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News Article | November 2, 2016
Site: www.prweb.com

Andres Escobar, Escobar Design by Lemay, and David Burke, creative masters in their respective realms, have completed their first restaurant collaboration with Tavern62 by David Burke, which opened in early October 2016 to immediate acclaim. Located in a 3,265-square-foot space spanning the first two floors of a turn-of-the-century townhouse at 135 East 62nd Street, between Park and Lexington Avenues. Designed as a nod to old New York refinement, Tavern62 by David Burke is a paean to such fine-dining taverns as 21 Club, Keens Steak House, and erstwhile bastion of Wall Street camaraderie, Delmonico’s. But while the traditional warm-hued background, this time with a burnt orange twist, and dark wood furnishings are tavern standards, an unmistakably contemporary design context is also evident throughout the space, as depicted by such whimsical accents as bowler-shaped sconces above the red leather banquettes in the lounge and locally-themed artwork, including pieces from Chef Burke’s personal collection, such as a vintage Bugatti race model hanging over the bar. “David and I were instantly in synch with our ideas for re-interpreting the original space,” points out Mr. Escobar. “From light-hearted sculptures and fixtures to an upscale, classic dining environment in the main room, we have created a destination for the neighborhood, surrounding office community, shoppers and tourists alike.” Divided into four distinctly designed dining experiences, there is a traditionally styled lounge on the first floor with both a stylish wood bar and banquette seating, but with a surprising host of characters in sculpture, including a scholarly Victorian Humpty Dumpty bronze reading a book atop the bar. The second-floor opens to a landing with a combination preparation area and dessert counter. There is also a wine closet and a private dining alcove at the head of the stairs clad in back-lit bricks composed of Pink Himalayan sea salt – a signature David Burke motif -- with a black-and-white tile floor punctuated by a variety of design accents. At the front of this level is the sophisticated main dining room, notable for its mellow ambiance, soft lighting, well-spaced tables and chairs with rich navy upholstery, and contemporary artwork. In the back of the second level is a library-themed room that may be partitioned for private events, featuring both banquettes and long rows of table seating for up to 46 people. Moreover, behind this section will be a separate, glass-enclosed solarium for al fresco dining when the weather is clement. Tavern62 by David Burke represents the newest offering from ESquared Hospitality, and the group’s first original concept with Chef Burke. The restaurant offers lunch and dinner service seven days a week, as well as weekend brunches. More information about Tavern62 by David Burke is available at http://www.tavern62.com. With projects in New York, Miami, London, Paris, Montreal, Geneva and the Seychelles, Escobar Design by Lemay has a strong reputation for the design of luxury residences, high-end hotel projects, retail and office interiors, restaurants and airport facilities. In December 2015, Escobar joined leading international design firm Lemay, ranked 79 in a list of 100 firms by World Architecture 100 in 2016. Prior to merging with Lemay, Escobar headed his own international design firm, Escobar & Associates, which he founded in 1989. He holds memberships in the following organizations: National Council for Interior Design Qualifications (NCIDQ); American Society of Interior Designer (ASID); American Institute of Architects (AIA); Interior Designers of Canada (IDC); Association of Registered Interior Designer of Ontario (ARIDO); Association of Professional Interior Designers of Québec (APDIQ). Named one of the top 100 architecture firms in the world in 2015 by Building Design magazine, Lemay has recently emerged as a major national and international player with a series of stunning and award-winning projects. The firm has also embarked on an audacious growth strategy by acquiring part of IBI Group's Canadian, Chinese and Caribbean activities in 2014. Lemay's signature approach has been to leverage its creativity and integrated design capacity to generate innovative, sustainable and inspiring solutions that propel its clients’ business while enhancing our collective quality of life. A graduate of the Culinary Institute of America, Chef David Burke’s 25-year career is decorated with honors that pay homage to his respected culinary skill, creative whimsy, and philanthropic efforts. From receiving the coveted Meilleurs Ouvriers de France Diplome d'Honneur during his time in France, to being inducted into the Who’s Who of Food & Beverage in America by the James Beard Foundation in May 2009, David Burke is continuously recognized as one of the leaders in the restaurant industry. Burke has received critical-acclaim from both local and national press, in addition to creating a strong television presence – most notably including appearances on the second and fifth seasons of Bravo’s “Top Chef Masters.” In Fall 2015, David Burke joined ESquared Hospitality to work as a culinary consultant on existing ESquared properties and to forge ahead with new and innovative concepts to grow the hospitality group into 2016. In September 2016, David Burke and ESquared Hospitality opened BLT Prime by David Burke in the Trump International Hotel in Washington D.C. ESquared Hospitality is an international restaurant and hospitality group. Built on a commitment to "Exceeding Expectations" with extraordinary food and excellent customer service, ESquared Hospitality has grown into a diversified group of restaurant concepts, from the flagship BLT Steak New York which opened in 2004 to more than 20 restaurants on two continents. ESquared Hospitality properties include the BLT restaurants, comprised of BLT Steak in New York, NY (2004), Washington, DC (2006), San Juan, PR (2006), White Plains, NY (2007), Atlanta, GA (2009), Hong Kong (2009), Charlotte, NC (2009), Waikiki, HI (2009), Seoul, South Korea (2014), Roppongi, Tokyo (2014), Las Vegas, NV (2014), Ginza, Tokyo (2015), and Aruba (2015); BLT Burger in Hong Kong (2009); BLT Prime in New York, NY (2005) and at the Trump National Doral Miami, FL (2014); BLT Market in Waikiki, HI (2016). ESquared Hospitality also operates two Italian concepts: Casa Nonna in New York, NY (2011), which became the official pizza vendor of Madison Square Garden (2013) and Radio City Music Hall (2015), and The Florentine in Chicago, IL (2010); as well as Horchata De Nueva York (2014), The Wayfarer (2014), and vegan fast-casual concept by CHLOE. with two locations in New York, NY (2015/2016), Los Angeles, CA (2016), and standalone bakery, Sweets by CHLOE. (2016). In September 2015, acclaimed Chef David Burke joined E2 Hospitality as a culinary partner to open BLT Prime by David Burke in Washington DC (2016) and Tavern 62 by David Burke (2016).


