The International Business Machines Corporation is an American multinational technology and consulting corporation, with headquarters in Armonk, New York, United States. IBM manufactures and markets computer hardware and software, and offers infrastructure, hosting and consulting services in areas ranging from mainframe computers to nanotechnology.The company was founded in 1911 as the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company through a merger of the Tabulating Machine Company, the International Time Recording Company, and the Computing Scale Company. CTR was changed to "International Business Machines" in 1924, using a name which had originated with CTR's Canadian subsidiary. The acronym IBM followed. Securities analysts nicknamed the company Big Blue for its size and common use of the color in products, packaging, and logo.In 2012, Fortune ranked IBM the No. 2 largest U.S. firm in terms of number of employees , the No. 4 largest in terms of market capitalization, the No. 9 most profitable, and the No. 19 largest firm in terms of revenue. Globally, the company was ranked the No. 31 largest in terms of revenue by Forbes for 2011. Other rankings for 2011/2012 include No. 1 company for leaders , No. 1 green company in the U.S. , No. 2 best global brand , No. 2 most respected company , No. 5 most admired company , and No. 18 most innovative company .IBM has 12 research laboratories worldwide, bundled into IBM Research. As of 2013 the company held the record for most patents generated by a business for 22 consecutive years. Its employees have garnered five Nobel Prizes, six Turing Awards, ten National Medals of Technology, and five National Medals of Science. Notable company inventions include the automated teller machine , the floppy disk, the hard disk drive, the magnetic stripe card, the relational database, the Universal Product Code , the financial swap, the Fortran programming language, SABRE airline reservation system, DRAM, copper wiring in semiconductors, the silicon-on-insulator semiconductor manufacturing process, and Watson artificial intelligence.IBM has constantly evolved since its inception, acquiring properties such as Kenexa and SPSS and organizations such as PwC's consulting business , spinning off companies like printer manufacturer Lexmark , and selling off product lines like its personal computer and server businesses to Lenovo . In 2014 IBM announced that it would "offload" IBM Micro Electronics semiconductor manufacturing to Global Foundries. This transition is in progress as of early 2015. Wikipedia.
Nature Nanotechnology | Year: 2017
Spin resonance provides the high-energy resolution needed to determine biological and material structures by sensing weak magnetic interactions. In recent years, there have been notable achievements in detecting and coherently controlling individual atomic-scale spin centres for sensitive local magnetometry. However, positioning the spin sensor and characterizing spin–spin interactions with sub-nanometre precision have remained outstanding challenges. Here, we use individual Fe atoms as an electron spin resonance (ESR) sensor in a scanning tunnelling microscope to measure the magnetic field emanating from nearby spins with atomic-scale precision. On artificially built assemblies of magnetic atoms (Fe and Co) on a magnesium oxide surface, we measure that the interaction energy between the ESR sensor and an adatom shows an inverse-cube distance dependence (r-3.010.04). This demonstrates that the atoms are predominantly coupled by the magnetic dipole–dipole interaction, which, according to our observations, dominates for atom separations greater than 1 nm. This dipolar sensor can determine the magnetic moments of individual adatoms with high accuracy. The achieved atomic-scale spatial resolution in remote sensing of spins may ultimately allow the structural imaging of individual magnetic molecules, nanostructures and spin-labelled biomolecules. © 2017 Nature Publishing Group
Ibm | Date: 2017-01-25
A common boot sequence facility is provided that enables a control utility (e.g., operating system, control program, or other standalone tool, as examples) to be booted in a plurality of configurations without changing the boot sequence. An operating system or other control utility uses the common boot sequence to be able to be booted in either a first architecture configuration that initializes in one architecture, e.g., ESA/390 and then switches to, for instance, another architecture, e.g., z/Architecture, for processing; or in a second architectural configuration that initializes and processes in the another architecture, e.g., z/Architecture.
