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Singh S.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Kumar Jr. S.,ICAR Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute | Kolte A.P.,Indian National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology | Kumar S.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute | Kumar S.,DBT National Institute of Animal Biotechnology
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Previous studies on mitochondrial DNA analysis of sheep from different regions of the world have revealed the presence of two major- A and B, and three minor- C, D and E maternal lineages. Lineage A is more frequent in Asia and lineage B is more abundant in regions other than Asia. We have analyzed mitochondrial DNA sequences of 330 sheep from 12 different breeds of India. Neighbor-joining analysis revealed lineage A, B and C in Indian sheep. Surprisingly, multidimensional scaling plot based on FST values of control region of mtDNA sequences showed significant breed differentiation in contrast to poor geographical structuring reported earlier in this species. The breed differentiation in Indian sheep was essentially due to variable contribution of two major lineages to different breeds, and sub- structuring of lineage A, possibly the latter resulting from genetic drift. Nucleotide diversity of this lineage was higher in Indian sheep (0.014 ± 0.007) as compared to that of sheep from other regions of the world (0.009 ± 0.005 to 0.01 ± 0.005). Reduced median network analysis of control region and cytochrome b gene sequences of Indian sheep when analyzed along with available published sequences of sheep from other regions of the world showed that several haplotypes of lineage A were exclusive to Indian sheep. Given the high nucleotide diversity in Indian sheep and the poor sharing of lineage A haplotypes between Indian and non-Indian sheep, we propose that lineage A sheep has also been domesticated in the east of Near East, possibly in Indian sub-continent. Finally, our data provide support that lineage B and additional lineage A haplotypes of sheep might have been introduced to Indian sub-continent from Near East, probably by ancient sea trade route. © 2013 Singh et al. Source

Mukherjee J.,WBUAFS | De K.,ICAR Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute | Chaudhury M.,Government of West Bengal | Dang A.K.,National Dairy Research Institute
Biological Rhythm Research | Year: 2015

Immunity of mammary gland in terms of in vitro activity of milk leukocytes has been evaluated during hot-humid, summer, and winter season in elite (n = 10) and non-elite (n = 10) crossbred cows. Milk samples were collected from all the cows throughout the year at 15-day interval. Milk somatic cell counts (SCC) and differential leukocyte counts (DLC) were evaluated microscopically. Milk neutrophils, macrophages, and lymphocytes were isolated and cultured in vitro. In vitro PI of milk neutrophils and macrophages was evaluated by colorimetric NBT (nitro-blue tetrazolium) reductive assay. Mitogen-induced milk lymphocyte blastogenic response was measured by colorimetric MTT (thiazolyl blue tetrazolium bromide) assay. Milk SCC was found to be significantly (p < 0.01) higher in elite cows compared to non-elite cows irrespective of season. There was significant (p < 0.05) increase in milk SCC during hot-humid season compared to winter season in both the group of the cows. There was no significant difference between group and season in terms of DLC. In vitro phagocytic index of elite cows was significantly (p < 0.01) higher than non-elite cows. The phagocytic index was significantly (p < 0.01) decreased in summer and hot-humid season compared to winter season in both the group of animals. Macrophages isolated from elite cows having significantly (p < 0.01) lower phagocytic index than non-elite cows which significantly (p < 0.01) decreased during summer and hot-humid season compared to winter. In vitro milk lymphocyte proliferative response was significantly (p < 0.01) lower in elite cows. Activity of B-lymphocytes decreased significantly (p < 0.01) during summer and hot-humid season than winter, but activity of T-lymphocytes remains unaltered during different seasons. In conclusion, the mammary immunity in terms of in vitro activity of milk leukocytes is compromised during summer and hot-humid season in elite crossbred cows; therefore, better care and management should be taken in high-yielding cows during summer and hot-humid season to minimize intramammary infections. © 2015 Taylor & Francis. Source

Bhatt R.S.,ICAR Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute | Agrawal A.R.,ICAR Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute | Sahoo A.,ICAR Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute
Journal of Applied Animal Research | Year: 2016