News Article | December 17, 2016
Site: www.prweb.com

Adam Kushabi, AIA Joins Gabbert Architecture as Office Director and Associate Principal. Gabbert Architects and Planners was founded in 1978. The growing boutique firm employs eight staff. Marlin Gabbert is focusing on growing his firm to take advantage of the current positive business market in the Puget Sound area. GAP was looking for a broad spectrum leader to expand their existing capabilities and branch out into new markets such as workplace, retail and entertainment. Adam Kushabi is a seasoned architect and project manager with extensive international experience on a variety of notable projects worldwide, including Shanghai Disney Resort’s Treasure Cove; Talan Towers, a mixed use high rise project in Kazakhstan; Ferrari World and Khalifa University (a 76-hectare master planned Science and Technology campus at Masdar) in Abu Dhabi. Adam’s recent local work includes overseeing design, permitting and construction administration for more than thirty shops and anchor stores at Westfield’s Southcenter Mall and Vancouver Mall. Adam will be helping Marlin Gabbert build the firm's practice, and mentor his team of architects, master planners, landscape architects, construction administrators and project managers. Adam will also lead the business development efforts for the firm. Adam’s skills are honed from working with firms such as ad Senior Project Engineer for Turner International, acting as Principal Project Design Manager for Walt Disney Imagineering, and as Project Manager for other companies such as Aldar Properties, Hines, Gensler, HOK and IBI Group. When asked why he moved his practice to PNW from Chicago, Adam stated, “There is so much growth here coupled with a truly unique and thriving progressive community. You need to be a part and parcel of a community to make your business work. Gabbert Architecture / Planners in a great example of this unique capability. Working together we can work with strong growth markets such as healthcare, assisted living, worship facilities, education and multi-family housing. Also, I grew up just north of here in Vancouver BC, and missed the beautiful northwest. This region is growing exponentially. Working with an established, well respected firm coupled with my overseas contacts in Asia and the Middle East, will help GAP achieve their goals of building a strong, sustainable future for the next generation of the business. I look forward to helping the firm move into a new era.” Adam is excited about the growth in mixed use TOD’s, Hospitality and Co working and growth in student housing projects around campuses. He has a passion for place making, retrofitting suburbia, and mixed-use retail entertainment centers in urban infill sites. He will begin with working on adaptive reuse projects in and around the city presently on the boards in the GAP office. Gabbert Architecture Planners focuses on outstanding client service and design. GAP services include: Planning, Architecture, Interior Design, Landscape Architecture, Project management, Owner Representation and Integrated Project Delivery. GAP endeavors to create value, simple aesthetic order, and reflect of our most sophisticated cultural aspirations through design. Our mission is to develop and maintain long–term client relationships as a provider of premier design and project management services. We exist to fulfill our business partner and employee needs; through a commitment to value creation, excellent client service and by providing innovative and demonstrably workable solutions for our communities. For more information, contact: Stephanie Mahan Office Manager/Marketing at 425-482-7987


