ICAR Central Potato Research Institute

Shimla, India

ICAR Central Potato Research Institute

Shimla, India
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Sharma S.,ICAR Central Potato Research Institute | Singh B.P.,ICAR Central Potato Research Institute | Sharma S.,Hemwati Nandan Bahuguna Garhwal University | Patil V.U.,ICAR Central Potato Research Institute
Indian Phytopathology | Year: 2016

Late blight (Phytophthora infestans) is the most devastating disease of potato throughout the world. Monitoring the population structure of P. infestans is essential to devise suitable management strategies. A total of 57 isolates of P. infestans collected from Himachal Pradesh (temperate high hills and low hills) over a period of three years (2008-2010) were characterized using biological and molecular markers. All the isolates were of A2 mating type possessing 9-11 virulence genes and most of them (89.5%) displayed intermediate resistance to metalaxyl. Mitochondrial DNA (mtDNA) haplotyping was done using polymerase chain reaction-restriction fragment length polymorphism (PCR-RFLP) method. Results of mitochondrial DNA profiling revealed that all the isolates yielded Ia mtDNA haplotypes which could be a new population. SSR fingerprinting grouped the isolates into seven clusters and microsatellite allele sizes observed in the present study varied from those reported in the literature.

Dua V.K.,ICAR Central Potato Research Institute | Kumar S.,ICAR Central Potato Research Institute | Jatav M.K.,ICAR Central Institute Horiculture
Legume Research | Year: 2017

The present study was carried out at Central Potato Research Institute, Shimla for three years to work out the nitrogen requirement of french bean and competition in potato + french bean (1:1) intercropping system. Application of 100% N to French bean, gave 29% higher pod yield than sole cropping, on area basis, however, the mean yield of french bean pods with 100% N was statistically at par with that under 50% N and significantly higher over 0 or 25% N. Land Equivalent Ratio (LER) values were >1 at all N levels to French bean, the highest being 1.296 with 100% of N to french bean. The relative crowding coefficient (RCC) values of both the crops were more than one indicating that both the crops produced greater than ‘expected’ yields under intercropping, however, the aggressivity values indicated that french bean was a dominant species whereas potato was dominated species in intercropping, irrespective of N dose to french bean i.e. the extent of proportionate yield increase of french bean was more than potato in intercropping. The competition ratio also showed that french bean was more competitive than potato when fertilized properly. There was a positive mean balance of NPK and 36-68% of applied N, 64-74% of applied P and 44-77% of applied K was left as residual fertility under various intercropping treatments. Intercropping also gave higher net returns (Rs. 69 to 82 thousand/ha) and benefit:-cost ratio (2.43 to 2.66) than sole cropping of either of the crop. It can be concluded from the study that in potato + French bean (1:1) intercropping in north- western hills, N dose to french bean can be reduced by 50% without impairing soil health in terms of NPK balance. © 2017, Agricultural Research Communication Centre. All rights reserved.

Joshi A.,ICAR Central Potato Research Institute | Raigond P.,ICAR Central Potato Research Institute | Singh B.,ICAR Central Potato Research Institute
Indian Journal of Plant Physiology | Year: 2017

Dry matter and moisture content are two important quality parameters to judge the suitability of any potato cultivar for its ultimate utilization. A non-destructive and rapid method for determination of dry matter (D.M.) and moisture content (M.C.) in potatoes was standardized using near infrared spectrophotometer (NIRSp) system. Training and calibration of the instrument were done using fresh produce of potatoes (year 2014) harvested from Modipuram Campus of ICAR-CPRI whereas, validation of the application was done from fresh produce of same location and 13 advance coloured hybrids from Patna centre of ICAR-CPRI from the year 2015 produce. The predicted values for M.C. and D.M. content using NIRSp were in the range from 76.00 to 83.98 and 16.02 to 24.00% against 75.35 to 86.76 and 14.64 to 24.65%, of wet lab experimental values, respectively. This shows per cent error in M.C. and D.M. prediction vary from 0.86 to 3.20 and 2.70 to 9.43%, respectively. Complete randomization against the horizontal axis shows applicability and accuracy of the prediction through NIRSp developed applications. However, accuracy of prediction can be further enhanced by expanding the training/calibration sample sets. This developed application may be utilized for screening of large number of potato samples like at the time of bulk receiving by the industry, germplasm evaluation, hybrid selection and varietal development etc. © 2017, Indian Society for Plant Physiology.

