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Rahman I.M.M.,Kanazawa University | Rahman I.M.M.,Chittagong University | Furusho Y.,GL Sciences Inc. | Begum Z.A.,Kanazawa University | And 5 more authors.
Microchemical Journal | Year: 2011

Separation of trace levels of lead from concentrated-matrix electroless nickel plating (ENP) waste solutions is required to meet the increasingly stringent environmental regulations. A solid phase extraction (SPE) system using a molecular recognition technology (MRT) gel was used for the selective separation of trace levels of lead (Pb) from the waste discharge of ENP operations, followed by subsequent analysis with inductively coupled plasma optical emission spectrometry (ICP-OES). Two SPE-MRTs, AnaLig® Pb-01 and AnaLig® Pb-02, packed in 3mL polypropylene cartridges were used to treat the synthetic metal-waste solutions that were used to simulate the typical metal mixture in ENP bath waste. The fortified solutions contained 100-1000 μgL-1 of Pb in an HNO3 matrix with pre-added Ni, Cu and other interfering elements (1000mgL-1). After the sample treatment, the SPE-MRT cartridges were washed with water and 0.1M nitric acid, followed by elution with 0.03M EDTA. The matrix elements (e.g., Ni, Cu) were completely removed at the washing step, while the 'captured' Pb was quantitatively eluted, as determined by ICP-OES measurements. The detection limit of the proposed method was 2.6 μgL-1. 'Real' samples from commercial ENP operations were used to assess the validity of this method, and almost quantitative Pb recovery was observed. The excellent Pb selectivity of the SPE-MRT system indicates the potential of the proposed technique for trace-level Pb separation from the Pb-containing high matrix aqueous waste discharge. © 2010 Elsevier B.V.

Izatt R.M.,IBC Advanced Technologies Inc. | Izatt R.M.,Brigham Young University | Izatt S.R.,IBC Advanced Technologies Inc. | Bruening R.L.,IBC Advanced Technologies Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2014

Achievement of sustainability in metal life cycles from mining of virgin ore to consumer and industrial devices to end-of-life products requires greatly increased recycling rates and improved processing of metals using conventional and green chemistry technologies. Electronic and other high-tech products containing precious, toxic, and specialty metals usually have short lifetimes and low recycling rates. Products containing these metals generally are incinerated, discarded as waste in landfills, or dismantled in informal recycling using crude and environmentally irresponsible procedures. Low recycling rates of metals coupled with increasing demand for high-tech products containing them necessitate increased mining with attendant environmental, health, energy, water, and carbon-footprint consequences. In this tutorial review, challenges to achieving metal sustainability, including projected use of urban mining, in present high-tech society are presented; health, environmental, and economic incentives for various government, industry, and public stakeholders to improve metal sustainability are discussed; a case for technical improvements, including use of molecular recognition, in selective metal separation technology, especially for metal recovery from dilute feed stocks is given; and global consequences of continuing on the present path are examined. This journal is © the Partner Organisations 2014.

Izatt R.M.,IBC Advanced Technologies Inc. | Izatt S.R.,IBC Advanced Technologies Inc. | Izatt N.E.,IBC Advanced Technologies Inc. | Krakowiak K.E.,IBC Advanced Technologies Inc. | And 2 more authors.
Green Chemistry | Year: 2015

Green chemistry procedures using a novel process based on molecular recognition principles are described for the selective separation and recovery of metals in industrial processes. This process, termed molecular recognition technology (MRT), has the capability to make selective separations at various stages in metal life cycles. Results are given for individual platinum group metal separations, recycling of palladium from end-of-life products, copper purification by control of impurity bismuth concentration levels, and purification of H2SO4 for use in health-related applications by Hg removal to 0.1 mg L-1 concentration levels. In each case, the metals are selectively separated in pure form and can be recovered for reuse or environmentally safe disposal. High metal selectivity is obtained using a pre-designed ligand bonded chemically by a tether to a solid support, such as silica gel. Separations are performed in column mode using feed solutions containing the target metal in a matrix of acid and/or other metals. The target metal is selectively separated by the silica gel-bound ligand, leaving other solution components to go to the raffinate, where individual components can be recovered, if desired. Minimal waste is generated. Elution of the washed column with a small volume of eluent produces a concentrated eluate of pure target metal, which is easily separated in pure form. The MRT process uses innocuous wash and elution chemicals and no solvents. Metal recovery rather than dispersal into the commons is essential from a metal sustainability standpoint. A major benefit of metal recycling is reduction in the amount of virgin ore that must be mined to replace discarded metals. As metal use increases, conservation of this valuable metal resource increases in importance. Metal recycling rates are generally low. From end-of-life high-tech electronic products, they are in the 1-5% range. Separation and recovery results presented here show that green chemistry MRT processes have great promise in increasing metal sustainability in industrial processes. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