TORONTO, ONTARIO--(Marketwired - Nov. 30, 2016) - IBI Group Inc. ("IBI" or the "Company") (TSX:IBG) today announced that the Company has sent a notice to CIBC Mellon Trust Company, as trustee under the trust indenture dated as of September 30, 2009 between the Company and CIBC Mellon Trust Company, that IBI will redeem in cash all of its $13,690,000 outstanding principal amount of 6.00% convertible unsecured subordinated debentures due June 30, 2018 (TSX:IBG.DB.B) (the "Debentures") in accordance with the terms of the Debentures. The Debentures will be redeemed on December 30, 2016. The total redemption amount payable for each $1,000 principal amount of the Debentures will equal a redemption price of $1,000 plus accrued and unpaid interest of $30.08 up to but excluding the redemption date. Beneficial holders of debentures should contact their investment dealer if they have any questions about the redemption. The interest upon the principal amount of debentures called for redemption will cease to be payable from and after the redemption date. The Debentures are registered in the name of CDS & Co, as nominee for CDS Clearing and Depository Services Inc. (the "Depositary"). The redemption of the Debentures will be effected in accordance with the normal procedures of the Depositary. A full description of the redemption process is set out in IBI's final short-form prospectus dated January 24, 2011. Holders of debentures may also refer to the Trust Indenture dated as of September 30, 2009 and the Third Supplemental Indenture dated as of January 28, 2011. All of the foregoing documents are available under IBI's SEDAR profile at www.sedar.com. This press release shall not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy any securities in any jurisdiction. Statements in this news release that describe the Company's or management's expectations, forecasts, guidance or estimates may constitute "forward-looking" statements, and such statements use words such as "may", "will", "expect", "believe", "plan" and other similar terminology. Forward-looking statements also include statements that are not historical facts. Forward-looking statements reflect management's current expectations regarding future events and operating performance and speak only as of the date of this news release. Forward looking statements involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors which may cause the actual results, performance or achievements of the Company, IBI Group, or the industry in which they operate, to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by such forward looking statements. Although the Company believes that the assumptions inherent in the forward-looking statements are reasonable, such statements are not guarantees of future performance and actual results or developments may differ materially from those in forward-looking statements. Forward-looking statements involve a number of risks and uncertainties, including those related to: (i) the impact of general economic conditions; (ii) industry conditions; and (iii) stock market volatility, many of which are beyond the Company's control. For an augmented discussion of the risk factors and uncertainties that affect or may affect the Company, the reader is directed to the section entitled "Risk Factors" in the Company's Annual Information Form for the year ended December 31, 2015. New risk factors may arise from time to time and it is not possible for management of the Company to predict all of those risk factors or the extent to which any factor or combination of factors may cause actual results, performance or achievements of the Company to be materially different from those contained in forward-looking statements. Given these risks and uncertainties, investors should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements as a prediction of actual results. Although the forward-looking statements contained in this news release are based upon what management believes to be reasonable assumptions, the Company cannot assure investors that actual results will be consistent with these forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements are made as of the date of this news release. IBI Group Inc. (TSX:IBG) is a globally integrated architecture, planning, engineering, and technology firm with over 2,500 professionals around the world. For more than 40 years, its dedicated professionals have helped clients create livable, sustainable, and advanced urban environments. IBI Group believes that cities must be designed with intelligent systems, sustainable buildings, efficient infrastructure, and a human touch.