Dalamu,ICAR Central Potato Research Institute | Sharma R.,ICAR Central Potato Research Institute | Bhardwaj V.,ICAR Central Potato Research Institute
Indian Journal of Horticulture | Year: 2017

Forty-two potato genotypes exhibiting phenotypic resistance against Potato Cyst Nematode (PCN) species Globodera rostochiensis (golden) and Globodera pallida (white) were screened for molecular validation using tightly linked genetic DNA markers. H1 and GroV1 gene conferring resistance against golden nematodes were validated by TG 689 & 57R and X02 markers, respectively. Similarly, resistance against Globodera pallida governed by QTL GpaVvrn and QTLs Gpa5, Gpa6, was confirmed by corresponding markers HC and SPUD1636. On the basis of phenotypic and genotypic confirmation, this study identifies CP 1843, 1879 and JEX/A 267 as elite potato genotypes that can be utilized as parental lines for introgression of resistant genes against both PCN species. © 2017, Horticulture Society of India. All rights reserved.

Buckseth T.,ICAR Central Potato Research Institute | Saggoo Singh M.I.,Punjabi University
Cytologia | Year: 2016

Meiotic behaviour of plant chromosomes is influenced by both genetic and environmental factors. The present paper shows the effect of abnormal meiosis on pollen fertility. Meiotic restitution is considered to be a common mechanism of polyploidization in plants and hence is one of the most important processes in plant speciation. Pollen mother cells (PMCs) of cultivated potato from anthers at different stages of meiotic process were analyzed for their chromosomal behaviour and irregularities. Various meiotic irregularities; univalent and multivalent formation, chromosome bridges, lagging chromosomes, etc. were reported for the first time in India. © 2016 The Japan Mendel Society.

Sharma A.K.,ICAR Central Potato Research Station | Kumar V.,ICAR Central Potato Research Station | Pandey K.K.,ICAR Central Potato Research Institute
Potato Journal | Year: 2016

The conventional system of seed potato production involving clonal multiplications is being replaced with micro-propagation techniques (hi-tech system) on account of numerous advantages possessed by the later. High hills of northwestern India are ideally suited for the production of breeder seed potatoes. Thus, nucleus and breeder seed potatoes for the hilly regions of India are produced at Central Potato Research Station, Kufri (Fagu), Shimla hills at an average altitude of 2700m above mean sea level. Since 2008, seed potato production through micro-propagation techniques has also been introduced at the station. To know the comparative efficiency of both the systems of seed potato production, a study was conducted during 2011 and 2012 involving the important cultivars of the region. The study revealed that both the systems of seed potato production proved equally good with regard to plant growth vigour, disease freedom as well as for the tuber number of tubers and productivity. It can be attributed to the slow rate of degeneration of seed stocks in either of the production systems due to low vector pressure prevailing in high hills of north-western India. Among the cultivars, Kufri Himalini recorded the maximum yield with minimum number of tubers per ha while Kufri Girdhari had the maximum number of tubers with mini-yields. © 2016, Indian Potato Association. All rights reserved.

Mehta A.,ICAR Central Potato Research Station | Singh B.,ICAR Central Potato Research Station | Singh B.,ICAR Central Potato Research Institute
Indian Journal of Horticulture | Year: 2016

Heap storage of potatoes is commonly used in many states of India to avoid distress sale at harvest, but the losses in stored potatoes are generally enormous. Spray application of CIPC (isopropyl N-(3-chlorophenyl) carbamate) at the time of storage has been recommended to inhibit sprouting and reduce total losses in potatoes up to 90 days of storage in heaps. Sprouting in tubers was inhibited and total losses in potatoes were reduced (by 58.7%) up to 90 days of storage (temp. 19–31°C, 55–90% RH) during March to June. The farmers could market 6.5% more weight of CIPC treated potatoes (cv. Kufri Pukhraj) compared to the control (untreated) tubers due to reduced total losses and fetch 55.3% higher market price than the price at the time of harvest. In processing cultivar, Kufri Chipsona-1, reducing sugar concentrations decreased from 188.1 to 22.5 mg/100 g fresh weight during storage up to 90 days and chip colour improved significantly. Stored potatoes were found highly acceptable for processing by an industry collaborator (M/s Satnam Agri Products Ltd., Jalandhar) and were used in making good quality flakes and French fries. Findings established that the improved storage technology can beneficially be used to increase remunerations from potato cultivation and to preserve the quality of processing potatoes for three months at lower storage cost. © 2016 Horticulture Society of India. All Rights reserved.

