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The aim of this study was to determine the activity of different domains of calpains and calpastatin in goat blood and tissue samples to understand their influence on ageing of meat during holding at 4 ± 1 °C. The enzymes were extracted and they were subjected to casein zymography analysis. Both these enzymes were purified and separated using anion exchange column chromatography, and their presence was confirmed by SDS-PAGE analysis. Casein Zymography results indicated the presence of μ- and m-calpains activity in both the sample extracts. However the band intensity kept decreasing with the increase of ageing time indicating the decrease in activity of these enzymes. The pH and Warner-Brazler Shear Force (WBSF) values were also decreased with the increase in ageing time while Lovibond tintometer colour, TBARS values, FFA contents and peroxide values were least affected. Thus, it was concluded that both these enzymes are present in the muscle sample but that were autolyzed with the increase of aging. The μ-calpain induced postmortem ageing time for Biceps femoris muscle of Jamunapari and Jhakrana breeds of goat was optimized at 72 h and 48 h respectively. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


Yadav A.S.,ICAR Central Avian Research Institute | Saxena G.K.,ICAR Central Avian Research Institute | Saxena V.K.,ICAR Central Avian Research Institute | Kataria J.M.,ICAR Central Avian Research Institute | Juneja V.K.,Residue Chemistry and Predictive Microbiology
Food Control | Year: 2016

Salmonella is a leading cause of foodborne illness and live poultry is a main reservoir of this pathogen, worldwide. Cross-contamination and transportation of contaminated poultry meat act as an important vehicle of Salmonella infections in humans. In this study, we assessed the effect of two antimicrobials; acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) and carvacrol followed by thermal treatment to inactivate Salmonella Typhimurium on dressed chicken skin. D-values (time in min for the pathogen to decrease by 90%) of Salmonella Typhimurium at 56, 60 and 64 °C on dressed chicken skin in the control samples, determined by linear regression, were 6.17, 3.16, 1.32 min, respectively. Two D-values calculated using a logistic model, ranged from 6.28 (D1, major population, plus TL) and 11.66 (D2, heat-resistant subpopulation, plus TL) min at 56 °C to 1.08 (D1 plus TL), and 2.07 (D2 plus TL) min at 64 °C. Pre-dipping in 100-300 ppm ASC or 0.02-0.06% carvacrol rendered the pathogen more sensitive to the lethal effect of heat. Thus, combination of antimicrobials with thermal inactivation was more effective in reducing heat resistance of the pathogen on dressed chicken surface. The model developed will assist poultry processors in estimating the time required for specific log reductions of Salmonella Typhimurium on chicken skin and thus, will contribute in designing acceptance limits at critical control points for chicken skins at lower times and temperatures for cooking. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.


Kundu A.,ICAR Central Avian Research Institute | Singh D.P.,ICAR Central Avian Research Institute | Mohapatra S.C.,ICAR Central Avian Research Institute
Indian Journal of Animal Sciences | Year: 2016

Birds (433) of both sexes developed from 8 genetically diverse lines of chickens like Aseel, Kadakanath, Naked Neck and Frizzle fowl along with imported breeds Dahlem Red, White Leghorn, Synthetic Dan Line broiler (SDL) and Naked Neck broiler (NNB) were evaluated for immunocompetence traits, viz. haemagglutinin test (HA), mercaptoethanol resistant (MER or IgG), classical pathway (CPW) and alternate pathway (APW) response to sheep red blood cells (SRBCs) at 0, 5, 12 and 19 days post immunization (pi), CMI response (as foot index against PHA-P), phagocytic index (PI) using carbon clearance test. Per cent mortality was also recorded based on whole hatch from which sample birds were drawn for each group from 0-20 weeks of age. Based on the results of immunocompetence traits, a scoring index was formed and various genotypes were ranked. Dahlem Red exhibited highest HA response followed by indigenous breeds. SDL broilers and White Leghorns ranked lowest for HA response. Dahlem Red excelled all other genetic stocks for IgG, FI and only next in order to Aseel and Kadakanath for CPW and APW. The index was constructed giving equal weightage to each of the traits. Broilers and White Leghorns, which ranked lowest, exhibited highest mortality. © 2016, Indian Council of Agricultural Research. All rights reserved.


