ICAR Central Institute for Arid Horticulture

Bīkāner, India

ICAR Central Institute for Arid Horticulture

Bīkāner, India
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Singh P.P.,ICAR Central Institute for Arid Horticulture
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2016

Thirty fenugreek genotypes (Trigonella foenum graecumL) were evaluated during rabi season of 2012-13 to explore its existing gene pool and identify the selection indices with an eye on a more comprehensive breeding programme. Characters like number of pods per plant, protein content in seed, days to 50% flowering and dry weight at flower initiation were found to have least variation among the coefficients both at phenotypic and genotypic level. Broad sense heritability estimates were high for protein content in seed (96.9), followed by number of pods per plant (96.7). The highest genetic advance as percentage of mean was recorded for dry matter content and dry weight at flower initiation indicating that these characters are governed by additive gene action. Correlation coefficients at phenotypic and genotypic level envisaged that biological yield was having significant and positive correlation with chlorophyll content of the leaves, number of pods per plant, straw yield per plant, 1000 seed weight, dry matter content of the plant as whole and seed yield per plant while negatively correlated with the harvest index. Path coefficient analysis revealed that biological yield per plant, harvest index, dry weight at flower initiation, chlorophyll content in leaves, number of branches per plant and 1000 seed weight were the most important characters contributing towards seed yield and hence purposeful and balanced selection based on these traits would be more rewarding for improvement of fenugreek.


Haldhar S.M.,ICAR Central Institute for Arid Horticulture | Samadia D.K.,ICAR Central Institute for Arid Horticulture | Bhargava R.,ICAR Central Institute for Arid Horticulture | Singh D.,ICAR Central Institute for Arid Horticulture
Crop Protection | Year: 2017

The melon fruit fly, Bactrocera cucurbitae (Coquillett) (Tephritidae: Diptera) is an important pest of cucurbits and is found to be effecting kachri (Cucumis melo var. callosus), leading to significant losses in yield potential in the hot arid agro-climate of India. The objectives of this study were to identify and categorize sources of resistance in kachri genotypes to B. cucurbitae from the arid region of India. Two genotypes were found to be highly resistant; 4 further genotypes were found to be resistant; 10 genotypes were moderately resistant; 6 genotypes were susceptible and two genotypes were found to be the highly susceptible to melon fruit fly infestation. The phenols (r = −0.90), tannin (r = −0.89), total alkaloids (r = −0.80) and flavonoid (r = −0.96) contents had significant negative correlations with percent fruit infestation. The percent fruit infestation did not correlate with fruit length (r = 0.17), fruit diameter (r = 0.31) and had significant negative correlation with length of ovary pubescence (r = −0.95), rind hardness (r = −0.94) and rind thickness (r = −0.91). Flavinoid and tannin contents explained (91.2 and 92.1%, respectively) of the total variation in fruit fly infestation and in larval density per fruit. Maximum variation in fruit infestation and larval density was explained by the length of ovary pubescence (89.5 and 84.8%, respectively) followed by rind hardness (4.3 and 3.3%, respectively). Based on the Kaiser Normalization method, two principal components (PCs) were extracted explaining the cumulative variation of 88.2% in melon fruit fly infestation. PC1 explained 71.6% of the variation while PC2 explained 16.6% of the variation. Kachri genotypic variability can improve plant fitness via bottom–up effects on fruit fly infestation. Growers can adopt potential genotypes of kachri as identified for resistance (two genotypes) with minimal financial investment for obtaining higher yields. Hence, a benefit of diversity for yield potential is recognized and thus genotypes diversity is used to become an important answer for sustainable management. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd


Singh S.K.,ICAR Central Institute for Arid Horticulture | Singh S.K.,National Research Center on Litchi | Malhotra S.K.,ICAR Central Institute for Arid Horticulture | Bhargava R.,ICAR Central Institute for Arid Horticulture | And 2 more authors.
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2017

