The International Business Machines Corporation is an American multinational technology and consulting corporation, with headquarters in Armonk, New York, United States. IBM manufactures and markets computer hardware and software, and offers infrastructure, hosting and consulting services in areas ranging from mainframe computers to nanotechnology.The company was founded in 1911 as the Computing-Tabulating-Recording Company through a merger of the Tabulating Machine Company, the International Time Recording Company, and the Computing Scale Company. CTR was changed to "International Business Machines" in 1924, using a name which had originated with CTR's Canadian subsidiary. The acronym IBM followed. Securities analysts nicknamed the company Big Blue for its size and common use of the color in products, packaging, and logo.In 2012, Fortune ranked IBM the No. 2 largest U.S. firm in terms of number of employees , the No. 4 largest in terms of market capitalization, the No. 9 most profitable, and the No. 19 largest firm in terms of revenue. Globally, the company was ranked the No. 31 largest in terms of revenue by Forbes for 2011. Other rankings for 2011/2012 include No. 1 company for leaders , No. 1 green company in the U.S. , No. 2 best global brand , No. 2 most respected company , No. 5 most admired company , and No. 18 most innovative company .IBM has 12 research laboratories worldwide, bundled into IBM Research. As of 2013 the company held the record for most patents generated by a business for 22 consecutive years. Its employees have garnered five Nobel Prizes, six Turing Awards, ten National Medals of Technology, and five National Medals of Science. Notable company inventions include the automated teller machine , the floppy disk, the hard disk drive, the magnetic stripe card, the relational database, the Universal Product Code , the financial swap, the Fortran programming language, SABRE airline reservation system, DRAM, copper wiring in semiconductors, the silicon-on-insulator semiconductor manufacturing process, and Watson artificial intelligence.IBM has constantly evolved since its inception, acquiring properties such as Kenexa and SPSS and organizations such as PwC's consulting business , spinning off companies like printer manufacturer Lexmark , and selling off product lines like its personal computer and server businesses to Lenovo . In 2014 IBM announced that it would "offload" IBM Micro Electronics semiconductor manufacturing to Global Foundries. This transition is in progress as of early 2015. Wikipedia.
Ibm | Date: 2017-01-30
In one aspect, a spectrometer insert is provided. The spectrometer insert includes: an enclosed housing; a first transparent window on a first side of the enclosed housing; a second transparent window on a second side of the enclosed housing, wherein the first side and the second side are opposing sides of the enclosed housing; and a sample mounting and heating assembly positioned within an interior cavity of the enclosed housing in between, and in line of sight of, the first transparent window and the second transparent window. A method for using the spectrometer insert to locally heat a sample so as to measure temperature-dependent optical properties of the sample is also provided.
Ibm | Date: 2017-01-30
A method of detecting a particle comprises magnetizing a particle using an AC magnetic field; generating an AC voltage in a sensing device having a conductive substantially 2-dimensional lattice structure from the magnetized particle; superimposing a DC magnetic field on the generated AC voltage in the sensing device; and measuring an AC Hall voltage at the sensing device.
Ibm | Date: 2017-01-31
An optical component includes a component body, and at least one angled-facet waveguide formed in the component body, wherein the angled-facet waveguide is substantially mirror-symmetrical in shape relative to a line at or near the center of the angled-facet waveguide.
Ibm | Date: 2017-01-11
Techniques are provided for discovery and monitoring of an environment using a plurality of robots. A plurality of robots navigate an environment by determining a navigation buffer for each of the robots; and allowing each of the robots to navigate within the environment while maintaining a substantially minimum distance from other robots, wherein the substantially minimum distance corresponds to the navigation buffer, and wherein a size of each of the navigation buffers is reduced over time based on a percentage of the environment that remains to be navigated. The robots can also navigate an environment by obtaining a discretization of the environment to a plurality of discrete regions; and determining a next unvisited discrete region for one of the plurality of robots to explore in the exemplary environment using a breadth-first search. The plurality of discrete regions can be, for example, a plurality of real or virtual tiles.
Ibm | Date: 2017-01-30
An information processing device for receiving user selections inputted using a touch panel includes an acquisition unit for acquiring a touch point on the touch panel touched by the user, a placement unit for placing, in an area surrounding a display reference point on a screen, the display of a plurality of input items capable of being inputted by the user by moving the touch point, a detection unit for detecting the direction of movement by the touch point from the initial touch point of the user, a calculation unit for calculating the angle of deviation between the direction of movement of the touch point by the user and a standard direction, and a correction unit for correcting the placement of the display of the plurality of input items in accordance with the angle of deviation.
Ibm | Date: 2017-02-01
A method, and associated apparatus and system and program product, for enlarging or reducing an image. The image is displayed on a display screen. A pointing operation is detected. The pointing operation points to, with a single-touch gesture using pointing means on the display screen, a first figure indicative of a range of the image to be enlarged or reduced and a second figure indicative of a size of the enlarged or reduced range. In response to the detection of the pointing operation, an enlarged or reduced image is displayed after the enlarged or reduced image is obtained by enlarging or reducing the image at an enlargement or reduction ratio determined based on the first figure and the second figure.
Ibm | Date: 2017-01-25
A common boot sequence facility is provided that enables a control utility (e.g., operating system, control program, or other standalone tool, as examples) to be booted in a plurality of configurations without changing the boot sequence. An operating system or other control utility uses the common boot sequence to be able to be booted in either a first architecture configuration that initializes in one architecture, e.g., ESA/390 and then switches to, for instance, another architecture, e.g., z/Architecture, for processing; or in a second architectural configuration that initializes and processes in the another architecture, e.g., z/Architecture.
Ibm | Date: 2017-01-18
A facility is provided that, when installed, removes from an architecture a selected architectural function, such that the function is not able to be turned on/off regardless of other controls within the environment. When the facility is installed, the architectural function is not supported when processing in an architectural mode based on the architecture. It is as if the selected architectural function is no longer available in the architecture, and in fact, the code implementing the facility may have been deleted, bypassed, or otherwise eliminated. One such architectural function is virtual address translation, such as dynamic address translation (DAT), and the architecture is, for instance, ESA/390.
Nature Nanotechnology | Year: 2017
Spin resonance provides the high-energy resolution needed to determine biological and material structures by sensing weak magnetic interactions. In recent years, there have been notable achievements in detecting and coherently controlling individual atomic-scale spin centres for sensitive local magnetometry. However, positioning the spin sensor and characterizing spin–spin interactions with sub-nanometre precision have remained outstanding challenges. Here, we use individual Fe atoms as an electron spin resonance (ESR) sensor in a scanning tunnelling microscope to measure the magnetic field emanating from nearby spins with atomic-scale precision. On artificially built assemblies of magnetic atoms (Fe and Co) on a magnesium oxide surface, we measure that the interaction energy between the ESR sensor and an adatom shows an inverse-cube distance dependence (r-3.010.04). This demonstrates that the atoms are predominantly coupled by the magnetic dipole–dipole interaction, which, according to our observations, dominates for atom separations greater than 1 nm. This dipolar sensor can determine the magnetic moments of individual adatoms with high accuracy. The achieved atomic-scale spatial resolution in remote sensing of spins may ultimately allow the structural imaging of individual magnetic molecules, nanostructures and spin-labelled biomolecules. © 2017 Nature Publishing Group
Nano Letters | Year: 2010
Graphene is in many respects a nanomaterial with unique properties. Here I discuss the electronic structure, transport and optical properties of graphene, and how these are utilized in exploratory electronic and optoelectronic devices. Some suggestions for needed advances are made. © 2010 American Chemical Society.