Ibm | Date: 2017-01-18
A facility is provided that, when installed, removes from an architecture a selected architectural function, such that the function is not able to be turned on/off regardless of other controls within the environment. When the facility is installed, the architectural function is not supported when processing in an architectural mode based on the architecture. It is as if the selected architectural function is no longer available in the architecture, and in fact, the code implementing the facility may have been deleted, bypassed, or otherwise eliminated. One such architectural function is virtual address translation, such as dynamic address translation (DAT), and the architecture is, for instance, ESA/390.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: IoT-01-2016 | Award Amount: 25.43M | Year: 2017
Automated driving is expected to increase safety, provide more comfort and create many new business opportunities for mobility services. The market size is expected to grow gradually reaching 50% of the market in 2035. The IoT is about enabling connections between objects or things; its about connecting anything, anytime, anyplace, using any service over any network. There is little doubt that these vehicles will be part of the IoT revolution. Indeed, connectivity and IoT have the capacity for disruptive impacts on highly and fully automated driving along all value chains towards a global vision of Smart Anything Everywhere. In order to stay competitive, the European automotive industry is investing in connected and automated driving with cars becoming moving objects in an IoT ecosystem eventually participating in BigData for Mobility. AUTOPILOT brings IoT into the automotive world to transform connected vehicles into highly and fully automated vehicle. The well-balanced AUTOPILOT consortium represents all relevant areas of the IoT eco-system. IoT open vehicle platform and an IoT architecture will be developed based on the existing and forthcoming standards as well as open source and vendor solutions. Thanks to AUTOPILOT, the IoT eco-system will involve vehicles, road infrastructure and surrounding objects in the IoT, with a particular attention to safety critical aspects of automated driving. AUTOPILOT will develop new services on top of IoT to involve autonomous driving vehicles, like autonomous car sharing, automated parking, or enhanced digital dynamic maps to allow fully autonomous driving. AUTOPILOT IoT enabled autonomous driving cars will be tested, in real conditions, at four permanent large scale pilot sites in Finland, France, Netherlands and Italy, whose test results will allow multi-criteria evaluations (Technical, user, business, legal) of the IoT impact on pushing the level of autonomous driving.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: IoT-01-2016 | Award Amount: 25.77M | Year: 2017
ACTIVAGE is a European Multi Centric Large Scale Pilot on Smart Living Environments. The main objective is to build the first European IoT ecosystem across 9 Deployment Sites (DS) in seven European countries, reusing and scaling up underlying open and proprietary IoT platforms, technologies and standards, and integrating new interfaces needed to provide interoperability across these heterogeneous platforms, that will enable the deployment and operation at large scale of Active & Healthy Ageing IoT based solutions and services, supporting and extending the independent living of older adults in their living environments, and responding to real needs of caregivers, service providers and public authorities. The project will deliver the ACTIVAGE IoT Ecosystem Suite (AIOTES), a set of Techniques, Tools and Methodologies for interoperability at different layers between heterogeneous IoT Platforms and an Open Framework for providing Semantic Interoperability of IoT Platforms for AHA, addressing trustworthiness, privacy, data protection and security. User-demand driven interoperable IoT-enabled Active & Healthy Ageing solutions will be deployed on top of the AIOTES in every DS, enhancing and scaling up existing services, for the promotion of independent living, the mitigation of frailty, and preservation of quality of life and autonomy. ACTIVAGE will assess the socio-economic impact, the benefits of IoT-based smart living environments in the quality of life and autonomy, and in the sustainability of the health and social care systems, demonstrating the seamless capacity of integration and interoperability of the IoT ecosystem, and validating new business, financial and organizational models for care delivery, ensuring the sustainability after the project end, and disseminating these results to a worldwide audience. The consortium comprises industries, research centres, SMEs, service providers, public authorities encompassing the whole value chain in every Deployment Site.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: ICT-15-2016-2017 | Award Amount: 16.19M | Year: 2017