This study was carried out to investigate morpho-physiological and productivity characteristics of four genotypes of five years old guava (Psidium guajava L.) trees, grown under hot-arid zone of Rajasthan. Preliminary investigation indicated that all four cultivars of guava could survive except merely 10.0% field mortality in guava cv. L-49. The maximum increase in plant height (25.93%) and number of new leaves/branch (4.66) over six months of planting were recorded in Sweta, followed by Lalit, while during fruiting (August for rainy season guava) highest number of new shoot sprouts/branch was found in Allahabad Safeda, followed by Sweta. Lalit and Sweta also produced substantial number of new leaves/branch during fruiting, than the other cultivars. Chlorophyll a (Chla), chlorophyll b (Chlb) and total chlorophyll (Chltotal) contents were highest in L-49, followed by Lalit. The leaves produced on Sweta received lesser photosynthetically active radiations (PAR) but had highest leaf area (80.91 cm2), specific leaf area (SLA; 36.61 cm2/g) and relative water content (RWC; 60.19%). Although L-49 had thicker leaves (lowest SLA; 33. 29 cm2/g), indicating better adaptation towards resource poor environment but other cultivars of guava also had SLA at par among other three cultivars. Allahabad Safeda received maximum PAR (1066 μE/m2/s), also had highest internal CO2 concentration (Ci; 207.76 μmol/mol), while highest net photosynthesis rate (PN; 10.84 μmol CO2/m2/s), carboxylation efficiency (CE) and water use efficiency (WUE) were observed in Lalit. Guava cv. L-49, however, showed lowest PN (6.31 μmol C02/m2/s), Ci, WUE, transpiration rate (E) and CE. Thus, guava cultivars Sweta followed by Lalit performed better under hot-arid environment with better growth and physiological adaptation. L-49 was not found suitable for the area. © 2017, Indian Council of Agricultural Research. All rights reserved.


Jatav M.K.,ICAR Central Institute for Arid Horticulture | Sharma B.D.,ICAR Central Institute for Arid Horticulture | Samadia D.K.,ICAR Central Institute for Arid Horticulture | Meena S.R.,ICAR Central Institute for Arid Horticulture
Annals of Arid Zone | Year: 2016

The field experiment was conducted at Central Institute of Arid Horticulture (CIAH), research farm with popular kachari cultivars AHK119 during 2015 in the kharif season to investigate the effect of different sources of nitrogen on kachari performance. Different source of N showed significant effect on growth attributes, as well as yield and nutrients uptake by kachari. 80 kg N ha1 through neem coated urea as spilt application proved to be more effective in terms of growth attributes, kachari yield, nutrients uptake and recoveries. Neem coated urea application was more superior than calcium nitrate and urea.


Krishna H.,ICAR Central Institute of Temperate Horticulture Regional Station | Krishna H.,ICAR Central Institute for Arid Horticulture | Attri B.L.,ICAR Central Institute of Temperate Horticulture Regional Station | Kumar A.,ICAR Central Institute of Temperate Horticulture Regional Station | Ahmed N.,ICAR Central Institute of Temperate Horticulture
Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge | Year: 2016

Sufficient evidences of the health benefits of wild edible fruits and their proven role in human nutrition are available. A number of wild but potentially commercialized fruits are existing in Himalayan regions of India such as red fruited ‘bayberry’ (Myrica esculenta Buch. Ham. ex D. Don) and ‘Yellow Himalayan Raspberry’ (Rubus ellipticus Smith), are amongst highly valued edible fruits. It would be advantageous to assess the antioxidant properties of these plants for possible use in the elaboration of functional foods or for consideration as potential sources of natural antioxidants. In this study, total carotenoids, flavanol, total flavonoids, O-dihydric phenol, total phenolics and total antioxidant capacity (measured by CUPRAC method) of underutilized fruit crops bayberry and yellow Himalayan raspberry based health beverages (ready-to-serve, RTS) stored at 5±2 °C for 10 weeks, were investigated. After the first two weeks in refrigerated storage, the RTSs showed an increase in total phenolics and total antioxidant capacity. However, at the end of the 10-week storage period, all RTSs exhibited a significant decline in total phenolics and total antioxidant capacity. However, total carotenoids appeared to be less affected during storage compared with the other antioxidants. © 2016, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All rights reserved.


