ICAR Central Institute for Cotton Research

Sirsa, India

ICAR Central Institute for Cotton Research

Sirsa, India
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Reddy D.D.,Indian Institute of Science | Reddy D.D.,ICAR Central Institute for Tobacco Research | Blaise D.,ICAR Central Institute for Cotton Research | Kumrawat B.,Indian Institute of Science | Singh A.K.,Indian Institute of Science
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2017

Phospho-compost (PC) and poultry manure (PM) were evaluated in field experiments to diversify integrated nutrient management (INM) for rain-fed cotton. Seed cotton yield in the PC (2501–2579 kg ha−1) was similar to the recommended INM (2673 kg ha−1) treatment and was significantly better than nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium (100% NPK) (2130 kg ha−1) and farmers practice (FP) (1886 kg ha−1). Yield was lower in the PM (2476–2617 kg ha−1) than in the PC. Nutrient uptake was higher in all INM intervention plots due to an improvement in soil nutrient status compared with those receiving 100% NPK. Soil labile carbon values were higher in the INM treatments (333–452 mg kg−1), with a greater magnitude in the PC-amended plots (402–452 mg kg−1). Carbon management index (CMI) values were higher for the INM than treatments NPK and FP. Among INM interventions, PC plots had higher values than the PM. © 2017 Taylor & Francis.

Mooventhan P.,ICAR National Institute of Biotic Stress Management | Kadian K.S.,National Dairy Research Institute | Senthilkumar R.,ICAR Central Institute of Agricultural Engineering | Manimaran A.,National Dairy Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Range Management and Agroforestry | Year: 2016

This investigation was undertaken to explore the tribal farmers’ perceived importance, awareness, adoption and constraints for good feeding practices (GFPs) of dairy animals in northern hilly zone of Chhattisgarh. To study the perceived importance towards good feeding practices, the pattern matrix of exploratory factor analysis (EFA) was administered. It revealed that the Factor 1 (semi intensive approach) explained maximum variance (35.24%) and had highest eigen value (2.77). Awareness study revealed that about one-fourth (27.67%) of the tribal farmers were aware about green fodder varieties, nearly half (43.0%) of the respondents were aware about the importance of colostrum feeding to calf with proper timing and quantity. The adoption results clearly indicated that about 24.66 per cent of the respondents cultivated cumbu napier green fodder varieties such as CO 3, CO(CN) 4 and CO(BN) 5. Regression analysis showed that the variables like age, occupational status, farm size, milk production and social participation had positive and significant relationship with good feeding practices. Constraints analysis revealed that majority (75.70%) of tribal farmers expressed the higher cost of concentrates, mineral mixtures and vitamin supplements as the major constraints in the feeding management of animals. © 2017, Range Management Society of India. All rights reserved.

Renu,ICAR National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Microorganisms | Bhoyar M.S.,Intellectual Property Management Unit | Singh U.B.,ICAR National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Microorganisms | Sahu U.,ICAR National Bureau of Agriculturally Important Microorganisms | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2017

Soil and plant samples from black rot infected fields were processed to isolate wild type Xanthomonas campestris pv. campestris (Xcc) bacteriophages by overlay agar method. Various Xcc strains were employed as indicator hosts. The aim of this study was to isolate and purify potential bacteriophages for their ability to lyse plant pathogenic strains of Xcc in vitro. Bacteriophages were purified and selected for further characterization based on their ability to produce clear lysis on plaque assay. Seventeen strains of pathogenic Xcc were tested for sensitivity to 31 phages isolated during the study. Lysis was graded subjectively as per standard. A virulent phage Xcc9SH3 isolated from soil sample from Lucknow was found to lyse all tested strains of Xcc in vitro. Characterization of Xcc9SH3 was done based on plaque morphology, phage titre, organic solvent sensitivity, effect of temperature and transmission electron microscopy. The size of long noncontractile tail of the phage was 100 nm in length and 10 nm in width with 20 nm diameter of head. The isometric head of the phage predicted to belong to Siphoviridae (dsDNA viruses) family of bacteriophages. These phages may be useful tool in specific and efficient detection and control of Xcc causing black rot disease in cole crops. © 2017, Edizioni ETS. All rights reserved.

