and was found less sensitive than other tests used in the present study. Comparing the overall sensitivity of both the PCR assays, 251 gene PCR was found superior to IS900 gene PCR. The sensitivity of IPT was found superior (95%) to the ZN staining (80%) in the demonstration of acid-fast bacteria in the tissues. In the present study, IPT was found superior in the detection of MAP in PB and MB form of ovine paratuberculosis. This test can be used in the confirmation of post mortem diagnosis and research of paratuberculosis along with histopathology. However, 251 gene PCR assay was found easier to perform than IPT and could be used as paratuberculosis screening test in endemic sheep farms for blood and fecal samples.

Saxena V.K.,ICAR Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute | Kumar D.,ICAR Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute | Naqvi S.M.K.,ICAR Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute
International Journal of Biometeorology | Year: 2016

GPR50, formerly known as a melatonin-related receptor, is one of the three subtypes of melatonin receptor subfamily, together with MTNR1A and MTNR1B. GPR50, despite its high identity with the melatonin receptor family, does not bind melatonin and is considered to be an ortholog of MTNR1C in mammals. GPR50-expressing cells have been found in the dorsomedial nucleus of the hypothalamus, the periventricular nucleus, and the median eminence. Genetic and functional evidence have been recently investigated linking GPR50 to adaptive thermogenesis and torpor, but still, it is an orphan receptor and is yet to be studied conclusively. The aims of the study were to characterize the GPR50 gene of sheep and to study the sequence variability of the gene in Indian sheep breeds of two different thermo-varied agroclimatic conditions. Genomic DNA isolation was done and a 791-bp sequence was amplified using self-designed primers and SNP profiling done out of samples of all the breeds to study the relative frequency of SNPs in each of the breed. Five important non-synonymous mutations were observed in the various breeds studied. T698G, G1097A, G1270A, G1318A, and C1334G lead to the following substitution: valine by glycine, arginine by glutamine, threonine by alanine, isoleucine by valine, and serine by cytosine, respectively. Two synonymous mutations (T663G and C888T) were also observed in some of the studied breeds. G1270A and C888T were the most prevalent SNPs observed in nearly all of the breeds. C888T SNPs were observed in higher prevalence in Chokla, Marwari, and Magra in comparison to Gaddi and Bharat Merino. A PolyPhen-2 analysis, which is used to assess the potential damaging nature of an SNP, revealed that mutation T698G and G1270A were benign while G1097A, G1318A, and C1334G were damaging with a score of 0.987, 0.993, and 0.739, respectively. A 3-D homology model of the protein was prepared using c4zwjA (UniProt sequence ID) as a template using the online version of Phyre2 protein modeling software. The structure demonstrated closed similarity with other G-coupled receptor and it had a 45 % α-helical content. G1270A and C888T may be taken up for SNP correlation in a larger population study for their association with heat stress protection. © 2016 ISB

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