TORONTO, ONTARIO--(Marketwired - Oct. 26, 2016) - IBI Group Inc. ("IBI" or the "Company") (TSX:IBG) announced that it has completed the redemption for cash of $43,810,000 of its $57.5 million outstanding principal amount of 6.00% convertible unsecured subordinated debentures due June 30, 2018 (the "Debentures") in accordance with the terms of the Debentures. The redemption follows the notice issued by the Company on September 23, 2016. The Debentures were redeemed by the Company at a redemption amount for each $1,000 principal amount of Debentures of $1,000 plus accrued and unpaid interest of $19.07 up to but excluding the redemption date of October 24, 2016. This press release shall not constitute an offer to sell or the solicitation of an offer to buy any securities in any jurisdiction. IBI Group Inc. (TSX:IBG) is a globally integrated architecture, planning, engineering, and technology firm with over 2,500 professionals around the world. For more than 40 years, its dedicated professionals have helped clients create livable, sustainable, and advanced urban environments. IBI Group believes that cities must be designed with intelligent systems, sustainable buildings, efficient infrastructure, and a human touch.


Wang J.,IBI Group | Miller E.J.,University of Toronto
Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design | Year: 2014

In this paper we present a prism-based and gap-based approach to model shopping location choice. Location choice is a fundamental decision in the activity scheduling process. We propose a simple yet robust model to capture shopping location choice behaviour. In this model, an individual first chooses a time window (or gap); the choice of the shopping location depends on the gap chosen. This notion arises from our understanding that shopping location choice behaviour depends on shopping type, scheduling constraints, time of day, and day of week. Or quite simply, where you shop depends on when you shop. The gap-based approach to destination choice is envisioned as a small but significant step towards a more comprehensive location choice model in a dynamic scheduling environment. © 2014 Pion Limited. All rights reserved.


News Article | February 15, 2017
Site: www.marketwired.com

TORONTO, ON--(Marketwired - February 15, 2017) - IBI Group Inc. ("IBI Group" or the "Company") (TSX: IBG) will announce its Fourth Quarter 2016 financial results for the three months and year ended December 31st, 2016 on Wednesday, March 8th, 2017. Following the release of the Fourth Quarter 2016 financial results, IBI Group will host a conference call on Thursday, March 9th, 2017 at 8:30 a.m. EST. To participate in the conference call, please dial toll-free 1-800-686-2368 for North America and 1-312-281-2958 for United States access. Scott Stewart, Chief Executive Officer, and Stephen Taylor, Chief Financial Officer, will present the Company's operating and financial results followed by a question and answer session. A recording of the conference call will be available on our website at www.ibigroup.com/investors/investor-news/ within 24 hours following the call. As well, an audio replay of the call will be available for 14 days by dialing 1-800-558-5253 and entering pass code 21843358 followed by the number sign on your telephone keypad. IBI Group Inc. (TSX: IBG) is a globally integrated architecture, planning, engineering, and technology firm with over 2,500 professionals around the world. For more than 40 years, its dedicated professionals have helped clients create livable, sustainable, and advanced urban environments. IBI Group believes that cities must be designed with intelligent systems, sustainable buildings, efficient infrastructure, and a human touch.