Bhattacharyya U.K.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Godara S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Godara S.,Rajasthan Agricultural University | Kumar P.,Rajasthan Agricultural University | And 4 more authors.
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2017

A survey was made to study cotton leaf curl disease (CLCuD) incidence in cotton growing areas of Haryana, Punjab and Rajasthan in Northwest (NW) India during the years of 2013 and 2014. The present study revealed higher overall CLCuD incidence of 77.5% with higher overall boll number reduction (BNR) of 36.9% in 2013 compared to incidence of 49.6% with 7.6% BNR in 2014 in Haryana. In Rajasthan the disease incidence of 55.9% and 21.6% BNR in 2013 when compared to 10.8% of incidence and 2.9% BNR in 2014 was recorded. The overall CLCuD incidence and BNR in cotton growing areas of Punjab were more or less similar for both the years of 2013 and 2014, where disease incidence of 54.1% with BNR 14.6% in 2013 and disease incidence 57.8% with BNR of 15.9% in 2014 was recorded. All the 11 Bt-cotton hybrids from the farmer's fields of Sri Ganganagar and Sirsa districts surveyed were highly susceptible to CLCuD in both the years; showing 100% disease incidence with BNR of 32.3-82.3% in 2013 and 49.2-100% with BNR of 8.7-17.4% in 2014. Infectivity study through whitefly (Bemisia tabaci) and polymerase chain reaction (PCR) of ORF V1 (CP gene) determined that CLCuD in NW India is caused by whitefly transmitted CLCuD-begomoviruses. Sequence analysis of CP gene indicated that at least three CLCuD-begomoviruses variants appeared in this cotton growing region. The increased CLCuD incidence with huge yield loss and occurrence of CLCuD-begomovirus variants reported in the present is an alarming situation for the profitable cultivation of cotton in north India. © 2017, Indian Council of Agricultural Research. All rights reserved.

Tripathi R.,ICAR National Rice Research Institute | Nayak A.K.,ICAR National Rice Research Institute | Raja R.,ICAR Central Institute for Cotton Research | Shahid M.,ICAR National Rice Research Institute | And 6 more authors.
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2017

Proper doses of nitrogenous fertilizer are most important for rice production system because a large part of the nitrogen may be lost if it is not applied judiciously. A study was conducted covering five blocks of Balasore and two blocks of Bhadrak districts. Soil samples were collected randomly, and field visit was conducted during peak vegetative stage of rice. Two approaches have been used in this study for estimating the site-specific nitrogen (N) requirement in the study area. In one approach, geostatisical analysis and kriging was used to develop the soil test–based N recommendation map by which a minimum of 72 kg N ha−1 and maximum of 94 kg N ha−1 were recommended. In a second approach, remote sensing was used and N recommendation map was developed using the moderate-resolution imaging spectroradiometer (MODIS) leaf area index (LAI) and normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) satellite data, and a minimum requirement of 60 kg N ha−1 and maximum of 120 kg N ha−1 was estimated through this approach. © 2017 Taylor & Francis

Sain S.K.,National Institute of Plant Health Management | Sain S.K.,ICAR Central Institute for Cotton Research | Pandey A.K.,National Institute of Plant Health Management
Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection | Year: 2016

Three Trichoderma harzianum isolates viz., Th-Sks, Th-Ke and Th-Ar collected from respective states of India viz., Rajasthan, Kerala and Andhra Pradesh were evaluated for the management of six fungal diseases namely damping off, Fusarium wilt, Rhizoctonia wilt, early leaf spot, late blight and Septoria leaf spot in tomato. During in vitro analysis, T. harzianum isolates inhibited the pathogens’ growth. Isolate Th-Sks was the most virulent antagonist against all the test pathogens and exhibited maximum of 79.47% growth inhibition of Phytophthora infestans. Isolate Th-Sks proved most effective at suppression efficacy in the range of 95–100% and 91–100% against all diseases under glasshouse and in the field conditions, respectively. Tomato seeds treatment with isolate Th-Sks also promoted plant height (78.23 cm) and fruits yield (290 g/plant) during field trial and data were found to be not-significantly different from other isolates. Thus, it is concluded that isolate Th-Sks can be utilised as a biocontrol agent for management of fungal diseases in tomato. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