Karuppasamy K.,ICAR Central Avian Research Institute | Yadav A.S.,ICAR Central Avian Research Institute | Saxena G.K.,ICAR Central Avian Research Institute
Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2015

Thermal inactivation of normal and starved cells of Salmonella Enteritidis on chicken skin previously exposed to different concentrations of acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) or tri-sodium phosphate (TSP) was investigated. Inoculated skin was pretreated with different concentration of ASC or TSP, packaged in bags, and then immersed in a circulating water bath at 60 to 68 °C. The recovery medium was Hektoen enteric agar. D-values, determined by linear regression, for normal cells on chicken skin, were 2.79, 1.17 and 0.53 min whereas D-values for starved cells were 4.15, 1.83 and 0.66 at 60, 64 and 68 °C, respectively. z-values for normal cells were 3.54 and for starved cells were 2.29. Pretreatment of Salmonella Enteritidis cells with 0 to 200 ppm of ASC or 0 to 1.0 % TSP resulted in lower D-values at all temperatures. Sensory results indicated no significance differences for control and treatments. Thus, results of this study indicated that pretreatment of chicken skin with ASC or TSP increased sensitivity of Salmonella Enteritidis to heat without affecting organoleptic quality of chicken meat. © 2015 Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India)


PubMed | Indian Veterinary Research Institute and ICAR Central Avian Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Zoo biology | Year: 2016

This experiment was conducted to evaluate the effects of feeding different levels of green forages on feed consumption, nutrient and mineral utilization in Golden pheasants (GP). Twenty-seven female GP (BW 617-635g) were randomly distributed into three groups of nine birds each in an experiment based on completely randomized design (CRD). Birds in group T


PubMed | Indian Veterinary Research Institute and ICAR Central Avian Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Veterinary quarterly | Year: 2016

Capillariasis, an important parasitic disease of birds is caused at least by seven different genera of trichurid nematodes with clinical outcome ranging from mild enteritis to high mortality.This study was aimed to investigate the causative agent involved in high mortality associated with severe enteric illness among turkey flocks in an organized commercial poultry farm at Bareilly, India.Turkey carcasses (n = 119) and fecal samples from the affected deep litter pen constituted as the study materials. The disease was investigated by systematic necropsy, direct microscopy and histopathology. Representative samples were screened for other enteric pathogens.Microscopic examination of mucosal scraping revealed capillarid worms and their eggs in all the samples. The morphological features of adult worms were typically consistent to Baruscapillaria obsignata. Histopathology exhibited thickened muscular and mucosal layers, mononuclear and heterophilic infiltration in the lamina propria, blunting and clubbing of villi, epithelial denudation and sections of capillarid worms. Administration of levamisole at 80ppm in drinking water reduced the mortality, clinical illness and worm load after three days of therapy.The capillarid worms in different avian hosts can cause different clinical manifestations and outcomes. From India, this is the first report describing intestinal pathology caused by B. obsignata in turkeys. We conclude that the B. obsignata infection is capable of causing life threatening enteropathy in turkeys and, hence, routine screening, scheduled deworming and good litter management are crucial to control the infection and its associated loss.


PubMed | ICAR National Institute of High Security Animal Diseases and ICAR Central Avian Research Institute
Type: | Journal: Microbial pathogenesis | Year: 2016

