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EM S.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes | Kataria M.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Shah F.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Yadav P.S.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes
Cytotechnology | Year: 2014

The efficiency of two cell types, namely adult fibroblasts, and amniotic fluid stem (AFS) cells as nuclear donor cells for somatic cell nuclear transfer by hand-made cloning in buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) was compared. The in vitro expanded buffalo adult fibroblast cells showed a typical “S” shape growth curve with a doubling time of 40.8 h and stained positive for vimentin. The in vitro cultured undifferentiated AFS cells showed a doubling time of 33.2 h and stained positive for alkaline phosphatase, these cells were also found positive for undifferentiated embryonic stem cell markers like OCT-4, NANOG and SOX-2, which accentuate their pluripotent property. Further, when AFS cells were exposed to corresponding induction conditions, these cells differentiated into osteogenic, adipogenic and chondrogenic lineages which was confirmed through alizaran, oil red O and alcian blue staining, respectively. Cultured adult fibroblasts and AFS cells of passages 10–15 and 8–12, respectively, were used as nuclear donors. A total of 94 embryos were reconstructed using adult fibroblast as donor cells with cleavage and blastocyst production rate of 62.8 ± 1.8 and 19.1 ± 1.5, respectively. An overall cleavage and blastocyst formation rate of 71.1 ± 1.2 and 29.9 ± 2.2 was obtained when 97 embryos were reconstructed using AFS cells as donor cells. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in reconstructed efficiency between the cloned embryos derived from two donor cells, whereas the results showed that there were significant differences (P < 0.05) in cleavage and blastocyst rates between the cloned embryos derived from two donor cell groups. Average total cell numbers for blastocyst generated using AFS cells (172.4 ± 5.8) was significantly (P < 0.05) higher than from adult fibroblasts (148.2 ± 6.1). This study suggests that the in vitro developmental potential of the cloned embryos derived from AFS cells were higher than that of the cloned embryos derived from adult fibroblasts in buffalo hand-made cloning. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht Source


Sadeesh Em,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes | Shah F.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Yadav P.S.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes
Cytotechnology | Year: 2015

The developmental ability and gene expression pattern at 8- to 16-cell and blastocyst stages of buffalo (Bubalus bubalis) nuclear transfer (NT) embryos from fetal fibroblasts (FFs), amnion mesenchymal stem cells (AMSCs) and in vitro fertilized (IVF) embryos were compared in the present studies. The in vitro expanded buffalo FFs showed a typical “S” shape growth curve with a doubling time of 41.4 h and stained positive for vimentin. The in vitro cultured undifferentiated AMSCs showed a doubling time of 39.5 h and stained positive for alkaline phosphatase, and these cells also showed expression of pluripotency markers (OCT4, SOX2, NANOG), and mesenchymal stem cell markers (CD29, CD44) and were negative for haematopoietic marker (CD34) genes at different passages. Further, when AMSCs were exposed to corresponding induction conditions, these cells differentiated into adipogenic, chondrogenic and osteogenic lineages which were confirmed through oil red O, alcian blue and alizarin staining, respectively. Donor cells at 3–4 passage were employed for NT. The cleavage rate was significantly (P < 0.05) higher in IVF than in FF-NT and AMSC-NT embryos (82.6 ± 8.2 vs. 64.6 ± 1.3 and 72.3 ± 2.2 %, respectively). However, blastocyst rates in IVF and AMSC-NT embryos (30.6 ± 2.7 and 28.9 ± 3.1 %) did not differ and were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than FF-NT (19.5 ± 1.8 %). Total cell number did not show significant (P > 0.05) differences between IVF and AMSC-NT embryos (186.7 ± 4.2, 171.2 ± 3.8, respectively) but were significantly (P < 0.05) higher than that from FF-NT (151.3 ± 4.1). Alterations in the expression pattern of genes implicated in transcription and pluripotency (OCT4, STAT3, NANOG), DNA methylation (DNMT1, DNMT3A), histone deacetylation (HDAC2), growth factor signaling and imprinting (IGF2, IGF2R), apoptosis (BAX, BCL2), metabolism (GLUT1) and oxidative stress (MnSOD) regulation were observed in cloned embryos. The transcripts or expression patterns in AMSC-NT embryos more closely followed that of the in vitro derived embryos compared with FF-NT embryos. The results demonstrate that multipotent amnion MSCs have a greater potential as donor cells than FFs in achieving enhanced production of cloned buffalo embryos. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht Source


