The International Business Machines Corporation is an American multinational technology and consulting corporation, with headquarters in Armonk, New York, United States. IBM manufactures and markets computer hardware and software, and offers infrastructure, hosting and consulting services in areas ranging from mainframe computers to nanotechnology.The company was founded in 1911 as the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company through a merger of the Tabulating Machine Company, the International Time Recording Company, and the Computing Scale Company. CTR was changed to "International Business Machines" in 1924, using a name which had originated with CTR's Canadian subsidiary. The acronym IBM followed. Securities analysts nicknamed the company Big Blue for its size and common use of the color in products, packaging, and logo.In 2012, Fortune ranked IBM the No. 2 largest U.S. firm in terms of number of employees , the No. 4 largest in terms of market capitalization, the No. 9 most profitable, and the No. 19 largest firm in terms of revenue. Globally, the company was ranked the No. 31 largest in terms of revenue by Forbes for 2011. Other rankings for 2011/2012 include No. 1 company for leaders , No. 1 green company in the U.S. , No. 2 best global brand , No. 2 most respected company , No. 5 most admired company , and No. 18 most innovative company .IBM has 12 research laboratories worldwide, bundled into IBM Research. As of 2013 the company held the record for most patents generated by a business for 22 consecutive years. Its employees have garnered five Nobel Prizes, six Turing Awards, ten National Medals of Technology, and five National Medals of Science. Notable company inventions include the automated teller machine , the floppy disk, the hard disk drive, the magnetic stripe card, the relational database, the Universal Product Code , the financial swap, the Fortran programming language, SABRE airline reservation system, DRAM, copper wiring in semiconductors, the silicon-on-insulator semiconductor manufacturing process, and Watson artificial intelligence.IBM has constantly evolved since its inception, acquiring properties such as Kenexa and SPSS and organizations such as PwC's consulting business , spinning off companies like printer manufacturer Lexmark , and selling off product lines like its personal computer and server businesses to Lenovo . In 2014 IBM announced that it would "offload" IBM Micro Electronics semiconductor manufacturing to Global Foundries. This transition is in progress as of early 2015. Wikipedia.
IEEE Communications Magazine | Year: 2012
Five criteria that are usually considered by IEEE standards committees for development of next generation standards are broad market potential, distinct identity, and compatibility, as well as technical and economic feasibility. We consider these criteria separately and show that the new emerging large-volume markets loosely defined as Computercom will demand new standards and new technologies. We discuss how the balance between single-channel bit rate, and number of wavelength multiplexed and spatially multiplexed optical channels can help to satisfy the need for huge total bandwidth, while keeping cost low and power efficiency high. Silicon CMOS-integrated photonics holds promise to become a technology of choice for wide deployment of low-power and cost-effective optical interconnects for these new markets, and to become a single solution addressing distances spanning from just a meter to 10km. © 2012 IEEE.
Journal of Lightwave Technology | Year: 2012
High-performance computing systems are of steadily growing interest to provide new levels of computational capability for an increasing range of applications. The growing use of and dependence on optical interconnects to meet these system's scaling bandwidth demands has given rise to computercom as a distinct market segment, alongside the traditional datacom and telecom markets. This paper discusses the trends, requirements, tradeoffs, and potential technologies for this market. © 2006 IEEE.
Nano Letters | Year: 2010
Graphene is in many respects a nanomaterial with unique properties. Here I discuss the electronic structure, transport and optical properties of graphene, and how these are utilized in exploratory electronic and optoelectronic devices. Some suggestions for needed advances are made. © 2010 American Chemical Society.
Annual Review of Biophysics | Year: 2013
We review the recent developments in understanding the bacterial chemotaxis signaling pathway by using quantitative modeling methods. The models developed are based on structural ormation of the signaling complex and the dynamics of the underlying biochemical network. We focus on two important functions of the bacterial chemotaxis signaling pathway: signal amplification and adaptation. We describe in detail the structure and the dynamics of the mathematical models and how they compare with existing experiments, emphasizing the predictability of the models. Finally, we outline future directions for developing the modeling approach to better understand the bacterial chemosensory system. Copyright © 2013 by Annual Reviews.
Reports on Progress in Physics | Year: 2010
In situ electron microscopy can be used to visualize the physical processes that control the growth of Si and Ge nanowires through the vapor-liquid-solid mechanism. Images and movies are recorded in a transmission electron microscope that has capabilities for depositing catalysts onto a sample and for introducing chemical vapor deposition precursor gases while the sample remains under observation. This technique allows us to measure nucleation, catalyst stability, surface structure and growth kinetics, in some cases confirming existing models and in other cases producing unexpected results and suggesting approaches toward growing novel structures. We will show that nanowire formation provides a unique window into the fundamentals of crystal growth as well as an opportunity to fabricate precisely controlled structures for novel applications. © 2010 IOP Publishing Ltd.