ICAR Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes

Hisār, India

ICAR Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes

Hisār, India

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Jerome A.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes | Srivastava S.K.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Sharma R.K.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes
Iranian Journal of Veterinary Research | Year: 2016

This research was conducted to study the follicular dynamics, hormonal, biochemical profile and fertility response in acyclic and norgestomet+PMSG treated acyclic buffaloes in summer. The study animals were divided into two groups: group I [control (n=8): no treatment] and II [treatment group (n=15)]. In group II, seven animals were used for follicular biochemical and hormonal profile and eight animals for fertility studies following Crestar® (Intervet, France) treatment (day 0: Crestar® insertion; day 8: 500 IU PMSG; day 9: Crestar® removal; day 11 AI). Follicular fluid stradiol (E2) and progesterone (P4) in acyclic and pre-ovulatory follicle in study groups was significantly (P<0.01) higher than peripheral level. Peripheral E2 concentration, during pre-ovulatory period in group II was higher (P<0.05) than group I. Significant correlation between serum and follicular E2 was deduced (r=0.888; P<0.01) as significant difference in serum cholesterol content was shown between groups. Lower follicular total protein (P<0.05) in acyclic animals and higher follicular glucose (P<0.05) in treated group were concluded. Significant correlation (r=-0.770; P<0.05) was observed between follicular cholesterol and triglycerides. Follicular characteristics, post PMSG administration, differed significantly (0.83 ± 0.20 vs 1.32 ± 0.12; P<0.01) in all buffaloes exhibiting estrus, out of which four conceived. In conclusion, follicular hormonal and biochemical profile exhibits alteration in protein and glucose level between summer acyclic and treated buffaloes. However, peripheral E2 along with fertility response showed significant difference (P<0.01) between the study groups with significant correlation in E2, cholesterol and triglycerides between peripheral and follicular compartment.


PubMed | Indian Veterinary Research Institute, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences and ICAR Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes
Type: | Journal: Cytotechnology | Year: 2017

This study examined the effects of buffalo oocyte extracts (BOE) on donor cells reprogramming and molecular characterisation of oocytes screened via brilliant cresyl blue (BCB) staining and comparison of gene expression profiles of developmentally important genes in blastocysts from IVF and cloned derived from BOE treated donor cells with BCB selected recipient cytoplasts. Relative abundance (RA) of OCT4 and NANOG was increased (P<0.05) and HDAC-1, DNMT-1, and DNMT-3A decreased (P<0.05) in extract treated cells (ETCs). This ETCs dedifferentiated into neuron-like lineage under appropriate induction condition. The RA of NASP, EEF1A1, DNMT1, ODC1 and RPS27A was increased (P<0.05) in BCB+ oocytes, whereas ATP5A1 and S100A10 increased (P<0.05) in BCB- oocytes. Total cell number and RA of OCT4, NANOG, SOX2, DNMT1, IGF2, IGF2R, MNSOD, GLUT1, BAX and BCL2 in cloned blastocysts derived from BCB+ oocytes with ETC more closely followed that of IVF counterparts compared to BCB+ oocytes with extract untreated cell and BCB- oocytes with ETC derived blastocysts. In conclusion, BOE influenced epigenetic reprogramming of buffalo fibroblasts making them suitable donors for nuclear transfer (NT). BCB staining can be effectively used for selection of developmentally competent oocytes for NT. The combined effects of epigenetic reprogramming of donor nuclei by BOE and higher nuclear reprogramming capacity of BCB+ oocytes improve developmentally important gene expression in cloned blastocysts. Whether these improvements have long-term effects on buffalo calves born following embryo transfer remains unknown.


PubMed | Indian Veterinary Research Institute, University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences and ICAR Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Cytotechnology | Year: 2016

Abnormal gene expression in somatic cell nuclear transfer embryos due to aberrant epigenetic modifications of the donor nucleus may account for much of the observed diminished viability and developmental abnormalities. The present study compared the developmentally important gene expression pattern at 4-cell, 8- to 16-cell, morula, and blastocyst stages of buffalo nuclear transfer (NT) embryos from adult fibroblasts (AFs) and amniotic fluid stem cells (AFSCs). In vitro fertilized embryos were used as control embryos. Alterations in the expression pattern of genes implicated in transcription and pluripotency (OCT4, STAT3, NANOG), DNA methylation (DNMT1, DNMT3A), histone deacetylation (HDAC2), growth factor signaling, and imprinting (IGF2, IGF2R), apoptosis (BAX, BCL2), oxidative stress (MnSOD), metabolism (GLUT1) regulation were observed in cloned embryos. The expression of transcripts in AFSC-NT embryos more closely followed that of the in vitro fertilized embryos compared with AF-NT embryos. It is concluded that AFSCs with a relatively undifferentiated genome may serve as suitable donors which could be reprogrammed more efficiently to reactivate expression of early embryonic genes in buffalo NT.


