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Dhaka, Bangladesh

Mohsena M.,Ibrahim Medical College | Goto R.,University of Cambridge | Mascie-Taylor C.G.N.,University of Cambridge
Journal of Biosocial Science | Year: 2016

The nutritional status of under-five-year-old children is a sensitive indicator of a country’s health status as well as economic condition. The objectives of this study were to analyse trends in the nutritional status in Bangladeshi children over the period 1996–2007 and to examine the associations between nutritional and socioeconomic status variables. Bangladesh Demographic Health Surveys (BDHS) were the source of data, and a total of 16,278 children were examined. The Z-scores of the children were analysed as continuous as well as categorical variables (stunted, underweight and wasted). The socioeconomic status variables used were region, urban–rural residence, education and occupation of the parents, house type and household possession score. A series of General Linear Model and Sequential Linear and Binary Logistic Regression analyses were done to assess the relationship between demographic and socioeconomic variables and nutritional status. The trends of Z-scores were analysed by survey, as well as by child birth cohort. Region, house type, educational level of parents and household possession score showed significant associations with all three Z-scores of children after removing the effects of age, period of DHS and other explanatory variables in the model. No significant sex difference was observed between any of the Z-scores. There were improvements in mean WAZ and HAZ between 1996 and 2007 but deterioration in mean WHZ over this period. The obesity rate was below 2% in 2007, although the absolute numbers of obese children had nearly doubled in this 12-year period. Children from poorer households showed greater improvement than their better-off counterparts. The study reveals that over the years there has been substantial improvement in nutritional status of under-five children in Bangladesh and the main gains have been amongst the lower socioeconomic groups; it is also evident that malnutrition in Bangladesh is a multidimensional problem, like poverty itself, and warrants a proper policy mix and programme intervention. Copyright © Cambridge University Press, 2016 Source

Mohsena M.,Ibrahim Medical College | Goto R.,University of Cambridge | Mascie-Taylor C.G.N.,University of Cambridge
Public Health Nutrition | Year: 2016

Objective To analyse trends in maternal nutritional status in Bangladesh over a 12-year period and to examine the associations between nutritional status and socio-economic variables. Design Maternal nutritional status indicators were height, weight and BMI. Socio-economic variables used were region, residency, education and occupation of the mothers and their husbands, house type, and possession score in the household. Setting Bangladesh Demographic and Health Surveys (1996, 2000, 2004 and 2007) were the source of data. Subjects A total of 16 278 mothers were included. Results All of the socio-economic variables showed significant associations with maternal nutritional status indicators. Regional variation was found to be present; all three indicators were found to be lowest in the Sylhet division. Upward trends in maternal height, weight and BMI were evident from no possessions to four possessions in households, and for no education to higher education of women and their husbands. Bangladeshi mothers measured in 2007 were found to be on average 0·34 cm taller and 3·36 kg heavier than mothers measured in 1996. Between 1996 and 2007 maternal underweight fell from nearly 50 % to just over 30 % while overweight and obesity increased from about 3 % to over 9 % (WHO cut-offs) or from 7 % to nearly 18 % (Asian cut-offs). Conclusions The study reveals that over the 12-year period in Bangladesh there has been a substantial reduction in maternal underweight accompanied by a considerable increase in obesity. It is also evident that malnutrition in Bangladesh is a multidimensional problem that warrants a proper policy mix and programme intervention. © Copyright 2015 The Authors. Source

Rahman M.T.,Ibrahim Medical College
Mymensingh medical journal : MMJ | Year: 2010