News Article | October 28, 2016
Site: www.marketwired.com

TORONTO, ON--(Marketwired - October 26, 2016) - IBI Group Inc. ("IBI Group" or the "Company") (TSX: IBG) will announce its Third Quarter 2016 financial results for the three months ended September 30th, 2016 on Thursday, November 10th, 2016. Following the release of the Third Quarter 2016 financial results, IBI Group will host a conference call on Friday, November 11th, 2016 at 8:30 a.m. EST. To participate in the conference call, please dial toll-free 1-800-672-5134 for North America and 1-303-223-4382 for United States access. Scott Stewart, Chief Executive Officer and Stephen Taylor, Chief Financial Officer will present the Company's operating and financial results followed by a question and answer session. A recording of the conference call will be available on our website at www.ibigroup.com/investors/investor-news/ within 24 hours following the call. As well, an audio replay of the call will be available for 14 days by dialing 1-800-558-5253 and entering pass code 21817099 followed by the number sign on your telephone keypad. IBI Group Inc. (TSX: IBG) is a globally integrated architecture, planning, engineering, and technology firm with over 2,500 professionals around the world. For more than 40 years, its dedicated professionals have helped clients create livable, sustainable, and advanced urban environments. IBI Group believes that cities must be designed with intelligent systems, sustainable buildings, efficient infrastructure, and a human touch.


