ICAAM Institute Ciencias Agrarias e Ambientais Mediterranicas

ICAAM Institute Ciencias Agrarias e Ambientais Mediterranicas

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Martins N.,ICAAM Institute Ciencias Agrarias e Ambientais Mediterranicas | Carreiro E.P.,University of Évora | Simoes M.,University of Évora | Burke A.J.,University of Évora | Garcia R.,ICAAM Institute Ciencias Agrarias e Ambientais Mediterranicas
Reactive and Functional Polymers | Year: 2014

This study concerns the first attempt to prepare molecularly imprinted polymers for the selective recognition of dimethoate using an iniferter polymerization technique (Inif-MIP). The synthesized polymers were fully characterized. SEM micrographs show a large accessibility to the binding sites with a significant improvement in MIP morphology. Inif-MIPs displayed high adsorption capacity (Q = 5.3 mg g-1). The selectivity of this imprinting system was also assessed by means of cross-selectivity assays and the results obtained show that Inif-MIP displays a high selectivity for dimethoate, whereas some structural analogues (omethoate, malathion and methidathion) are poorly retained (6.3-28.7%) or not retained at all (fenthion). Inif-MISPE methodology was implemented by packing Inif-MIPs particles into a Solid Phase Extraction (SPE) cartridge and the loading, washing and eluting steps were optimized. The suitability of this sample preparation technique was demonstrated, as concentrations of dimethoate close to the tolerated maximum residue limits in the olive oil samples could be satisfactorily analyzed with good precision and accuracy. Some remarkable characteristics, like the sorbent reusability (at least 20 cycles without the lost of selectivity), low solvent consumption, reduced sample handling and, moreover higher recovery rates reaching 88% could be ascribed to the Inif-MISPE methodology. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Almeida M.,University of Évora | Azeda C.,University of Évora | Guiomar N.,University of Évora | Pinto-Correia T.,ICAAM Institute Ciencias Agrarias e Ambientais Mediterranicas
Agroforestry Systems | Year: 2016

The Portuguese silvo-pastoral system montado is broadly classified as a High Nature Value (HNV) system since it corresponds to farmland hosting high biodiversity levels, and such biodiversity depends on specific land use practices. However, in recent decades a decline both in the total montado area and in the tree cover density within the montado has been observed, driven mainly by management changes. This decline may result in biodiversity loss. Grazing is a central aspect determining the long-term sustainability of the montado system and it has implications also on the montado structural diversity, particularly on connectivity and heterogeneity, which is crucial for the maintenance of montado HNV. The aim of this paper is to demonstrate how variations in montado structural diversity are correlated with grazing management and its implications on the value of the system for conservation. The empirical data derives from a case study composed of 41 montado farms in two municipalities of the Alentejo region. Data on grazing management, biophysical and spatial factors were collected and several metrics were calculated to assess montado fragmentation and heterogeneity. A multivariate analysis was performed using generalized additive models. Results show that different grazing patterns, depending on stocking density and grazing animal type, are correlated with variations in montado fragmentation and heterogeneity. Particularly, cattle’s grazing is shown to have adverse effects on the montado fragmentation, while sheep grazing is shown to have stronger impacts on the heterogeneity within the montado patches. © 2015, Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Shahidian S.,ICAAM Institute Ciencias Agrarias e Ambientais Mediterranicas | Serralheiro R.P.,ICAAM Institute Ciencias Agrarias e Ambientais Mediterranicas | Serrano J.,ICAAM Institute Ciencias Agrarias e Ambientais Mediterranicas | Teixeira J.L.,University of Lisbon
Hydrological Processes | Year: 2013

The Hargreaves-Samani (HS) evapotranspiration equation is very useful for the on-site irrigation management in data-short situations such as small and midsize farms and landscaped areas. Although much work has been performed to improve the precision of the evapotranspiration (ETo) estimates for use at new locations, the results have not been consistent and many have not been confirmed by other works. The purpose of this study was to review and to evaluate the seven most promising parameters used for the calibration of the HS evapotranspiration equation, using two different regions: California and Bolivia. The results of this study show that annual correlations between HS and Penman-Monteith can be misleading because the correlation is poor in the humid months and improves progressively along the dry season until the first rains. The average monthly wind speed can be used for both spatial and seasonal calibration of the HS equation, especially during the irrigation season. Elevation and precipitation can be used to calibrate the HS equation when no reference ETo values are available at nearby stations. The monthly value of KT calculated from solar radiation follows a parabolic function along the year and should not be used for improving the estimates of the HS equation because the clearness index produces better results than actual solar radiation measurements. The results also indicate that the use of distance to coast, temperature range and temperature parameter does not improve the precision of the HS equation. © 2012 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Fernandes J.P.,ICAAM Institute Ciencias Agrarias e Ambientais Mediterranicas | Fernandes J.P.,University of Évora | Guiomar N.,ICAAM Institute Ciencias Agrarias e Ambientais Mediterranicas | Guiomar N.,University of Évora | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Science and Policy | Year: 2015