Mehta A.,ICAR Central Potato Research Station | Singh B.,ICAR Central Potato Research Institute
Potato Journal | Year: 2015

Considerable quantities of potato (Solanum tuberosum L.) are transported to different consumer centers through out the country and also exported to neighboring countries. Sprouting of potatoes is the major post-harvest limiting factor. Sprout inhibition treatment with isopropyl 3-chlorophenyl carbamate (CIPC) was evaluated under ambient conditions (20 to 35°C, 44 to 86% RH) in five potato varieties viz. Kufri Chipsona-1, Kufri Surya, Kufri Jyoti, Kufri Pukhraj and Kufri Bahar after harvest and after storage at 2-4°C for four months. CIPC treatment (15 and 20 mg a.i./kg tuber weight) significantly reduced sprouting and total losses in freshly harvested potatoes of all the varieties up to 60 days. Whereas in cold stored potatoes, CIPC treatment was effective at higher concentrations (25 and 30 mg a.i./kg tuber weight) in only two varieties. Nevertheless, the treatments could usefully extend the shelf life of potatoes by 30 to 45 days. CIPC treatment reduced sugar contents and improved the chip colour. Freshly harvested potatoes of Kufri Chipsona-1 can be marketed as table as well as processing potatoes, while other cultivars were suitable for table purpose only. Cold stored potatoes can be marketed only as table potatoes. CIPC residues were below the permissible limits and potatoes were safe for human consumption. The information is of high practical utility to market/export potatoes to distant markets. © 2015, Indian Potato Association. All rights reserved.

Singh S.K.,ICAR Central Potato Research Station | Lal S.S.,ICAR Central Potato Research Institute
Potato Journal | Year: 2015

The area under autumn/early potato crop in Bihar is around 15%. The productivity of early potato crop is very low due to high temperature prevailing during growth and development period of the crop. Kufri Surya, a heat tolerant variety of potato developed by Central Potato Research Institute, Shimla, performs better than other varieties when temperatures are higher during planting and early growth period. The field trials were conducted in randomized block design during autum/ winter season of 2011-12 and 2012-13 at farmer’s fields in participatory mode with the objective to assess the suitability of potato variety Kufri Surya for early planting under warmer condition in the Sone riverbed of Patna district in Bihar. The potato variety Kufri Surya recorded higher emergence percentage, significantly taller plants, more number of leaves per plant, higher LAI as compared, to potato cultivar Lal Gulab. It also produced highest total tuber yield, aggregate tuber population, average tuber weight, nutrient uptake, gross return and net return with recommended package of practices. Kufri Surya also produced 26.4% and 5.7% higher total tuber yield and total tuber number, respectively as compared to potato variety Lal Gulab at farmer’s management level. It also recorded 50.5 and 63.2% higher marketable tuber yield at farmer’s management and improved package of practice, respectively. © 2015, Indian Potato Association. All rights reserved.

Apical leaf curl disease, caused by Tomato leaf curl New Delhi virus-[potato] (ToLCNDV-[potato]) is one of the most important viral diseases of potato in India. Genetic resistance source for ToLCNDV in potato is not identified so far. However, the cultivar Kufri Bahar is known to show lowest seed degeneration even under high vector levels. Hence, microarray analysis was performed to identify differentially regulated genes during ToLCNDV-[potato] infection in a resistant (Kufri Bahar) and a susceptible cultivar (Kufri Pukhraj). Under artificial inoculation conditions, in Kufri Pukhraj, symptom expressions started at 15days after inoculation (DAI) and then progressed to severe symptoms, whereas no or only very mild symptoms were observed in Kufri Bahar up to 35 DAI. Correspondingly, qPCR assay indicated a high viral load in Kufri Pukhraj and a very low viral load in Kufri Bahar. Microarray analysis showed that a total of 1111 genes and 2588 genes were differentially regulated (|log2 (Fold Change)|>2) in Kufri Bahar and Kufri Pukhraj, respectively, following ToLCNDV-[potato] infection. Gene ontology and mapman analyses revealed that these altered transcripts were involved in various biological & metabolic processes. Several genes with unknown functions were 5 to 100 fold expressed after virus infection and further experiments are necessary to ascertain their role in disease resistance or susceptibility. This study gives an insight into differentially regulated genes in response to ToLCNDV-[potato] infection in resistant and susceptible cultivars and could serve as the basis for the development of new strategies for disease management.

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