ICAR Central Institute of Fisheries Technology

Cochin, India

ICAR Central Institute of Fisheries Technology

Cochin, India
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Murugadas V.,ICAR Central Institute of Fisheries Technology | Toms C.J.,ICAR Central Institute of Fisheries Technology | Reethu S.A.,ICAR Central Institute of Fisheries Technology | Lalitha K.V.,ICAR Central Institute of Fisheries Technology
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2017

Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) has been a global health concern since the 1960s, and isolation of this pathogen from food-producing animals has been increasing. However, little information is available on the prevalence of MRSA and its clonal characteristics in seafood and the aquatic environment. In this study, 267 seafood and aquatic environment samples were collected from three districts of Kerala, India. Staphylococcal protein A (spa) typing and multilocus sequence typing (MLST) was performed for 65 MRSA strains isolated from 20 seafood and aquatic environment samples. The MRSA clonal profiles were t657-ST772, t002-ST5, t334-ST5, t311-ST5, t121-ST8, t186-ST88, t127-ST1, and two non-spa assignable strains. Whole spa gene sequence analysis along with MLST confirmed one strain as t711-ST6 and another as a novel MRSA clone identified for the first time in seafood and the aquatic environment with a t15669 spa type and a new MLST profile of ST420-256-236-66-82-411-477. The MRSA strains were clustered into five clonal complexes based on the goeBURST algorithm, indicating high diversity among MRSA strains in seafood and the aquatic environment. The novel clone formed a separate clonal complex with matches to three loci. This study recommends large-scale spa typing and MLST of MRSA isolates from seafood and the aquatic environment to determine the prevalence of new MRSA clones. This monitoring process can be useful for tracing local spread of MRSA isolates into the seafood production chain in a defined geographical area. Copyright © International Association for Food Protection.

Borad S.G.,National Dairy Research Institute | Kumar A.,ICAR Central Institute of Fisheries Technology | Singh A.K.,National Dairy Research Institute
Critical Reviews in Food Science and Nutrition | Year: 2017

Milk is an essential source of nutritionally excellent quality protein in human, particularly in vegan diet. Before consumption, milk is invariably processed depending upon final product requirement. This processing may alter the nutritive value of protein in a significant manner. The processing operations like thermal treatment, chemical treatment, biochemical processing, physical treatments, nonconventional treatments, etc. may exert positive or negative influence on nutritional quality of milk proteins. On one side, processing enhances the nutritive and therapeutic values of protein while on other side intermediate or end products generated during protein reactions may cause toxicity and/or antigenicity upon consumption at elevated level. The review discusses the changes occurring in nutritive quality of milk proteins under the influence of various processing operations. © 2017 Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.

Murugadas V.,ICAR Central Institute of Fisheries Technology | Joseph T.C.,ICAR Central Institute of Fisheries Technology | Lalitha K.V.,ICAR Central Institute of Fisheries Technology
Food Control | Year: 2017

Methicillin resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) is not a resident flora of fish. Its presence is endorsed to post-harvest contamination viz., handlers, handling equipment and environment. Earlier investigation revealed the presence of MRSA in seafood sold in retail fish markets in Kerala, India. Further studies were conducted to understand and identify the source of contamination into seafood sold in the retail markets by a pilot study. Seventeen samples which includes seafood and fishery environment samples from a landing centre and a retail fish market were collected to identify the source of contamination of MRSA. The whole experiment was repeated with same sampling plan for validation of the procedure, a week later from the same landing centre to the point of sale at fish market. MRSA was isolated from 35.2% to 23.5% of samples during first and second visits respectively. spa typing of the MRSA isolates revealed that MRSA from the landing centre (t311 and t15669) were carried to the retail fish market. Ice and water were the probable source for contamination during handling at the landing centre. This is first study to trace the source of contamination of MRSA in seafood and fishery environment. It is imperative that spa typing can be implemented for studying the local spread of MRSA clones at specific geographical locations only after establishing its diversity. To better understand the complexity of local spread of MRSA and reproducibility of this experiment, studies has to be conducted in other landing centre and retail markets. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd

PubMed | ICAR RC for NEH Region, Central Institute of Fisheries Education, Central Agricultural University and ICAR Central Institute of Fisheries Technology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Heliyon | Year: 2017

Identification of a reference gene unaffected by the experimental conditions is obligatory for accurate measurement of gene expression through relative quantification. Most existing methods directly analyze variability in crossing point (Cp) values of reference genes and fail to account for template-independent factors that affect Cp values in their estimates. We describe the use of three simple statistical methods namely analysis of variance (ANOVA), normal quantile-quantile correlation (NQQC) and effective expression support (EES), on pooled expression ratios of reference genes in a panel to overcome this issue. The pooling of expression ratios across the genes in the panel nullify the sample specific effects uniformly affecting all genes that are falsely reflected as instability. Our methods also offer the flexibility to include sample specific PCR efficiencies in estimations, when available, for improved accuracy. Additionally, we describe a correction factor from the ANOVA method to correct the relative fold change of a target gene if no truly stable reference gene could be found in the analyzed panel. The analysis is described on a synthetic data set to simplify the explanation of the statistical treatment of data.