Forty-five weaner Chinchilla rabbits (42-d-old, average weight 619 g) randomly assigned to three equal treatments, control with no probiotic and the other two with probiotics (107 CFU/g concentrate) Lactobacillus acidophilus and Lactococcus lactis. They were reared in individual cages and fed on ad libitum concentrate and wilted Lucerne (Medicago sativa) up to 91 d of age. Compared to control L. acidophilus improved weight gain (24.5 vs. 22.5 g/d, P < .05), whereas it was intermediate with L. lactis. Both probiotics improved the feed conversion ratio (3.91 and 3.96 vs. 4.34, P < .05) but no effect on dry matter intake (95.8 and 92.7 vs. 98.0 g). Dry matter and organic matter digestibility improved with L. acidophilus (72.8 vs. 67.0%, P < .05), whereas it was intermediate with L. lactis. Probiotics also improved (P < .05) digestibility of crude protein (82.7 vs. 74.9%) and neutral detergent fibre (41.9 vs. 29.4%). Nitrogen utilization improved with reduced faecal excretion in probiotics-supplemented groups. Probiotics had non-significant effect on carcass traits and fatty acid profile (P > .05). Thus L. acidophilus supplementation enhanced digestibility and utilization of nutrients, weight gain and feed conversion ratio with no negative effect on carcass traits and fatty acid profile. © 2016 Indian Council of Agricultural Research. Published by Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group Source

Saxena V.K.,ICAR Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute | Saxena V.K.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | De K.,ICAR Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute | Kumar D.,ICAR Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Theriogenology | Year: 2015

Estradiol decreases the pulse frequency of LH during the nonbreeding season through dopaminergic neurons that results in anestrus in the ewe. Long-term administration of sulpiride, a dopamine antagonist, induced ovulation in seasonally anestrus mares. Accordingly, we tested whether sulpiride would induce ovulatory estrus in seasonally anestrus Malpura ewes. A total of 12 Malpura ewes were divided into sulpiride (at 0.6 mg/kg b.i.d.) or control groups. Anestrus was defined on the basis of the absence of heat signs for 2 months through twice-a-day heat detection during the nonbreeding season (October-November) and progesterone level of less than 1 ng/mL. Rates of estrus induction, ovulation, multiple ovulations, and lambing in the sulpiride-treated ewes were 83.3%, 100%, 16.6%, and 66.7%, respectively. The mean interval from treatment to estrus was 5.25 ± 1.49 days. Progesterone levels were elevated after ovulation significantly on Days 5 and 7 after estrus as compared to Day 0 after sulpiride treatment (P < 0.05). In contrast, none of the control group ewes showed either estrus or ovulation. There was a significant association between sulpiride treatment and estrus induction rate as well as ovulation rate (P < 0.05). It is concluded that the result provides proof of concept that the dopamine antagonist can induce ovulation in seasonally anestrus ewes. © 2015 Elsevier Inc. Source

Sejian V.,ICAR Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute | Sejian V.,Indian National Institute of Animal Nutrition and Physiology | Maurya V.P.,ICAR Central Sheep and Wool Research Institute | Maurya V.P.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | And 3 more authors.
Tropical Animal Health and Production | Year: 2015

The study was conducted with the primary objective to establish the influence of FecB gene mutation on the growth and reproductive performance of Garole × Malpura ewes. The duration of the study was for 5 months involving 97 adult Garole × Malpura (GM) ewes. These 97 animals were segregated based on FecB genotype and the animals were divided into three groups as group I (FecBBB; n = 13), group II (FecBB+; n = 65), and group III (FecB++; n = 19). All the animals were kept under semi-intensive management system by subjecting the animals to grazing during day time and housing them in the night. Apart from grazing, ewes were provided with concentrate mixture at the rate of 150 g/day/ewe. The ewes in estrus after 12 h of onset of estrus were hand mated twice at 12-h intervals with a ram of proven fertility in the morning and evening. The pregnancy was confirmed by real time B-mode transabdominal ultrasonography. The experiment was continued until lambing. Under the treatments of different FecB genotype, the ewe’s growth and reproductive parameters were assessed. FecB genotype significantly (P < 0.05) influenced body weight, heart girth, pin shoulder length, height at wither, lambing percentage, litter size, twinning percentage, and birth weight of lambs. From this study, it can be concluded that breeding Galore and Malpura breed shall help insure an economically viable production system. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

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