Low pathogenic avian influenza H9N2 and highly pathogenic avian influenza H5N1 viruses continue to co-circulate in chickens. Prior infection with low pathogenic avian influenza can modulate the outcome of H5N1 infection. In India, low pathogenic H9N2 and highly pathogenic H5N1 avian influenza viruses are co-circulating in poultry. Herein, by using chickens with prior infection of A/chicken/India/04TI05/2012 (H9N2) virus we explored the outcome of infection with H5N1 virus A/turkey/India/10CA03/2012 natural PB1 gene reassortant from H9N2. Four groups (E1-E4) of SPF chickens (n=6) prior inoculated with 10(6) EID50 of H9N2 virus were challenged with 10(6) EID50 of H5N1 natural reassortant (PB1-H9N2) virus at days 1 (group E1); 3 (group E2); 7 (group E3) and 14 (group E4) post H9N2 inoculation. The survival percentage in groups E1-E4 was 0, 100, 66.6 and 50%, respectively. Virus shedding periods for groups E1-E4 were 3, 4, 7 and 9 days, respectively post H5N1 challenge. Birds of group E1 and E2 were shedding both H9N2 and H5N1 viruses and mean viral RNA copy number was higher in oropharyngeal swabs than cloacal swabs. In group, E3 and E4 birds excreted only H5N1 virus and mean viral RNA copy number was higher in most cloacal swabs than oral swabs. These results indicate that prior infection with H9N2 virus could protect from lethal challenge of reassortant H5N1 virus as early as with three days prior H9N2 inoculation and protection decreased in groups E3 and E4 as time elapsed. However, prior infection with H9N2 did not prevent infection with H5N1 virus and birds continue to excrete virus in oropharyngeal and cloacal swabs. Amino acid substitution K368E was found in HA gene of excreted H5N1 virus of group E3. Hence, concurrent infection can also cause emergence of viruses with mutations leading to virus evolution. The results of this study are important for the surveillance and epidemiological data analysis where both H9N2 and H5N1 viruses are co-circulating.


PubMed | ICAR Central Avian Research Institute
Type: | Journal: Scientifica | Year: 2016

Indigenous/native breeds of chickens are playing an important role in rural economies in most of the developing and underdeveloped countries. They play a major role for the rural poor and marginalised section of the people with respect to their subsidiary income and also provide them with nutritious chicken egg and meat for their own consumption. Performance of native fowl can be improved by change in husbandry, feeding, and better health cover. However, genetic improvement may be made either through selection and crossbreeding or by utilisation of both selection and crossbreeding. Improvement through selection may be time consuming but the improvement will be permanent. Through crossbreeding improvement may be faster but research has to aim for the production of native-type birds with higher production potential. In the present review efforts have been made to present the importance of native fowl to rural economy and their improvement for higher production performance.


The aim of this study was to develop a simple, specific and rapid analytical method for accurate identification of calpain and calpastatin from chicken blood and muscle samples. The method is based on liquid-liquid extraction technique followed by casein Zymography detection. The target compounds were extracted from blood and meat samples by tris buffer, and purified and separated on anion exchange chromatography. It has been observed that buffer (pH 6.7) containing 50 mM tris-base appears to be excellent extractant as activity of analytes was maximum for all samples. The concentrations of -, m-calpain and calpastatin detected in the extracts of blood, breast and thigh samples were 0.28-0.55, 1.91-2.05 and 1.38-1.52 Unit/g, respectively. For robustness, the analytical method was applied to determine the activity of calpains ( and m) in eighty postmortem muscle samples. It has been observed that -calpain activity in breast and thigh muscles declined very rapidly at 48 h and 24 h, respectively while activity of m-calpain remained stable. Shear force values were also declined with the increase of post-mortem aging showing the presence of ample tenderness of breast and thigh muscles. Finally, it is concluded that the method standardized for the detection of calpain and calpastatin has the potential to be applied to identify post-mortem aging of chicken meat samples.


PubMed | ICAR Central Avian Research Institute
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Journal of food science and technology | Year: 2015

Thermal inactivation of normal and starved cells of Salmonella Enteritidis on chicken skin previously exposed to different concentrations of acidified sodium chlorite (ASC) or tri-sodium phosphate (TSP) was investigated. Inoculated skin was pretreated with different concentration of ASC or TSP, packaged in bags, and then immersed in a circulating water bath at 60 to 68C. The recovery medium was Hektoen enteric agar. D-values, determined by linear regression, for normal cells on chicken skin, were 2.79, 1.17 and 0.53min whereas D-values for starved cells were 4.15, 1.83 and 0.66 at 60, 64 and 68C, respectively. z-values for normal cells were 3.54 and for starved cells were 2.29. Pretreatment of Salmonella Enteritidis cells with 0 to 200ppm of ASC or 0 to 1.0% TSP resulted in lower D-values at all temperatures. Sensory results indicated no significance differences for control and treatments. Thus, results of this study indicated that pretreatment of chicken skin with ASC or TSP increased sensitivity of Salmonella Enteritidis to heat without affecting organoleptic quality of chicken meat.

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