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The study investigated the effect of sublethal concentrations (39.10mg l-1, 19.55mg l-1, 9.87mg l-1and 0.00mg l-1) of Portland cement powder in solution on the biochemical parameters (cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein, glucose, lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase) in the serum, liver and kidney of the juvenile African catfish Clarias gariepinus after a fifteen-day exposure period. The result revealed varying levels of significant difference in serum, liver and kidney cholesterol, triglyceride, total protein, glucose, lactate dehydrogenase and creatine kinase activities, showing that the liver was most affected, the serum was less affected and the kidneys were least affected by the sublethal concentrations of the Portland cement powder in solution after the fifteen-day exposure period. Consequently, the liver and kidney, the medium of transportation of nutrients and other metabolites were affected. The liver and kidney, which are primarily responsible for maintaining external and internal milieu of fishes via detoxification, metabolism and excretion, are susceptible to deleterious effects of Portland cement powder. Therefore, sublethal concentration (39.10mg l-1) of Portland cement powder in solution after a fifteen-day exposure has been most toxic and debilitating to the test fish. © Royal Irish Academy.

Ndejiko M.J.,Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University | Wan Dagang W.R.Z.,University of Technology Malaysia
Jurnal Teknologi | Year: 2016

Biofilms are sessile communities of microorganisms growing on material surfaces and embedded in self-accumulated extracellular polymers. A comprehensive analysis of physical, chemical and biological factors including hydrodynamic and nutrient conditions that regulate their formation is required to adequately gain insight to this complex multicellular microbial life style. Reproducible experimental models that consider all the conditions under which they grow and develop also remain a required tool for studying the biofilms. As a result of its ability to create hydrodynamic and nutrient conditions coupled with continuous and non-destructive ability to grow biofilms, flow cell technology has become one of the most recently patronised models used to study microbial biofilms. This article focuses on recent advancements, principles and practical application of flow cell technology to study microbial biofilms. © 2016 Penerbit UTM Press. All rights reserved.

Musa A.,Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University | Ogbadoyi E.O.,Minna Federal University Of Technology
Asian Journal of Biochemistry | Year: 2012

The nutritionists' interest in leaf vegetables including Hibiscus sabdariffa stems from their rich contents of essential amino acids, vitamins and minerals which are needed for normal metabolic activities of the body. Vegetables are also good sources of dietary fibres that are important for bowel movement. However, the presence of some inherent anti nutrients and toxic substances in vegetables has been a major obstacle in harnessing the full nutritional benefits. It is against this background that this research was conducted to determine the effect of some processing methods on the antinutrients (soluble and total oxalates), toxic substances (cyanide and nitrate) and some micronutrients which include vitamin C, P-carotene (provitamin A) and mineral elements (Fe, Mg, Zn, Na and K) in Hibiscus sabdariffa. The processing methods include boiling (vegetable leaves were boiled in distilled water for 5 and 10 min) and sun drying. Results obtained showed that the cyanide, nitrate and soluble contents in fresh vegetable sample are within the tolerable level and they can be well tolerated in the meals. However, the total oxalate content in the vegetable is high enough to induce oxalate toxicosis. All the processing methods significantly (p<0.05) reduced the antinutrients and toxic substances in Hibiscus sabdariffa except that the reduction in soluble and total oxalate with sun drying was not significant (p>0.05). Boiling methods reduced these toxic substances significantly (p<0.05) more than sun drying. The antinutrients and toxic substances generally decreased with boiling time. These post-harvest treatments also reduced vitamin C content significantly (p<0.05) in Hibiscus sabdariffa. Boiling method retained more of the vitamin compared to sun drying. P-carotene levels increased in the boiled vegetable leaves, while its content was reduced in sundried leaves. However, boiling beyond 5 min led to significant (p<0.05) reduction of P-carotene levels in the vegetable. Mineral elements (Fe, Cu, Mg, Na and K) decreased significantly (p<0.05) with boiling in Hibiscus sabdariffa; however sun drying had no significant effect on the mineral contents. The result concludes that moderate boiling significantly reduces the levels of antinutrients and toxic substances while still conserve some micronutrients in amounts sufficient to meet our dietary requirements. © 2012 Academic Journals Inc.

Chindo M.,Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University
Singapore Journal of Tropical Geography | Year: 2015

Nigeria is in the advanced development stages of extracting its oil sands resources to boost national revenue and economic prosperity, like other countries in Sub-Saharan Africa including the Republic of Congo and Madagascar. Compared to resource-rich developed countries like Canada and America, the consequences of oil sands extraction is likely to be disastrous in countries like Nigeria that have a poor reputation for managing resources (as is the case with the petroleum sector). Using a mixed-method approach-focus group discussions, interviews and observations-this paper addresses environmental concerns about oil sands extraction in Nigeria. Overall, the communities perceived oil sands development negatively, because of fears of loss of communal lands, biodiversity, water availability and quality, and pollution. They were angry with the previous administrations over the lack of communication, and were deprived of socio-economic opportunities and pollution from prolonged delays in oil sands extraction. The way forward is to form sustainable partnerships between the government, communities, industry and other stakeholders to achieve responsible oil sands development-environmentally friendly development that meets climate obligations, addresses cumulative impacts, and acts in the best interest of host communities and Nigerians. © 2015 Department of Geography, National University of Singapore and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.

Rahmah S.,University of Malaysia, Terengganu | Aliyu-Paiko M.,Ibrahim Badamasi Babangida University | Hashim R.,Universiti Sains Malaysia
Aquaculture Research | Year: 2014

In vivo and in vitro protein digestibility of 0% to 60% soybean meal protein (SBM) substitution from fishmeal protein was conducted for bagrid catfish Mystus nemurus juveniles. Seven experimental diets containing 35% protein and 15% lipid were fed to bagrid catfish to determine the in vivo protein digestibility. In vitro methods were determined using pH stat, pH shift, spectrophotometric assay and sodium dodecyle sulphate polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE) with different enzyme mixtures (crude intestinal extract of bagrid catfish, Lazo 1-enzyme, Hsu 3-enzyme, Saterlee 4-enzyme). In vivo and in vitro protein digestibility decreased with increased SBM protein substitution with highest tolerance level of 10% (in vivo). pH stat and pH drop methods showed the highest degree of hydrolysis (DH) and relative protein digestibility (RPD) using Saterlee 4-enzyme system. However, pH stat method showed highest correlations (r2 = 0.9263) with the in vivo results using crude intestinal enzyme extract compared to other enzyme systems. The highest correlation of the in vitro methods using crude intestinal enzyme extracts of bagrid catfish was determined using spectrophotometric assay (r2 = 0.9284) followed by pH stat (r2 = 0.9263), SDS-PAGE (r2 = 0.8348) and pH drop (r2 = 0.6777). All the in vitro methods tested are suitable to rapidly determine protein digestibility for bagrid catfish except for pH drop. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

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