News Article | November 10, 2016
Site: www.marketwired.com

IBI Group Inc. (the "Company") (TSX: IBG) today announced financial results for the three months ended September 30, 2016. "We are pleased with the sustained and consistent strength we are seeing in our business. We currently have approximately $415 million of work that is committed and under contract through 2018 and our adjusted EBITDA margins continue to compare favourably with industry averages," said Scott Stewart, Chief Executive Officer, IBI Group Inc. "Our sustained financial and operational performance enabled IBI to enhance our capital structure through the redemption of some of our outstanding debentures, funded through both through the issuance of common shares and by issuing new debentures that bear a lower interest rate," continued Mr. Stewart. FINANCIAL HIGHLIGHTS (in thousands of Canadian dollars except for per share amounts) Revenue for the three months ended September 30, 2016 was $88.2 million, an increase of $4.4 million or 5.2%, compared to the same period in 2015. The increase in revenue is due to growth in the United States and International operations, including continuing work on significant transit projects, which has been offset by reduced revenue from the UK caused by the decrease in value of the British pound. For the three months ended September 30, 2016, the Company had a net loss of $4.7 million compared to net income of $4.8 million for the same period in 2015. Net loss for the three months ended September 30, 2016 is inclusive of accretion expense of $11.7 million, compared to $1.5 million accretion expense which was included in net income for same period in 2015. This increased accretion expense is the result of the Company's decision to partially redeem $43.8 million of the 6.0% convertible debentures and $31.2 million of the 7.0% 2019 convertible debentures. At the original issuance of the convertible debentures, the debt component was recorded at the fair value of the debt instrument with the residual recorded as the value of the conversion option in equity. As a result of redeeming these convertible debentures prior to maturity, the Company recorded accelerated accretion expense, which represents the difference between the carrying value in the financial statements and the face value of the convertible debentures. Adjusted EBITDA for the three months ended September 30, 2016 increased to $10.2 million from $9.4 million for the same period in 2015. The increase of $0.8 million is a result of stronger operating performance from a decrease in operating expenses and an increase in revenue generated from all geographical operations. Adjusted EBITDA was $31.8 million (or 11.9% of revenue) for the nine months ended September 30, 2016 compared to $26.1 million (or 10.8% of revenue) for the same period in 2015, which reflect an increase of $5.7 million or 21.8%. Basic and diluted loss per share was $0.15 per share for the three months ended September 30, 2016, compared to earnings per share of $0.21 for the same period in 2015. Management is forecasting approximately $350 million in total revenue for the year ended December 31, 2016. The Company currently has approximately $415 million of work that is committed and under contract for the three years 2016 through 2018. This committed workload is a material factor and assumption used to develop revenue forecasts. The Company continues to see an increase in committed work to be delivered in 2016 and has approximately 8.8 months of backlog (calculated on the basis of the current pace of work that the Company has achieved during the 12 months ended September 30, 2016). The Company invites you to join their conference call on Friday, November 11th, 2016 at 8:30 a.m. EDT. To participate in the conference call, please dial toll-free 1-800-672-5134 for North America and 1-303-223-4382 for United States access. A recording of the conference call will be available on our website within 24 hours following the call. As well, an audio replay of the call will be available for 14 days by dialing 1-800-558-5253 and entering pass code 21817099 followed by the number sign on your telephone keypad. Certain statements in this news release may constitute "forward-looking" statements which involve known and unknown risks, uncertainties and other factors which may cause the actual results, performance or achievements of the Company and its subsidiary entities, including IBI Group Partnership or the industry in which they operate, to be materially different from any future results, performance or achievements expressed or implied by such forward looking statements. When used in this news release, such statements use words such as "may", "will", "expect", "believe", "plan" and other similar terminology. These statements reflect management's current expectations regarding future events and operating performance and speak only as of the date of this news release. These forward-looking statements involve a number of risks and uncertainties, including those related to: (i) the Company's ability to maintain profitability and manage its growth; (ii) the Company's reliance on its key professionals; (iii) competition in the industry in which the Company operates; (iv) timely completion by the Company of projects and performance by the Company of its obligations; (v) fixed-price contracts; (vi) the general state of the economy; (vii) risk of future legal proceedings against the Company; (viii) the international operations of the Company; (ix) reduction in the Company's backlog; (x) fluctuations in interest rates; (xi) fluctuations in currency exchange rates; (xii) upfront risk of time invested in participating in consortia bidding on large projects and projects being contracted through private finance initiatives; (xiii) limits under the Company's insurance policies; (xiv) the Company's reliance on distributions from its subsidiary entities and, as a result, its susceptibility to fluctuations in their performance; (xv) unpredictability and volatility in the price of Shares; (xvi) the degree to which the Company is leveraged and the effect of the restrictive and financial covenants in the Company's credit facilities; (xvii) the possibility that the Company may issue additional Common Shares diluting existing Shareholders' interests; (xviii) income tax matters. These risk factors are discussed in detail under the heading "Risk Factors" in the Company's Annual Information Form for the year ended December 31, 2015. New risk factors may arise from time to time and it is not possible for management of the Company to predict all of those risk factors or the extent to which any factor or combination of factors may cause actual results, performance or achievements of the Company to be materially different from those contained in forward-looking statements. Given these risks and uncertainties, investors should not place undue reliance on forward-looking statements as a prediction of actual results. Although the forward-looking statements contained in this news release are based upon what management believes to be reasonable assumptions, the Company cannot assure investors that actual results will be consistent with these forward-looking statements. These forward-looking statements are made as at November 10, 2016. The factors used to develop revenue forecast in this news release include the total amount of work the Company has signed an agreement with its clients to complete, the timeline in which that work will be completed based on the current pace of work the Company achieved over the last 12 months and expects to achieve over the next 12 months. The Company updates these assumptions at each reporting period and adjusts its forward looking information as necessary. IBI Group Inc. (TSX: IBG) is a globally integrated architecture, planning, engineering, and technology firm with over 2,500 professionals around the world. For more than 40 years, its dedicated professionals have helped clients create livable, sustainable, and advanced urban environments. IBI Group believes that cities must be designed with intelligent systems, sustainable buildings, efficient infrastructure, and a human touch.