The data intensive target sector selected for the DataBio project is the Data-Driven Bioeconomy, focusing in production of best possible raw materials from agriculture, forestry and fishery/aquaculture for the bioeconomy industry to produce food, energy and biomaterials taking into account also various responsibility and sustainability issues. DataBio proposes to deploy a state of the art, big data platform on top of the existing partners infrastructure and solutions - the Big DATABIO Platform.The work will be continuous cooperation of experts from end user and technology provider companies, from bioeconomy and technology research institutes, and of other partners. In the pilots also associated partners and other stakeholders will be actively involved. The selected pilots and concepts will be transformed to pilot implementations utilizing co-innovative methods and tools where the bioeconomy sector end user experts and other stakeholders will give input to the user and sector domain understanding for the requirements specifications for ICT, Big Data and Earth Observation experts and for other solution providers in the consortium. Based on the preparation and requirement specifications work the pilots are implemented utilizing and selecting the best suitable market ready or almost market ready Big Data and Earth Observation methods, technologies, tools and services to be integrated to the common Big DATABIO Platform. During the pilots the close cooperation continues and feedback from the bioeconomy sector user companies will be utilized in the technical and methodological upgrades to pilot implementations. Based on the pilot results and the new solutions also new business opportunities are expected. In addition during the pilots the end user utilizers are participating trainings to learn how to use the solutions and developers also outside the consortium will be activated in the Hackathons to design and develop new tools, services and application for the platform.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: RIA | Phase: FETPROACT-01-2016 | Award Amount: 10.00M | Year: 2017
The hybrid optomechanical technologies (HOT) consortium will lay the foundation for a new generation of devices, which connect, or indeed contain, several platforms at the nanoscale in a single hybrid system. As hybrid interfaces they will allow to harness the unique advantages of each subsystem within a nano-scale footprint, while as integrated hybrid devices they will enable entirely novel functionalities. A particular focus will be on nano-optomechanical devices that comprise electrical, microwave or optical systems with micro- and nano-mechanical systems. Research in the past decade, in particular by European groups, has shown the significant technological potential that such nano-optomechanical systems can offer, in particular by establishing a new way in which optical, radio-frequency and microwave signals can be interfaced. The present consortium includes leading academic groups and industrial partners to explore the potential of these hybrid-nano-optomechanical systems. It will explore hybrid opto- and electro-mechanical devices operating at the physical limit for conversion, synthesis, processing, sensing and measurement of EM fields, comprising radio, microwave frequencies to the terahertz domain. These spectral domains open realistic applications in the existing application domains of medical (e.g. MRI imaging), security (e.g. Radar and THz monitoring), positioning, timing and navigations (Oscillators) and for future quantum technology. The research aims at specific technological application, with realistic operating conditions and seeks to develop actual system demonstrators. In addition, it will explore how these hybrid transducers can be fabricated within standard CMOS processing, and thereby be made compatible with current manufacturing methods. The HOT devices will thereby impact todays technology and likewise address potential future need for the manipulation of quantum signals.
Chemical Reviews | Year: 2010
The advancements in optical lithography tools, processes, and patterning materials which are critical to the continued performance increases of semiconductor devices as well as to the overall economics of the semiconductor industry have been reported. the development of high index immersion lithography, including progress in high refractive index lens materials, high refractive index immersion fluids, and high refractive index photoresists. The minimum resolution such as critical dimension or minimum half-pitch that can be achieved by a lithographic process is described by the Rayleigh equation. The chemists and engineers rely on the accumulated knowledge of the interaction of water with lithographic materials and build upon the available materials and process-based mitigation strategies to design double-exposure materials and double-patterning processes that are compatible with immersion lithography.
Annual Review of Biophysics | Year: 2013
We review the recent developments in understanding the bacterial chemotaxis signaling pathway by using quantitative modeling methods. The models developed are based on structural ormation of the signaling complex and the dynamics of the underlying biochemical network. We focus on two important functions of the bacterial chemotaxis signaling pathway: signal amplification and adaptation. We describe in detail the structure and the dynamics of the mathematical models and how they compare with existing experiments, emphasizing the predictability of the models. Finally, we outline future directions for developing the modeling approach to better understand the bacterial chemosensory system. Copyright © 2013 by Annual Reviews.
Nano Letters | Year: 2010
Graphene is in many respects a nanomaterial with unique properties. Here I discuss the electronic structure, transport and optical properties of graphene, and how these are utilized in exploratory electronic and optoelectronic devices. Some suggestions for needed advances are made. © 2010 American Chemical Society.