EM S.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes | Shah F.,University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences | Kataria M.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Yadav P.S.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes
Cytotechnology | Year: 2015

Abnormal gene expression in somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos due to aberrant epigenetic modifications of the donor nucleus may account for much of the observed diminished viability and developmental abnormalities. The present study compared the developmentally important gene expression pattern at 4-cell, 8- to 16-cell, morula, and blastocyst stages of buffalo nuclear transfer (NT) embryos from adult fibroblasts (AFs) and amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs). In vitro fertilized embryos were used as control embryos. Alterations in the expression pattern of genes implicated in transcription and pluripotency (OCT4, STAT3, NANOG), DNA methylation (DNMT1, DNMT3A), histone deacetylation (HDAC2), growth factor signaling, and imprinting (IGF2, IGF2R), apoptosis (BAX, BCL2), oxidative stress (MnSOD), metabolism (GLUT1) regulation were observed in cloned embryos. The expression of transcripts in AFSC-NT embryos more closely followed that of the in vitro fertilized embryos compared with AF-NT embryos. It is concluded that AFSCs with a relatively undifferentiated genome may serve as suitable donors which could be reprogrammed more efficiently to reactivate expression of early embryonic genes in buffalo NT. © 2015 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht Source


Kumar P.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes | Saini M.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes | Kumar D.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes | Jan M.H.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes | And 3 more authors.
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2016

The present study is the first to quantify leptin in seminal plasma of buffalo and investigate its relationship with seminal attributes. Ten ejaculates each from 10 Murrah buffalo bulls were collected. Semen quality variables such as semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm abnormalities, membrane integrity, antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase and total antioxidant capacity), malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, as well as sperm kinetics and motility variables were evaluated. The leptin concentration in serum and seminal plasma were estimated by the ELISA method. Bulls were classified in two groups on the basis of sperm concentration with Group I having >800 million sperm/mL and Group II <500 million sperm/mL. Greater (P<0.05) mean sperm abnormalities, seminal leptin concentrations and MDA concentrations were recorded in Group II than Group I. The seminal leptin was positively correlated with sperm abnormalities and MDA concentration while being negatively correlated with sperm concentration, but there was no correlation with sperm kinetic and motility variables, sperm membrane integrity and seminal plasma antioxidant enzyme activity. Thus, the data suggest that seminal leptin has a role in spermatogenesis and can be used as a marker for spermatogenesis to predict the capacity of buffalo bulls for semen production. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. Source


Kumar D.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes | Talluri T.R.,National Research Center on Equines | Anand T.,National Research Center on Equines | Kues W.A.,Friedrich Loeffler Institute
Histology and Histopathology | Year: 2015

Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells represent a recent innovation in the field of stem cells. Commonly, iPS cells are generated by viral transduction of core reprogramming genes, such as Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc, Nanog and Lin28. However, integrating viruses, like retro- and lentiviral vectors, may cause insertional mutagenesis and may increase the risk of tumor formation. Therefore, alternative methods which avoid these safety concerns are intensively investigated. Here, we review the current status of transposon-based methods to induce pluripotency. DNA transposons are non-viral elements, which can be effectively integrated into a genome by their corresponding transposase enzyme. The advantages of transposon-based gene transfer are their increased safety, their large cargo capacity, their relatively simple design, and the availability of hyper-active and mutated transposase enzymes. For example, integration-deficient, excisioncompetent transposase variants allow the complete removal of the reprogramming transposon after successful reprogramming to obtain transposon-free reprogrammed cells. Transposon-based reprogramming broaden the toolbox for iPS cell production and will advance the establishment of safe, non-viral methods. © 2015, Histology and Histopathology. All rights reserved. Source

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