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Toronto, Canada

Day N.,IBI Group | Habib K.N.,University of Alberta | Miller E.J.,University of Toronto
Canadian Journal of Civil Engineering

This paper focuses on examining and analyzing observed trends in work trip making in the Greater Toronto Area (GTA). Commuter trip timing and mode choice behaviour are investigated to explain the main reasons behind peak spreading observed in cordon count data from 1975 through 2004 and to better understand the relationship between modal and temporal decisions. From analysis it becomes clear that significant differences exist in the trip timing trends of indi-viduals choosing different modes. Multinomial logit mode choice models are developed for separate occupation groups, re-vealing significant differences in the mode choice preferences between occupation groups. Such differences are related to the differences in occupation-specific factors, including labour rates, work hour rules, free parking availability, and the spatial distribution of work locations. Overall, the investigations of this paper indicate that a joint analysis and modelling of trip timing and mode choice has considerable merit in travel demand models. Source

Engel-Yan J.,Metrolinx | Passmore D.,IBI Group
ITE Journal (Institute of Transportation Engineers)

Several approaches employed to revise parking requirements are discussed. The most common approach for determining a minimum parking requirement for a particular use is to collect data on the peak daily parking demand for a number of similar sites and set a parking ratio based on the 85th percentile of demand. Another approach is area-specific parking requirements in which the zones within a city would be defined and possibly grouped, with each area having its own particular parking requirements. The next approach is flexible parking requirements providing detailed citywide context sensitivity without developing unique parking standards for each of a city's neighborhoods. Another is form-based approach that incorporates the concept of urban transects, which form a concept of urban transects, which defines the relation of zones to one another and its evolution over time. A form-based approach has the potential to perform well in terms of alignment with long-term planning objectives, predictability, and ease of enforcement. Source

Gladhill K.,IBI Group | Monsere C.,Portland State University
Transportation Research Record

Urban form affects community development, livability, sustainability, and traffic safety. Urban planners have long assumed a relationship between urban form and traffic safety. That relationship favors designs with fewer through streets because such designs are believed to improve safety. An empirical study to explore this assumed relationship used crash data and an extensive resource of other data to define the urban form. Total reported crashes (21,492) within the city limits of Portland, Oregon, from 2005 to 2007 were aggregated by using a uniform 0.1-mi grid for the spatial unit (n = 792 cells); the crashes were modeled by using negative binomial regression to study the effect of urban form, which was defined by variables that captured street layout, exposure, connectivity, transit accessibility, demographics, and trip making (origins and destinations). These relationships were modeled separately by mode (vehicle, pedestrian, and bicycle crashes), by crash type, and by severity of crash injury. The models found that urban-form variables of street connectivity and intersection density were not significant at the 95% confidence level for vehicle and pedestrian crashes or for different levels of crash severity, in contrast to results in earlier studies. Elasticity estimates for all models were dominated by increases in vehicle miles traveled. Business density, population, and transit stops were significant variables in many models; these results underlined the importance of the design and planning of streets in determining where growth in businesses, employment, and housing will occur so that added traffic volumes can be handled safely. Source

Elgar I.,IBI Group | Miller E.J.,University of Toronto
International Regional Science Review

Office location has important impact on urban form and the transportation system in urban areas. One of the ways to study office location decisions uses surveys of managers and owners of office firms regarding the firm location decision process. The following article presents an analysis of the results gathered in Survey of Office Location Decisions (SOLD)-a Web-based retrospective survey, designed to provide some insight into location decision making of office firms. The main conclusion of the article is that office firms participating in the survey (mainly small and medium sized offices) exhibit a satisficing rather than utility maximizing location decision making. In addition, the results indicate that agglomeration has only a minor role in location decisions by office firms. © 2010 SAGE Publications. Source

Wang J.,IBI Group | Miller E.J.,University of Toronto
Environment and Planning B: Planning and Design

In this paper we present a prism-based and gap-based approach to model shopping location choice. Location choice is a fundamental decision in the activity scheduling process. We propose a simple yet robust model to capture shopping location choice behaviour. In this model, an individual first chooses a time window (or gap); the choice of the shopping location depends on the gap chosen. This notion arises from our understanding that shopping location choice behaviour depends on shopping type, scheduling constraints, time of day, and day of week. Or quite simply, where you shop depends on when you shop. The gap-based approach to destination choice is envisioned as a small but significant step towards a more comprehensive location choice model in a dynamic scheduling environment. © 2014 Pion Limited. All rights reserved. Source

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