Izatt S.R.,IBC Advanced Technologies Inc. | Izatt N.E.,IBC Advanced Technologies Inc. | Bruening R.L.,IBC Advanced Technologies Inc.
Journal of Rare Earths | Year: 2010

IBC Advanced Technologies' Molecular Recognition Technology (MRT) SuperLig(r) products selectively and rapidly bind with target species enabling their selective removal from solutions. The MRT process can produce a high purity separation product of maximum added value at a competitive cost. SuperLig(r) products have high selectivity for many target species which can include metal ions, anions, and neutral molecules. In operation, the SuperLig(r) product is first placed in a packed column. A solution containing a mixture of the target species and other chemical species is then passed through the column. The target species is removed selectively by the SuperLig(r) product, the column is washed to remove residual feed solution, and the target species is recovered by a minimal quantity of eluent. The result is a pure and concentrated species that can be kept for its value or disposed of safely. The process is environmentally and ecologically friendly with no organic solvents being used. This paper provides a review of some examples of applications of MRT to separations of interest to the Chinese metallurgical industry. Included are several applications of MRT, including Pd separations from Pt metal refinery streams and low-grade spent catalyst wastes, Rh recovery from spent auto catalyst and other feeds, Re removal from selected impurity ions, Cd removal from Co electrolyte, Bi removal from Cu electrolyte, In and Ge separations from difficult matrices, and removal of bivalent first transition series and other metal ions from acid mine drainage (Berkeley Pit, Montana). Finally, the potential application of MRT to separations involving the recovery of rare earth metals and Li from low-level waste solutions and end-of-life products is discussed. © 2010 The Chinese Society of Rare Earths.

Izatt S.R.,IBC Advanced Technologies Inc. | Bruening R.L.,IBC Advanced Technologies Inc. | Izatt N.E.,IBC Advanced Technologies Inc.
IPMI 38th Annual Conference "Precious Metals 2014: Back to the Future or Back to the Past" | Year: 2014

Application of green chemistry principles to platinum group metals (PGM) refining significantly improves metal recoveries and process economics, substantially reduces worker exposure to the toxic effects of traditional PGM refining, and greatly reduces the undesirable loss of toxic and valuable metals to the commons. A direct beneficiary of green chemistry processes is the environment. Less metal-containing or other wastes are discarded into water, air, landfills or incinerated. Greenhouse gases are nil. Worker health and safety are greatly benefitted since exposure to process chemicals is minimized. IBC's Molecular Recognition Technology (MRT) solid phase extraction processes incorporate green chemistry principles into their operation. Flow sheets containing commercially proven, highly selective separations of interest to the PGM industry are presented and discussed. These include separation of Ir from Rh; Pd from other PGM; sequential separations of Pd, Pt, and Rh from each other in a base metal matrix, and sequential separation of Pd, Pt, Ir, and Rh from each other in a base metal matrix. Green chemistry principles involved in the separations include no solvents used in the process, minimal waste created, innocuous chemicals used for wash and elution steps, no hazardous chemicals used or generated, minimal energy or water use, and metal recovery for reuse or safe disposal rather than metal dispersion to the environment.

Izatt R.M.,IBC Advanced Technologies Inc.
Chemical Engineering Progress | Year: 2015

The need for creative, practical ideas to improve metal sustainability is of utmost importance, with recycling rates near zero and demand for precious and specialty metals increasing as the number and variety of high-tech products increases. Incineration is becoming the method of choice for waste disposal worldwide Less space is required, and the potential environmental dangers of landfills are avoided. Incineration also creates an ash that contains residual metals, and disposal of the ash poses problems similar to those associated with landfills. One approach that involves recovering metals, rather than discarding them into the commons, is urban mining. The elemental content and concentrations in EOL products are usually known, so designing separation processes is easier. Metals can be extracted from EOL products with less environmental impact than extraction of the same metals from native ores using conventional mining procedures. In another successful green chemistry approach to metal separation, metal-selective ligands are chemically bound to solid supports, such as silica gel or polymer substrates, and used in a solid-phase extraction process. This Molecular Recognition Technology (MRT) process does not use organic solvents and has been employed in commercial systems for more than two decades.