Engel-Yan J.,Metrolinx | Passmore D.,IBI Group
ITE Journal (Institute of Transportation Engineers) | Year: 2010

Several approaches employed to revise parking requirements are discussed. The most common approach for determining a minimum parking requirement for a particular use is to collect data on the peak daily parking demand for a number of similar sites and set a parking ratio based on the 85th percentile of demand. Another approach is area-specific parking requirements in which the zones within a city would be defined and possibly grouped, with each area having its own particular parking requirements. The next approach is flexible parking requirements providing detailed citywide context sensitivity without developing unique parking standards for each of a city's neighborhoods. Another is form-based approach that incorporates the concept of urban transects, which form a concept of urban transects, which defines the relation of zones to one another and its evolution over time. A form-based approach has the potential to perform well in terms of alignment with long-term planning objectives, predictability, and ease of enforcement.


News Article | November 8, 2016
Site: www.fastcompany.com

Before Donald Trump made a name for himself as a peddler of steaks, a purveyor of insults, a poster child of self-tanner, and a presidential candidate (sigh), he was a real estate mogul. But not a respectable one. The Trump Organization has left a trail of bad deals and banal buildings in its wake, from letting an entire city crumble and profiting from its demise to scamming architects out of fees. Here's a shortlist of his misdeeds to architecture and architects. Trump, Enemy Of Historic Preservation Trump Tower—the hulking Manhattan skyscraper that looks just as foreboding as the super villain who built it—has been the site of designer-led election protests. But before architect Der Scutt's glass monolith occupied the corner of Fifth Avenue and 56th street, the plot of land was home to the Bonwit Teller building, an Art Deco–style department store constructed in 1929. The facade featured magnificent limestone relief sculptures. The Met museum convinced Trump to donate them to its collection. He agreed, but reneged on his deal and demolished them, citing an appraiser who claimed the pieces were without artistic merit and not worth the $32,000 cost of removing them properly and $500,000 for project delays. In The Trumps, writer Gwenda Blair included a footnote with an anecdote from architect Alan Lapidus, who visited Trump's office and spotted a fragment of the relief. "When I asked him what the carving was doing there, he leaned forward to me and said, 'Shut up.'" Trump, Fan Of Garishness (Yet Desperate For Praise) One of Trump's first big projects was the conversion of the Commodore Hotel—a 1919 building near Grand Central—in to the Grand Hyatt, completed in 1980. The aesthetic he established there—a glass facade with a metallic sheen to it—would be replicated time and again. Architect Peter Samton, a principal of the firm Gruzen Samton, was the lead on the hotel's design and urged sensitivity to its historic neighbors, but Trump wouldn't hear it. "He was interested in making his own statement and he told us, 'I like new shiny things. I don’t like granite, I much prefer glass, stainless steel, and shiny marble. That was our palette from day one,'" Samton tells Co.Design. "Nothing we could say or do would change that. This was well before the start of landmarking buildings; historic preservation really wasn’t thought of much then." For all the tower's garishness, Trump was desperate for critical approval. "He . . . wanted to get the maximum publicity he could," Samton says. "He knew we were friendly with Paul Goldberger, who was the architectural critic of the New York Times then. Trump pleaded with us to get Goldberger to the opening. He wanted to meet him." Trump, Intimidator Of Architecture Critics Trump has made his distrust of and hatred toward media known time and again. In the architecture world, his Twitter fingers have taken aim at highly respected Chicago Tribune critic Blair Kamin (though he has also praised Kamin in the past). And while Peter Samton recalled Trump's obsession with Paul Goldberger, who is now Vanity Fair's architecture critic, the developer has called Goldberger "irrelevant." In 1984, he sued Pulitzer Prize-winning critic Paul Gapp for $500 million after the writer called his plans to built a 150-story skyscraper in Manhattan "Guinness Book of World Records architecture" and said it was "one of the silliest things anyone could inflict on New York or any other city." The case was dismissed in 1985. Trump, Sued For Housing Discrimination Before Donald Trump became a purveyor of luxury real estate, he worked with his developer father Fred Trump. In the 1970s, their company was sued for