PubMed | University of Veterinary and Animal Sciences and ICAR Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes
Type: | Journal: Animal reproduction science | Year: 2016

The present study is the first to quantify leptin in seminal plasma of buffalo and investigate its relationship with seminal attributes. Ten ejaculates each from 10 Murrah buffalo bulls were collected. Semen quality variables such as semen volume, sperm concentration, sperm abnormalities, membrane integrity, antioxidant enzyme activities (superoxide dismutase, catalase and total antioxidant capacity), malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, as well as sperm kinetics and motility variables were evaluated. The leptin concentration in serum and seminal plasma were estimated by the ELISA method. Bulls were classified in two groups on the basis of sperm concentration with Group I having >800 million sperm/mL and Group II <500 million sperm/mL. Greater (P<0.05) mean sperm abnormalities, seminal leptin concentrations and MDA concentrations were recorded in Group II than Group I. The seminal leptin was positively correlated with sperm abnormalities and MDA concentration while being negatively correlated with sperm concentration, but there was no correlation with sperm kinetic and motility variables, sperm membrane integrity and seminal plasma antioxidant enzyme activity. Thus, the data suggest that seminal leptin has a role in spermatogenesis and can be used as a marker for spermatogenesis to predict the capacity of buffalo bulls for semen production.


Kumar D.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes | Talluri T.R.,National Research Center on Equines | Anand T.,National Research Center on Equines | Kues W.A.,Friedrich Loeffler Institute
Histology and Histopathology | Year: 2015

Induced pluripotent stem (iPS) cells represent a recent innovation in the field of stem cells. Commonly, iPS cells are generated by viral transduction of core reprogramming genes, such as Oct4, Sox2, Klf4, c-Myc, Nanog and Lin28. However, integrating viruses, like retro- and lentiviral vectors, may cause insertional mutagenesis and may increase the risk of tumor formation. Therefore, alternative methods which avoid these safety concerns are intensively investigated. Here, we review the current status of transposon-based methods to induce pluripotency. DNA transposons are non-viral elements, which can be effectively integrated into a genome by their corresponding transposase enzyme. The advantages of transposon-based gene transfer are their increased safety, their large cargo capacity, their relatively simple design, and the availability of hyper-active and mutated transposase enzymes. For example, integration-deficient, excisioncompetent transposase variants allow the complete removal of the reprogramming transposon after successful reprogramming to obtain transposon-free reprogrammed cells. Transposon-based reprogramming broaden the toolbox for iPS cell production and will advance the establishment of safe, non-viral methods. © 2015, Histology and Histopathology. All rights reserved.


Kumar P.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes | Kumar D.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes | Sikka P.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes | Singh P.,National Dairy Research Institute
Animal Reproduction Science | Year: 2015

The variety of mammalian cells has been successfully cryopreserved by use of the silk protein sericin due to its strong free-radical-scavenging and potent antioxidant activity. The present study was conducted to examine the protective role of sericin on buffalo spermatozoa during cryopreservation. Semen of four breeding bulls was collected twice a week using artificial vagina technique. The ejaculates of four bulls were pooled, divided into five equal fractions, diluted with the extender supplemented with different concentrations of sericin (0, 0.25, 0.5, 1.5 and 2%) and then cryopreserved. Post-thawed motility was objectively assessed by computer assisted sperm analyzer. Sperm plasma membrane integrity was assessed by hypo-osmotic swelling test (HOST). Malondialdehyde (MDA) concentration, glutathione peroxidase (GPx) and superoxide dismutase (SOD) activities were determined in frozen-thawed extended seminal plasma by spectrophotometry. The extender supplemented with 0.25, 0.5 and 1% sericin resulted in the higher sperm motility and GPx acivity. Furthermore, plasma membrane integrity and SOD activity were found to be higher (P < 0.05) in group supplemented with 0.25 and 0.5% sericin (P < 0.05). The MDA concentration was found to be significantly lower (P < 0.05) in 0.25 and 0.5% sericin treated groups than control and other treated groups. In conclusion, the supplementation of 0.25-0.5% sericin in semen extender improves frozen-thawed semen quality through protecting sperm from oxidative stress. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Paul S.S.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes | Dey A.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2015

Nutrition, an important modulator of immune function, can often influence the balance between health and disease. Diets influence immunity through meeting substrate needs of immune system cells, deprivation of nutrients from pathogen, direct regulatory effects on cells of immune system, changing the balance of hormones that regulate immunity, reduction of collateral damage induced by an immune response, and physical and chemical immunomodulation action of non-nutrient components of feeds. Poor immune-competency can result in greater incidence and duration of infections causing decrease in food intake, nutrient losses, and impaired animal health and well-being. Substrates (energy, amino acids and all nutrients) are necessary for the anabolic activity of immune system's cells (leukocytes), such as proliferation and antibody production as well as the secretion by the liver of large quantities of immunologically active molecules, the acute phase proteins. The small size of the immune system, its capacity to appropriate nutrients from other tissues, and endowment with high priority nutrient transporters generally indicate that the immune system can usually obtain many of the nutrients that it needs to do its functions over a wide range of dietary levels. However, requirements of some nutrients may not be met by nutrient appropriation mechanism under low dietary intake because of their low concentration in muscle and their relatively high need within the immune system. Role of ß-carotene, vitamin E, copper, zinc and selenium in aiding immunity are mediated not only through maintenance of appropriate amounts of antioxidants, but also by the involvement of enzymes in aiding the production of energy, proteins, cells and hormones needed in defense mechanisms. This review discusses the complex relationship between nutritional status and immune function with special focus on mechanism of action of individual key nutrient.