Izatt N.E.,IBC Advanced Technologies Inc. | Bruening R.L.,IBC Advanced Technologies Inc. | Izatt S.R.,IBC Advanced Technologies Inc.
Sulphur 2014 30th International Conference and Exhibition | Year: 2014

Copper, Zn, and Pb sulfide ores often contain Hg as a trace contaminant. Commercial H2SO4 is a by-product of processing these ores. The concentration level of Hg in the H2SO4 product must be carefully monitored to ensure that harmful levels of Hg do not enter the environment through commercial use of the H2SO4. Without any treatment, approximately half of the Hg will be found in the product acid. Partial removal of Hg upstream in the process is desirable and normally achieved, but significant amounts, especially in non-OECD nations, report to the product acid. The present standard for commercial H2SO4 is <1 mg Hg/L while a content of <0.5 mg Hg/L is required if the H2SO4 is used in products such as fertilizer that may be linked to the food chain. Removal of Hg to these levels is challenging to current commercial separation methods. IBC Advanced Technologies, Inc. (IBC) has developed an Hg-selective SuperLig ® product, which can be used in a green chemistry procedure by H2SO4 producers either as a polisher, or as the primary technology for Hg removal from H2SO4. The Molecular Recognition Technology (MRT) SuperLig ® product selectively binds Hg2+, and to a lesser extent Hg22+, allowing separation of these species from concentrated H2SO4 by a solid phase extraction procedure. Mercury output levels of <0.1 mg/L can be attained by the MRT system. An important feature of the MRT system is that Hg can be concentrated by elution and recovered as pure product for reuse or environmentally friendly disposal contrary to the usual dispersal of material containing waste Hg into the commons by landfill or incineration. Results of successful pilot plant tests of the MRT process at base metal smelting operations will be presented. The MRT Hg system provides significant economic advantages in plant operations, as well as producing a high quality H2SO4 product with <0.1 mg/L Hg content that can be used safely in the fertilizer/food and other industries with minimal environmental impact.

Izatt N.E.,IBC Advanced Technologies Inc. | Bruening R.L.,IBC Advanced Technologies Inc. | Izatt S.R.,IBC Advanced Technologies Inc.
European Metallurgical Conference, EMC 2013 | Year: 2013

IBC has developed Molecular Recognition Technology (MRT) processes to selectively extract, recover, and purify a range of valuable metals from process streams. MRT separations are effective even at low (mg/L to μg/L) metal levels. The MRT process is an excellent way to produce high purity metals, and is energy efficient, and environmentally friendly as well as having a low carbon footprint. Several examples of metal purification will be presented and discussed.

Izatt S.R.,IBC Advanced Technologies Inc. | Bruening R.L.,IBC Advanced Technologies Inc. | Izatt N.E.,IBC Advanced Technologies Inc. | Izatt R.M.,IBC Advanced Technologies Inc.
39th International Precious Metals Conference: Charting Precious Metals through the Changing Currents of Compliance, Finance, Consumer Trends, Risk and New Technology, IPMI 2015 | Year: 2015

This paper reviews commercial applications of Molecular Recognition Technology (MRT) for green chemistry recycling of precious metals. Selective separations of gold, platinum, and ruthenium from solutions containing spent metals with complex matrices are presented and discussed. Benefits of the MRT process are described. Green chemistry principles involved in the separations include no solvents used in the process, minimal waste created, minimal energy and water use, and metal recovery for reuse or safe disposal rather than metal dispersal to the environment.

Izatt S.R.,IBC Advanced Technologies Inc. | Bruening R.L.,IBC Advanced Technologies Inc. | Izatt N.E.,IBC Advanced Technologies Inc.
JOM | Year: 2012

Molecular Recognition Technology (MRT) plays an important role in the hydrometallurgical processing dissolved entities in solutions in the mining industry. The status of this industry with respect to sustainability and environmental issues is presented and discussed. The roles of MRT and ion exchange in metal separation and recovery processes in the mining industry are discussed and evaluated. Examples of MRT separation processes of interest to the mining community are given involving gold, cobalt purification by extraction of trace cadmium, rhenium, and platinum group metals (PGMs). MRT processes are shown to be sustainable, economically viable, energy efficient, and environmentally friendly, and to have a low carbon footprint. © 2012 TMS.

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