The present paper addresses the conservation planning and management issues of terrestrial ecosystems with particular insight to small islands (with examples of application in the Macaronesian archipelagos of Cape Verde, Canaries, Madeira and Azores). It analyses specific conservation planning and management approaches and proposes concrete characterization and evaluation frameworks able to support decision and management processes ensuring an active and participative involvement of all concerned stakeholders. These methodological perspectives involve not only new paradigmatic approaches to the process of characterization and evaluation of environmental elements and processes as well as their use and disturbance through land use, but also regarding the individual and collective perspectives regarding benefice and supporting management behaviours. Some examples from islands of the Macaronesian archipelagos, in particular Pico in the archipelago of Azores and Santiago in the Cape Verde archipelago, are used to illustrate some possible management approaches, involving the consideration of the entire island as a conservation object and mobilizing their actors (individuals, groups, administrations or other organizations) as conscious, participative stakeholders. These examples involve possible land use and management changes and trade-off processes specific to each island that are listed and explained. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Hernandez-Castellano L.E.,University of Bern | Ferreira A.M.,ITQB UNL Institute Tecnologia Quimica e Biologica | Ferreira A.M.,ICAAM Institute Ciencias Agrarias e Ambientais Mediterranicas | Nanni P.,ETH Zurich | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Proteomics | Year: 2016

Seasonal weight loss (SWL) is a significant limitation to animal production. Breeds that have evolved in harsh climates have acquired tolerance to SWL through selection. Herein, label free proteomics was used to characterize the effects of SWL in two goat breeds with different levels of adaptation to nutritional stress: Majorera (tolerant) and Palmera (susceptible). Nine Majorera and 10 Palmera dairy goats were used, divided in 4 sets, 2 for each breed: underfed and a control group: Majorera Control (MC), Palmera Control (PC), Majorera Restricted (ME) and Palmera Restricted (PE). At day 22, mammary gland biopsy samples were obtained. Label free proteomic analysis enabled the identification of over 1000 proteins, of which 96 showed differential expression between two of the groups within studied comparisons. Majorera breed showed higher expression of immune system related proteins. In contrast, Palmera breed showed higher expression of proteins related to apoptosis. Results indicate that the two goat breeds have a distinct metabolism reaction to SWL, and that proteins related to the immune system and apoptosis such as cadherin-13, collagen alpha-1, nidogen-2, clusterin and protein s100-A8 could be considered putative candidates as markers of tolerance to SWL. Biological significance: Seasonal weight loss (SWL) is one of the major constraints to animal production in the tropics. We compared the proteomics profiles of two dairy goat breeds with different levels of tolerance to SWL under control and feed restriction conditions using label free proteomics. We have identified over 1000 proteins in the goat mammary gland, of which 96 showed differential expression. Despite the fact that both breeds showed a decrease in the number of proteins related to protein, carbohydrates and fat biosynthesis, the tolerant breed showed higher expression of immune system related proteins compared to the susceptible breed. On the contrary, the susceptible breed had higher expression of apoptosis related proteins indicating that both breeds reacted differently to weight loss and that proteins related to the immune system and apoptosis such as cadherin-13, collagen alpha 1, nidogen-2 or clusterin may be suggested as markers of tolerance to SWL. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Simoes M.P.,Icaam Institute Ciencias Agrarias E Ambientais Mediterranicas | Simoes M.P.,University of Évora | Belo A.F.,Icaam Institute Ciencias Agrarias E Ambientais Mediterranicas | Belo A.F.,University of Évora | And 4 more authors.
Spanish Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2014

The combined impact of soil tillage intensification and expansion of olive farming is resulting in soil degradation and biodiversity decline. We hypothesized that, instead of tilling, mowing to control the natural vegetation in spring can increase biodiversity and improve soil quality. We compared the effects of natural vegetation mowing (NVM) with those of tillage (NVT) on plant community composition and cover, soil water content and resistance to penetration, and olive yield over an 8-year period, in a Mediterranean rainfed olive orchard. NVM had an average of 28 more species and showed a strong positive correlation with Poaceae and Fabaceae, and also with geophytes and hemicryptophytes. In contrast, NVT was negatively correlated with species richness and diversity, with perennial life forms, and positively correlated with Convolvulaceae. Proportions of grass and straw cover in spring were higher in NVM from the beginning of the study (average difference was about 20%). In autumn, grass cover became higher in NVM than in NVT from year five (13% more) and straw cover from year two (30% more). Olive production did not differ between treatments in any of the years. Soil water was higher in NVM, at both soil depths, particularly in mid-summer and after the first autumn rains (1 to 2%). Soil resistance to penetration was 1 Mpa higher in NVM than in NVT. As compared to conventional tillage, natural vegetation cover mowed in spring seems to be an effective management practice to improve the overall rainfed olive orchard biodiversity and soil quality, without affecting production.