discriminating against people of color. Federal investigators found that Trump employees marked housing applications of minorities with a "C" for "colored" and nudged them toward properties with other minorities. In 1967, only seven of 3,700 apartments in Trump Village, a housing complex in Coney Island, belonged to black families. In 1973, the Justice Department sued Trump management for discrimination, and Trump countersued for defamation. Fred Trump was in charge of Trump Management and likely set the policies, but Donald was the organization's president. The Justice Department's case ended in a settlement. Trump, Believer In Math That Doesn't Add Up As a recent New York Times story reports, Trump regularly tells tall tales about the height of his skyscrapers, exaggerating the height of some buildings by nearly 20 stories purely through how he labels the floors. For example, the buildings department records for the Trump World Tower list the structure at 843 feet tall and 70 stories while Trump claims it's 900 feet tall and 90 stories. To arrive at the figure, he divided the total height by the industry-average height of 10 feet per residential floor. He also claims Trump Tower, on Fifth Avenue, is 68 stories when it's really 58. Similar discrepancies exist for the Trump International Hotel and Tower, his Riverside Drive condos, Trump Park Avenue, Trump Plaza, and Trump SoHo. Trump, Flip-Flopper In the 1970s, Trump acquired Penn Yards, a defunct rail yard on Manhattan's Upper West Side. He wanted to redevelop the land into offices and middle-income residences. In 1975, Trump suggested 20,000 units be built. (In a 1974 report about redeveloping the area, Robert Moses—the city planner whose name is virtually synonymous with building big—advocated for the construction of no more than 1,300 apartments.) The plan evolved over the decades—Trump once saw it as a television-centric development for NBC that included 15.5 million square feet of office, residential, and commercial space—and was the subject of a public feud with then-mayor Ed Koch. Community groups opposed the plan and commissioned their own design, which included 14 apartment buildings and two office towers, that totaled about 7 million square feet, and a 21.5-acre public park. Trump agreed to the smaller plan after realizing it would require too much legal legerdemain to build his original proposal, but not before claiming that he would eventually get the city to approve of his plans. At one point he hired a lawyer to use something called "underwater zoning" to get the density and square footage he wanted. Architect Paul Willen of the firm Gruzen Samton (which is now IBI Group Gruzen Samton) designed the community-group version and told Co.Design of Trump's attitude at the time. "In the early '90s the we developed the plans for Riverside South, which Trump initially opposed because he had his own plan for a mammoth project," Willen says. "We came along with a counter plan at half the size he proposed. It was when he was under great financial duress. He had to yield and build our plan. After bitterly opposing it, he announced he would approve it. He said it was the greatest design in the history of cities. He did a 180-degree turn, which he can do as we know . . . We successfully pressured him to build Riverside South at half the size of his original proposal." Trump, Shortchanger In the second presidential debate, Hillary Clinton took a jab at Trump's record with small businesses, saying that he doesn't always pay his architects and contractors. Her campaign also released a video featuring Andrew Tesoro, a New York-based architect who was not properly compensated for his work for Trump. Non-payment nearly bankrupted him. Though the law was on Tesoro's side, Tesoro said Trump's lawyers told him the legal fight would be too expensive for him. Rockwell Group—the New York-based architecture firm that designs hotels, airport terminals, Broadway sets, and furniture, among other things—has a history of trouble receiving payment from Trump developers. In 2011, Rockwell sued Bayrock Group and Sapir Organization—developers of Trump SoHo—for failing to pay $1.5 million in interior design fees. (Trump did not invest his own capital to develop the building but he and his family are overseeing it and licensed their name to the project; both Rockwell Group and the Trump Organization declined to comment for this article.) Bayrock and Sapir countersued Rockwell for the same amount claiming that the firm did not complete work to code. Bayrock and Sapir's counterclaim was dismissed and they were ordered to pay Rockwell Group. In a separate criminal case involving the building, condo buyers sued Trump for fraud, and he settled. On election day, voters have to make sure Trump doesn't shortchange an entire country.

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