Jatav M.K.,ICAR Central Institute for Arid Horticulture | Sharma B.D.,ICAR Central Institute for Arid Horticulture | Samadia D.K.,ICAR Central Institute for Arid Horticulture | Meena S.R.,ICAR Central Institute for Arid Horticulture
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2016

The results showed that under hot arid agro-climate where soil is low in organic matter and available plant nutrients are of great importance in increasing yield by the balanced plant nutrients supply in Kachri (Cucumis callosus). It may concluded that combined application of 50% recommended dose of NPK (40 kg N+20 kg of P2O2 +20 K2O) along with 15 tonnes/ha FYM (in channel) gave higher yield (113.08 q/ha). Besides more yield, this treatment also showed increasing efficiency, net return and B: C ratio.


Choudhary B.R.,ICAR Central Institute for Arid Horticulture | Pandey S.,ICAR Central Institute for Arid Horticulture | Rao E.S.,ICAR Central Institute for Arid Horticulture | Sharma S.K.,ICAR Central Institute for Arid Horticulture
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2015

The present study was carried out for morphological characterization of twelve reference varieties of muskmelon (Cucumis melo L.) collected from ICAR institutes and SAUs to validate DUS testing guidelines using plant descriptors adopted from the DUS guidelines of PPV and FRA. Among 34 morphological characters studied, 19 were visually assessed and 15 were measured. The fruit shape in longitudinal section was expressed as ovate (MHY 5), elongated globe (Arka Rajhans), oblate (GMM 3, Kashi Madhu) and obovate (Durgapura Madhu). The rind colour of fruit have been grouped as yellow (Kashi Madhu), yellow green (Durgapura Madhu) and orange (Arka Jeet). The sutures on fruit surface were found to be absent in Arka Jeet, MHY 3 and present in Hara Madhu, Kashi Madhu varieties. With respect to netting on fruit surface the varieties have been grouped as absent of netting (Arka Jeet, MHY 5) and moderate netting (RM 50, Punjab Sunehri). The flesh colour was expressed as creamish white (Arka Jeet), grey orange (GMM 3), yellowish green (Durgapura Madhu), green (Hara Madhu) and orange (Kashi Madhu). Under results, no intra-varietal variation was observed for any of the visual characteristics examined. Further, the expression of characters in different varieties remained same for the three consecutive years confirming the uniformity and stability of the varieties for visual characteristics. The varieties were grouped into different categories for each character based on 34 descriptors which may be used as reference varieties. Identified 6 traits as grouping traits, viz. sex expression (at full flowering), fruit shape in longitudinal section, rind colour of fruit, sutures on rind, surface netting of fruit and fruit flesh colour. The morphological characterization of extant varieties was completed to establish distinctness of the candidate variety from all other varieties to utilize these varieties as reference material for protection of other varieties under PPV&FR Act.


Meena S.R.,ICAR Central Institute for Arid Horticulture | Singh R.S.,ICAR Central Institute for Arid Horticulture | Sharma B.D.,ICAR Central Institute for Arid Horticulture | Singh D.,ICAR Central Institute for Arid Horticulture
Indian Journal of Traditional Knowledge | Year: 2016