Babu S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Babu S.,ICAR Central Institute for Cotton Research | Bidyarani N.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Bidyarani N.,ICAR Central Institute for Cotton Research | And 12 more authors.
European Journal of Plant Pathology | Year: 2015

The performance of cyanobacteria and Trichoderma based biocontrol formulations was evaluated in two cotton varieties (Gossypium hirsutum F1861 and Gossypium arboreum CISA 310). Evaluation of mortality after 4 weeks revealed a significant reduction, particularly in G. hirsutum F1861, with values of 13 % (lower by 2 % over the Trichoderma commercial biocontrol agent). The percent mortality after drenching with the compost tea prepared using respective formulations, ranged from 28 to 75 % in G. arboreum CISA 310, with significantly lower values of 6–37.3 % in G. hirsutum. The Anabaena laxa RPAN8 formulation showed the lowest mortality. The activity of hydrolytic enzymes—β-1, 3 glucanase (EGase EC, β-1, 4 glucanase (EGase EC, and chitosanase (EC showed a significant enhancement in the inoculated treatments (T1–T6), with Calothrix sp. being among the top ranked treatments in both varieties. Comparison of DNA fingerprints (HIP-TG profiles) of rhizospheric soil DNA with those of corresponding pure cultures revealed a high degree of similarity, confirming the colonization of inoculated organisms. An amplicon of 1000 bp was observed in the soil metagenomic PCR-DNA profiles from both varieties, which confirmed the presence of an endoglucanase gene. Comparative analyses of responses of the two varieties revealed that Gossypium hirsutum F1861 showed higher values of hydrolytic enzymes and available N in soil. On the other hand, microbial inoculation elicited higher levels of chitosanase and defense enzyme activity in Gossypium arboreum CISA 310. This represents a first report illustrating the significance of varietal responses in cotton in relation to the efficacy of microbial biocontrol formulations and their establishment in the rhizosphere. © 2015, Koninklijke Nederlandse Planteziektenkundige Vereniging.

Blaise D.,ICAR Central Institute for Cotton Research
Indian Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2015

An experiment was conducted at Central Institute for Cotton Research, Nagpur, Maharashtra, to monitor flower and boll production in Bt transgenic cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) hybrid (‘RCH 2 Bt. hybrid’) as influenced by climatic factors and conservation tillage practices in selected treatments. Two reduced tillage (RT) systems, with limited soil disturbance in the form of inter-culture operations (RT1) and no soil disturbance (RT2), were compared with the conventional tillage treatment (CT). The tillage treatments comprised subplots with and without green manure. Conservation-tillage treatments had 12–15% more bolls retained on a plant than the conventional tillage. Irrespective of the tillage systems, flower and boll production varied among years. Flower production correlated negatively with the maximum and minimum temperature (P<0.0001) and maximum and minimum relative humidity (P<0.001) during both the seasons. In general, sunshine hours and evaporation rate showed a non-significant positive correlation with flower production. In both the seasons, negative correlation was observed for boll production with maximum and minimum temperature (P<0.0001) and minimum humidity (P<0.40). Boll production correlated positively with evaporation rate, but the relationship was significant in the second season (P<0.01). Boll retention was 54.3% higher in the first season compared to 43.6% in the second season due to lower mean maximum and minimum temperature. In general, temperature, relative humidity and evaporation rate were positively correlated with the number of bolls shed. These results indicate that seasonal variability has a greater impact on flower and boll production, irrespective of tillage treatments. Conservation-tillage systems may modulate and modify the adverse climatic effects such as high temperature and increasing moisture stress. © 2015, Indian Society of Agronomy. All rights reserved.

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