Caldeira I.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigacao Agraria E Veterinaria | Caldeira I.,ICAAM Institute Ciencias Agrarias e Ambientais Mediterranicas | Belchior A.P.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigacao Agraria E Veterinaria | Canas S.,Instituto Nacional Of Investigacao Agraria E Veterinaria | Canas S.,ICAAM Institute Ciencias Agrarias e Ambientais Mediterranicas
Ciencia e Tecnica Vitivinicola | Year: 2013

The wine brandies, as other alcoholic beverages, must be kept for several months (minimum of six months according to the European legislation) in wooden barrels, in order to achieve the minimum quality, before its consumption. However, the high costs related to ageing in wooden barrels have lead to the search of alternative technologies, such as the use of wood fragments, in order to accelerate the ageing process. In this work, the same wine brandy from Lourinhã was used to fill wooden barrels and stainless steel tanks with wood tablets or wood staves. These three ageing systems were studied with Limousin oak wood (Quercus robur L.) and Portuguese chestnut wood (Castanea sativa Mill.), with two replicates of each modality. The brandies were evaluated by sensory descriptive analysis during a period of 30 months. Colour, olfactory and gustatory attributes, previously generated by the tasting panel, were analysed. The results showed a significant effect of the ageing system on few sensory attributes. However, the most discriminant factors were the wood botanical species and the ageing time, which affected significantly several sensory attributes. Concerning the ageing system, the brandies aged in the presence of wood tablets presented lower intensity of the attribute golden and higher intensities of the attributes topaz, greenish, toasted, flavour, complexity and persistence in comparison with brandies aged in wooden barrels. The brandies aged in the presence of wood staves presented an intermediate sensory profile. Nevertheless, the overall quality of the brandies is not affected by the ageing system. These results pointed out the interesting sensory attributes of the brandies obtained with the alternative ageing systems; therefore further research is needed in order to validate the use of these technologies in the ageing of wine brandy.

Pereira P.,ICAAM Institute Ciencias Agrarias e Ambientais Mediterranicas | Godinho C.,ICAAM Institute Ciencias Agrarias e Ambientais Mediterranicas | Gomes M.,ICAAM Institute Ciencias Agrarias e Ambientais Mediterranicas | Rabaca J.E.,ICAAM Institute Ciencias Agrarias e Ambientais Mediterranicas
Annals of Forest Science | Year: 2014

Context: The remaining riparian stretches are often the unique suitable habitats for forest breeding birds in Mediterranean landscapes undergoing long-term changes. Understanding the interactions between riparian zones and their surroundings is critical to establish successful management actions. Aims: We assessed the influence of surrounding matrix on riparian bird communities and the use of riparian galleries as surrogate habitats for the forest passerine communities of southwestern Iberia. Methods: We used point counts in three simultaneous sampling stations, one in the riparian gallery and two in the adjacent matrix. Three matrix types were selected with a decreasing tree density gradient: dense montado, sparse montado, and open agricultural areas. Data were analysed with redundancy analysis and differences in species' occurrences were tested with one-way ANOVA. Results: In riparian galleries, we found bird species belong to three ecological guilds: riparian, woodland, and edge guilds. The richness of bird guilds and the occurrence of some species depended on the surrounding matrix type. Riparian bird richness was constant in all surrounding matrices, woodland bird guild was richer in galleries embedded in dense montados, and edge guild in riparian galleries surrounded by sparse montados. Five among 19 assessed species were influenced by matrix type, within particular a few strictly riparian species. Species richness increased close to riparian galleries, due to the increase in habitat heterogeneity and resource availability for birds in densely vegetated riversides. However, the occurrence of some bird species differed according to the type of surrounding matrix. Conclusion: The matrix type explained most of the variance in riparian bird assemblages. Some woodland birds have used riparian galleries as surrogate habitat. Our study suggests that land use in the surrounding matrices must be taking into account for the management and rehabilitation of watercourses and bird conservation actions. © 2012 INRA / Springer-Verlag France.

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