The present study was conducted in five major districts fall under the Thar desert of the Rajasthan, India namely; Bikaner, Naguar, Churu, Jodhpur and Jaisalmer district during the years 2010-2013. The objective of the study was to evaluate the most favourite and traditional cucurbitaceous vegetables and their utilization pattern for nourishment and sustenance of the dwellers in these districts. A total of 270 respondents (farmers) were selected to get intended information and to draw the desirable inferences of the study. During the study, it was found that kachari (Cucumis callosus Rott. Cong.), snap melon (Cucumis melo var. momordica), mateera loia (Citrullus lanatus Thunb.), round melon (Citrullus vulgaris var. fistulous) were the most favourite traditional cucurbitaceous vegetables which were grown and used by 67-100% farmers of the selected districts of the Thar desert as fresh or in the form of value added products throughout the year. These vegetables were mainly grown during the rainy season under mixed cropping system extensively and as sole crops at small scale. The farmers who had irrigation facilities grew these vegetables as sole crops at small scale during summer season also. These vegetables were mostly used freshly for preparation of vegetable in current season and various value added products were also prepared from the same for utilization in future in different forms. The major value added products of these vegetables prepared were: dehydrated slice/pieces/nuggets, pickle, fried chutney, dry chutney, powder, juices, hajmola, squash, jam, papadi, shek, cold drinks, sweets, rousted seeds, highly nutritive magaj (kernels of seeds), mateera oil, rayata, magaj laddu, etc. The respondents of the Thar desert got substantial income from above vegetables and value added products of the same. These vegetables also play a vital role as source of traditional herbal medicine to cure several diseases and health problems of the respondent (farmers) in Thar desert areas of the western Rajasthan. © 2016, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All rights reserved.


Sivalingam P.N.,ICAR Central Institute for Arid Horticulture | Sivalingam P.N.,ICAR National Institute of Biotic Stress Management | Samadia D.K.,ICAR Central Institute for Arid Horticulture | Singh D.,ICAR Central Institute for Arid Horticulture | Chauhan S.,ICAR Central Institute for Arid Horticulture
Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology | Year: 2016

Prosopis cineraria (L.) Druce, commonly called khejri, is an important multipurpose, leguminous tree of the Thar Desert. ‘Thar Shoba’ is a variety of khejri without thorns which was developed as a vegetable. In order to develop markers for varietal identification, 80 RAPD primers were tested, of which nine were polymorphic between ‘Thar Shoba’ and trees in a natural population of khejri. Phenetic analysis revealed that ‘Thar Shoba’ formed a separate cluster from the natural population with similarity coefficients of 0.57-0.78. The 10-mer primers OPBE05, OPBA13, OPA12, and OPA14 were each found to differentiate ‘Thar Shoba’ from the natural population by one amplicon. These differential amplicons were sequenced and SCAR markers were developed based on the sequences that differentiated ‘Thar Shoba’ from the natural population. Natural populations of khejri from different regions of the Thar Desert, and clonally multiplied ‘Thar Shoba’ plants in the ICAR-CIAH bud-wood genebank, were used to validate these primers. These markers will be useful in further developing the bud-wood genebank, and for certification, identification, and protection of the khejri variety ‘Thar Shoba’. © 2016 The Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology Trust.


Maheshwari S.K.,ICAR Central Institute for Arid Horticulture | Choudhary B.R.,ICAR Central Institute for Arid Horticulture | Singh D.,ICAR Central Institute for Arid Horticulture | Sharma B.D.,ICAR Central Institute for Arid Horticulture | Sharma S.K.,ICAR Central Institute for Arid Horticulture
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2015

Cultivation of resistant or tolerant cultivars is one of the best options to minimize the losses due to diseases. Seventeen bottle gourd [Lagenaria siceraria (Mol.) Standl.] varieties/genotypes (Pusa Naveen, Pusa Samridhi, Udaipur Local, Pusa Santushti, Pusa Sandesh, PSPL, Chomu Local, Azad Harit, Panchmahal Local, Arka Bahar, Thar Samridhi, PN 22, DBG 5, DBG 6, Jodhpur Local, IC 567538 and Sriganganagar Local) were evaluated for resistance against Cercospora leaf spot during the rainy season of 2011 and 2012 under hot arid field conditions of Rajasthan. Among them, none was found immune or resistant, four varieties (Pusa Naveen, Pusa Santushti, Pusa Samridhi and Pusa Sandesh) were found to be moderately resistant and four (PSPL, Arka Bahar, PN22 and DBG6) were moderately susceptible and the remaining nine were susceptible.

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