This light microscopic retrospective study of 798 cervical smear were done to see the pattern of cervical lesions and main presenting complaints of the women who attended the Gynae & Obstetrics department of BIRDEM hospital for medical and surgical advice. Out of these 798 smears examined light microscopically 274(34.34%) was normal, 453(54.26%) were inflammatory smear, 49(6.14%) showed Gardrenella, 9(1.13%) revealed the presence of Candida, 3(0.38%) showed Trichomonial infection, 6(0.76%) showed the presence of atypical cells (5ASCUS, 1 CIN) and 2(0.26%) were positive for malignancy, (1 adenocarcinoma, 1 squamous cell carcinoma). The mean age+/-SE of the women were 43.12+/-9.18 years, mean+/-SE age of the last child was 14.19+/-7.99 years; mean+/-SE of para was 3.5+/-7.34 pregnancies. The common presenting complains of these women Menorrhagia (17.92%), Menopausal Symptoms (17.42%), Lower Abdominal pain (15.78%), White PV discharge (15.78%), Dysmenorrhoea (7.52%), Pruritis/Itching vulva (7.14%), Prolapse (4.39%), Fibroid (2.01%), Infertility (1.13%), Post coital bleeding (0.75%) respectively. Pap's smear is reconfirmed as an established major screening tool for diagnosis of different cervical lesions. Source

Nesa A.,Ibrahim Medical College
Mymensingh medical journal : MMJ | Year: 2011

Iron deficiency anaemia (IDA) and beta thalassaemia trait (BTT) are the most common causes of microcytic hypochromic anaemias. Several discrimination indices have been introduced to discriminate quickly these similar entities via parameters obtained from automated cell counter. The purpose of the study was to evaluate the value of five discrimination indices in differentiation of BTT and IDA. This study consists of 57 cases of BTT and 72 cases of IDA. Five discrimination indices evaluated in this study for differentiation of BTT and IDA were red blood cell (RBC) count, red blood cell distribution width index (RDWI), Green & King Index (G & K), Mentzer index (MI) and England & Fraser (E & F) index. Sensitivity, specificity, positive and negative predictive values and Youden's index (YI) had been calculated. RBC count and RDWI appears to be reliable and useful index for the differentiation of BTT and IDA, as both of the indices had more than 80% sensitivity, specificity in differentiation of IDA and BTT. Patients with microcytic hypochromic anaemia could be easily screened out for BTT and IDA through these discrimination indices in the absence of other complicated diseases. Source

Begum S.,A-Life Medical | Salam M.A.,Rajshahi Medical College | Alam K.F.,Rajshahi Medical College | Begum N.,Pabna Medical College | And 2 more authors.
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2013

Background: Extended spectrum ß-lactamases (ESBLs) represent a major group of lactamases responsible for resistance, mostly produced by gram-negative bacteria, to newer generations of ß-lactam drugs currently being identified in large numbers worldwide. The present study was undertaken to see the frequency of ESBL producing Pseudomonas spp. isolated from six hundred clinical specimens (wound, pus, aural, urine, sputum, throat and other swabs) collected over a period of three years from two tertiary care hospitals in Bangladesh. Findings. Aerobic bacterial culture was performed on aseptically collected swabs and only growth of Pseudomonas was considered for further species identification and ESBL production along with serotyping of Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Antimicrobial susceptibility testing was carried out using the Kirby-Bauer agar diffusion method and ESBL production was detected on Mueller Hinton agar by double-disk synergy technique using Amoxicillin-Clavulanic acid with Ceftazidime, Cefotaxime, Ceftriaxone and Aztreonam. Culture yielded 120 Pseudomonas spp. and 82 of them were biochemically characterized for species. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was found to be the predominant (90.2%) species. Of 82 isolates tested for ESBL, 31 (37.8%) were ESBL positive with 29 (93.5%) as Pseudomonas aeruginosa, the remaining 2 (6.5%) were Stenotrophomonas maltophilia and Ralstonia pickettii. Antibiogram revealed Imipenem as the most effective drug (93.3%) among all antimicrobials used against Pseudomonas spp. followed by Aminoglycosides (63.7%). Conclusion: ESBL producing Pseudomonas spp. was found to be a frequent isolate from two tertiary care hospitals in Bangladesh, showing limited susceptibility to antimicrobials and decreased susceptibility to Imipenem in particular, which is a matter of great concern. © 2013 Begum et al. Source

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