Singh I.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes | Balhara A.K.,ICAR Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes
Theriogenology | Year: 2016

Buffalo farming has made remarkable progress in productivity mainly because of controlled breeding with artificial insemination (AI) that has proved its worth in breed improvement and breeding managements across the livestock species. Artificial insemination is practiced very little in Europe and East Asian countries with coverage of only 5% buffaloes in Italy, 3.7% in Azerbaijan, 0.3% in Egypt, and 0.1% in Romania although in Bulgaria, 80% buffaloes in large cooperative state farms are subjected to AI. In Turkey, it began in 2002 near Hatay with Italian semen provided by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Network project. In India, where buffaloes are the most valuable livestock species, research on buffalo specific artificial breeding technologies and adoption of AI by buffalo owners are widely acknowledged. Resultantly, average milk yield of buffaloes in India increased from 3.4 kg in 1992 to 93 to 4.57 kg/day/buffalo in 2009 to 10. In the new millennium, mega projects such as the National Project for Cattle and Buffalo Breeding and the National Dairy Plan were initiated with focus on genetic upgradation of bovine and buffalo population through streamlining AI services and support system in the country. Artificial insemination started in India in the year 1939, and the frozen semen was introduced during late 1960s. During the year 2010 to 11, India produced 63 million bovine frozen semen straws including over one million buffalo semen straws through 49 semen stations. Artificial insemination services are provided through 71,341 AI stations clocking 52 million inseminations with overall conception rate of 35% in bovine and buffalo population. Research is being conducted for improved AI conception rates with synchronization programs and improved frozen-thawed semen quality, and success rates are at par with AI in cattle. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.


PubMed | ICAR Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Theriogenology | Year: 2016

Buffalo farming has made remarkable progress in productivity mainly because of controlled breeding with artificial insemination (AI) that has proved its worth in breed improvement and breeding managements across the livestock species. Artificial insemination is practiced very little in Europe and East Asian countries with coverage of only 5% buffaloes in Italy, 3.7% in Azerbaijan, 0.3% in Egypt, and 0.1% in Romania although in Bulgaria, 80% buffaloes in large cooperative state farms are subjected to AI. In Turkey, it began in 2002 near Hatay with Italian semen provided by the Food and Agriculture Organization (FAO) Network project. In India, where buffaloes are the most valuable livestock species, research on buffalo specific artificial breeding technologies and adoption of AI by buffalo owners are widely acknowledged. Resultantly, average milk yield of buffaloes in India increased from 3.4kg in 1992 to 93 to 4.57kg/day/buffalo in 2009 to 10. In the new millennium, mega projects such as the National Project for Cattle and Buffalo Breeding and the National Dairy Plan were initiated with focus on genetic upgradation of bovine and buffalo population through streamlining AI services and support system in the country. Artificial insemination started in India in the year 1939, and the frozen semen was introduced during late 1960s. During the year 2010 to 11, India produced 63 million bovine frozen semen straws including over one million buffalo semen straws through 49 semen stations. Artificial insemination services are provided through 71,341 AI stations clocking 52 million inseminations with overall conception rate of 35% in bovine and buffalo population. Research is being conducted for improved AI conception rates with synchronization programs and improved frozen-thawed semen quality, and success rates are at par with AI in cattle.


PubMed | ICAR Central Institute for Research on Buffaloes
Type: | Journal: Reproduction in domestic animals = Zuchthygiene | Year: 2016

This study was attempted to identify subfertile bulls by quantifying the endogenous levels of osteopontin (OPN), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in seminal plasma of buffalo bulls. On the basis of conception rate, buffalo bulls were classified into two groups: high-fertile (conception rate >50%) and subfertile bulls (conception rate <40%). A total of 100 ejaculates (10 ejaculates from each bull) were collected through artificial vagina method. The concentration of OPN, TAC and catalase (CAT) of high-fertile bulls was found to be higher (p<.05) than that of subfertile bulls. Further, MDA level in seminal plasma was found to be lower (p<.05) in high-fertile bulls compared with subfertile bulls. The fertility status had no effect on the superoxide dismutase (SOD) concentration in seminal plasma of both the groups. The levels of OPN (r=.678, p=0.013) and TAC (r=.648, p=.042) were found to be positively correlated with bull fertility and the level of MDA (r=-.718, p=.019) was found to be negatively correlated with bull fertility. However, the fertility of bulls was not found to be significantly correlated with SOD, CAT and sperm motility. In conclusion, seminal OPN, TAC and MDA tended to be more realistic in identification of subfertile bulls from breeding herds.

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