PubMed | ICAR Central Institute of Fisheries Technology
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of food science and technology | Year: 2017

The present study was aimed to investigate the combined effects of vacuum packaging and mint extract treatment on the quality changes of gutted Indian mackerel (

Biji K.B.,ICAR Central Institute of Fisheries Technology | Ravishankar C.N.,ICAR Central Institute of Fisheries Technology | Mohan C.O.,ICAR Central Institute of Fisheries Technology | Srinivasa Gopal T.K.,ICAR Central Institute of Fisheries Technology
Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2015

Changes in consumer preference for safe food have led to innovations in packaging technologies. This article reviews about different smart packaging systems and their applications in food packaging, packaging research with latest innovations. Active and intelligent packing are such packaging technologies which offer to deliver safer and quality products. Active packaging refers to the incorporation of additives into the package with the aim of maintaining or extending the product quality and shelf life. The intelligent systems are those that monitor the condition of packaged food to give information regarding the quality of the packaged food during transportation and storage. These technologies are designed to the increasing demand for safer foods with better shelf life. The market for active and intelligent packaging systems is expected to have a promising future by their integration into packaging materials or systems. © 2015, Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India).

Madhusudana Rao B.,Andhra University | Lalitha K.V.,ICAR Central Institute of Fisheries Technology
Aquaculture | Year: 2015

World fisheries production is projected at 164 million tonnes in 2020, and a major increase in the quantity of fish produced is expected to originate from aquaculture. Diseases represent a severe threat to aquaculture productivity and natural/organic strategies to combat infectious diseases are gaining new ground to address the issues of antibiotic resistance of bacteria and issues related to antibiotic residues in aquatic food animals. Phage therapy is currently considered as a viable alternative to antibiotics for treatment of bacterial infections in aquaculture systems. A cocktail of lytic phages and a synergistic combination of phages and other antimicrobials are viable options to control bacterial infections and at the same time evade phage resistance. However, lysogenic phages have the ability to transform non-virulent bacterial strains in to virulent strains which may cripple aquatic food production and also threaten food safety. The review focuses on the roles of bacteriophages and their implications for aquatic food production and food safety. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Ashraf P.M.,ICAR Central Institute of Fisheries Technology
Arabian Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2016

Nano-sized diamond like carbon is synthesized mainly by chemical vapor deposition and plasma assisted techniques. Here, we report a novel method to synthesize nano-sized diamond-like carbon (DLC) from chemically reduced graphene. Chemically reduced graphene was transformed to nano-sized diamond-like carbon at 800. °C and was characterized using X-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. AFM and transmission electron micrographs exhibited the structural changes at different temperatures that led to the development of nano-sized DLCs. The electrochemical impedance spectra (EIS) of samples at different temperatures showed the rate-limiting step was at 700. °C and the formed DLC was having lowest polarization resistance. The polarization resistance resulted from impedance measurements at different stages of DLC development was varied similar to that of kinetics of thermal activation process highlighted the application of EIS for explaining reaction mechanisms. © 2016 The Author.

Ashraf P.M.,ICAR Central Institute of Fisheries Technology | Edwin L.,ICAR Central Institute of Fisheries Technology
International Biodeterioration and Biodegradation | Year: 2016

Netting materials used for cage aquaculture were always susceptible to clogging of mesh lumen due to biofouling. Here we report a microwave assisted in situ synthesis of nano copper oxide incorporated polyethyleneglycolmethacrylate based hydrogel over nylon fishing cage net and its evaluation for resistance to fouling. Physicochemical and morphological characteristics of the material were studied using UV–vis spectrophotometry, FTIR, TEM and SEM. FTIR spectra showed the formation of the hydrogel – copper composite over the nylon twines through the amino/carbonyl groups of nylon with vinyl CH2 group of hydroxyethylmethacrylate. The SEM characterization exhibited a uniform thin film of composite formed over the nylon netting material. The hydrogel reinforced with 0.004% (wt/vol) copper oxide treated netting material exposed for 90 days to the estuarine environment exhibited excellent fouling resistance with lowest biomass accumulation. Copper oxide in the matrix played an important role synergistically along with hydrophilic hydrogel to deter the biofilm formation and hence attachment of fouling organisms over the nylon. This study highlights the composite as a potential candidate and efficient molecule to prevent fouling in the aquaculture cage nets. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd

PubMed | ICAR Central Marine Fisheries Research Institute, ICAR Directorate of Coldwater Fisheries Research, ICAR Central Inland Fisheries Research Institute, ICAR Central Institute of Brackishwater Aquaculture and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Biological trace element research | Year: 2016

The micronutrients (vitamins and minerals) are required in small amounts but are essential for health, development, and growth. Micronutrient deficiencies, which affect over two billion people around the globe, are the leading cause of many ailments including mental retardation, preventable blindness, and death during childbirth. Fish is an important dietary source of micronutrients and plays important role in human nutrition. In the present investigation, micronutrient composition of 35 food fishes (includes both finfishes and shellfishes) was investigated from varying aquatic habitats. Macrominerals (Na, K, Ca, Mg) and trace elements (Fe, Cu, Zn, Mn, Se) were determined by either atomic absorption spectroscopy (AAS) or inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry (ICP-MS)/atomic emission spectrometry (ICP-AES). Phosphorus content was determined either spectrophotometrically or by ICP-AES. Fat-soluble vitamins (A, D, E, K) were analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). The analysis showed that, in general, the marine fishes were rich in sodium and potassium; small indigenous fishes (SIFs) in calcium, iron, and manganese; coldwater fishes in selenium; and the brackishwater fishes in phosphorous. The marine fishes Sardinella longiceps and Epinephelus spp. and the SIFs were rich in all fat-soluble vitamins. All these recommendations were made according to the potential contribution (daily value %) of the species to the recommended daily allowance (RDA). Information on the micronutrients generated would enhance the utility of fish in both community and clinical nutrition.

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