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Khan A.A.,ICAR Central Avian Research Institute | Mishra S.K.,Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology | Narayan R.,Sher-e-Kashmir University of Agricultural Sciences and Technology
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences

A complete 4 × 4 diallel cross involving 4 quail populations, 2 of which possessed Pharao, plumage and other 2, White breasted and White plumage pattern was performed and the plumage colour of progeny in different crosses was recorded. The results indicated dominant nature of White breasted and the recessive nature of White feather colour mutations. The inheritance of plumage colours of Pharao, White breasted and White could be explained on the basis of two autosomal plumage color loci. Source

The aim of this study was to determine the activity of different domains of calpains and calpastatin in goat blood and tissue samples to understand their influence on ageing of meat during holding at 4 ± 1 °C. The enzymes were extracted and they were subjected to casein zymography analysis. Both these enzymes were purified and separated using anion exchange column chromatography, and their presence was confirmed by SDS-PAGE analysis. Casein Zymography results indicated the presence of μ- and m-calpains activity in both the sample extracts. However the band intensity kept decreasing with the increase of ageing time indicating the decrease in activity of these enzymes. The pH and Warner-Brazler Shear Force (WBSF) values were also decreased with the increase in ageing time while Lovibond tintometer colour, TBARS values, FFA contents and peroxide values were least affected. Thus, it was concluded that both these enzymes are present in the muscle sample but that were autolyzed with the increase of aging. The μ-calpain induced postmortem ageing time for Biceps femoris muscle of Jamunapari and Jhakrana breeds of goat was optimized at 72 h and 48 h respectively. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Dash S.K.,ICAR National Institute of High Security Animal Diseases | Kumar M.,ICAR National Institute of High Security Animal Diseases | Kataria J.M.,ICAR Central Avian Research Institute | Nagarajan S.,ICAR National Institute of High Security Animal Diseases | And 3 more authors.
Microbial Pathogenesis

Low pathogenic avian influenza H9N2 and highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses continue to co-circulate in chickens. Prior infection with low pathogenic avian influenza can modulate the outcome of H5N1 infection. In India, low pathogenic H9N2 and highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses are co-circulating in poultry. Herein, by using chickens with prior infection of A/chicken/India/04TI05/2012 (H9N2) virus we explored the outcome of infection with H5N1 virus A/turkey/India/10CA03/2012 natural PB1 gene reassortant from H9N2. Four groups (E1-E4) of SPF chickens (n = 6) prior inoculated with 106 EID50 of H9N2 virus were challenged with 106 EID50 of H5N1 natural reassortant (PB1-H9N2) virus at days 1 (group E1); 3 (group E2); 7 (group E3) and 14 (group E4) post H9N2 inoculation. The survival percentage in groups E1-E4 was 0, 100, 66.6 and 50%, respectively. Virus shedding periods for groups E1-E4 were 3, 4, 7 and 9 days, respectively post H5N1 challenge. Birds of group E1 and E2 were shedding both H9N2 and H5N1 viruses and mean viral RNA copy number was higher in oropharyngeal swabs than cloacal swabs. In group, E3 and E4 birds excreted only H5N1 virus and mean viral RNA copy number was higher in most cloacal swabs than oral swabs. These results indicate that prior infection with H9N2 virus could protect from lethal challenge of reassortant H5N1 virus as early as with three days prior H9N2 inoculation and protection decreased in groups E3 and E4 as time elapsed. However, prior infection with H9N2 did not prevent infection with H5N1 virus and birds continue to excrete virus in oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs. Amino acid substitution K368E was found in HA gene of excreted H5N1 virus of group E3. Hence, concurrent infection can also cause emergence of viruses with mutations leading to virus evolution. The results of this study are important for the surveillance and epidemiological data analysis where both H9N2 and H5N1 viruses are co-circulating. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Rana P.,Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University | Prajapati C.,ICAR Central Avian Research Institute | Saini A.,Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University | Sharma M.,Guru Angad Dev Veterinary and Animal Sciences University
Journal of Applied Animal Research

Twenty four beetal kids were assessed through immunoglobulin supplementation from different sources by assessment of haematological profiles and serum biochemistry. The kids were randomly distributed and supplemented through immunoglobulin from four different sources i.e. natural milk (C0), natural colostrum (C1), artificial colostrums (C2) and dam's serum (C3). C1 and C0 acted as positive and negative control, respectively, whereas, C2 and C3 acted as treatment groups. Up to five days, kids of C0, C1 and C2 received the same at 10% of their body weight. Kids of C3 received their dam's serum at 5ml/day through subcutaneous route. After five days, all kids received milk up to 90 days along with creep feed and green fodder from 15th days onwards. Blood from each kid was collected from jugular vein on day 0, 6th, 15th, 30th, 60th and 90th days for analysis of haematological and biochemical profiles. There was no effect of different Ig sources on different haematological and biochemical profiles except lymphocytes and neutrophils. Though neutrophils and lymphocytes differed significantly (P < 0.05) among groups, they were within normal range. From immunoglobulin point of view artificial colostrum and dam's serum proved to be as equal as natural colostrum. Furthermore, dam's serum may be a good alternative to natural colostrums if not available. © 2015 Taylor & Francis Source

Prabakar G.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | Gopi M.,ICAR Central Avian Research Institute | Karthik K.,TANUVAS | Shanmuganathan S.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Asian Journal of Animal and Veterinary Advances

The ever increasing consumer’s awareness and their concern over the presence of antibiotic residues in poultry products necessitate looking for an alternative to antibiotic growth promoters. Among the numerous alternatives like probiotics, prebiotics, acidifiers, the plant origin compound attracts more interest than else. The phytochemicals consists of various natural products that may be nutritional, non-nutritional or anti-nutritional in nature. These phyto-chemicals also act as an antibacterial, antiviral, antifungal, antioxidant, digestive stimulant, immune-modulator, hypo-lipidemic agent and also heat stress alleviator. A compound of multi-functional can be considered as additive in animal production system. Their anti-oxidant activity and hypo-lipidemic property of these plant derived compounds will be attributed for the improvement of shelf-life of various animal or poultry products. Their hypolipidemic properties are used in production of lean meat production. These phytobiotics also impart readily acceptable flavour to the products especially meat and eggs. They aid in digestive process by stimulating the digestive secretions throughout the gastro-intestinal tract thereby increasing the overall digestibility of the nutrients and reduce the environmental pollution. Moreover, these botanical products are becoming more prominent in insect and pest control strategies due to their availability and cost. With their wide range of activities, these phytobiotics will go to be a new group of feed additives for better growth rather than simply as another alternate to in-feed antibiotics in food production industry. © 2016 Govinthasamy Prabakar et al. Source

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