Pires E.J.,IBB Institute for Biotechnology And Bioengineering |
Teixeira J.A.,IBB Institute for Biotechnology And Bioengineering |
Branyik T.,Institute of Chemical Technology Prague |
Vicente A.A.,IBB Institute for Biotechnology And Bioengineering
Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology | Year: 2014
Among the most important factors influencing beer quality is the presence of well-adjusted amounts of higher alcohols and esters. Thus, a heavy body of literature focuses on these substances and on the parameters influencing their production by the brewing yeast. Additionally, the complex metabolic pathways involved in their synthesis require special attention. More than a century of data, mainly in genetic and proteomic fields, has built up enough information to describe in detail each step in the pathway for the synthesis of higher alcohols and their esters, but there is still place for more. Higher alcohols are formed either by anabolism or catabolism (Ehrlich pathway) of amino acids. Esters are formed by enzymatic condensation of organic acids and alcohols. The current paper reviews the up-to-date knowledge in the pathways involving the synthesis of higher alcohols and esters by brewing yeasts. Fermentation parameters affecting yeast response during biosynthesis of these aromatic substances are also fully reviewed. © 2014 Springer-Verlag.
Shimanovich U.,University of Cambridge |
Bernardes G.J.L.,University of Cambridge |
Bernardes G.J.L.,University of Lisbon |
Knowles T.P.J.,University of Cambridge |
Cavaco-Paulo A.,IBB Institute for Biotechnology And Bioengineering
Chemical Society Reviews | Year: 2014
Micro- and nano-scale systems have emerged as important tools for developing clinically useful drug delivery systems. In this tutorial review, we discuss the exploitation of biomacromolecules for this purpose, focusing on proteins, polypeptides, nucleic acids and polysaccharides and mixtures thereof as potential building blocks for novel drug delivery systems. We focus on the mechanisms of formation of micro- and nano-scale protein-based capsules and shells, as well as on the functionalization of such structures for use in targeted delivery of bioactive materials. We summarise existing methods for protein-based capsule synthesis and functionalization and highlight future challenges and opportunities for delivery strategies based on biomacromolecules. © 2014 The Royal Society of Chemistry.
De Carvalho C.C.C.R.,IBB Institute for Biotechnology And Bioengineering
Biotechnology Advances | Year: 2011
The use of enzymes and whole bacterial cells has allowed the production of a plethora of compounds that have been used for centuries in foods and beverages. However, only recently we have been able to master techniques that allow the design and development of new biocatalysts with high stability and productivity. Rational redesign and directed evolution have lead to engineered enzymes with new characteristics whilst the understanding of adaptation mechanisms in bacterial cells has allowed their use under new operational conditions. Bacteria able to thrive under the most extreme conditions have also provided new and extraordinary catalytic processes. In this review, the new tools available for the improvement of biocatalysts are presented and discussed. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.
Sillankorva S.,IBB Institute for Biotechnology And Bioengineering
Biofouling | Year: 2010
Despite the recent enthusiasm for using bacteriophages as bacterial control agents, there are only limited studies concerning phage interaction with their respective hosts residing in mixed biofilm consortia and especially in biofilms where the host species is a minor constituent. In the present work, a study was made of mono and dual species biofilms formed by Pseudomonas fluorescens (Gram-negative) and/or Staphylococcus lentus (Gram-positive) and their fate after infection with phages. The dual species biofilms consisted predominantly of S. lentus. The exposure of these biofilms to a cocktail containing both P. fluorescens and S. lentus phages effectively killed and removed the hosts from the substratum. Additionally, this cocktail approach also controlled the hosts released from the biofilms to the planktonic phase. The ability of phages to control a host population present in minority in the mixed species biofilm was also assessed. For this objective, the biofilms were challenged only with phage phiIBB-PF7A, specific for P. fluorescens and the results obtained were to some extent unpredicted. First, phiIBB-PF7A readily reached the target host and caused a significant population decrease. Secondly, and surprisingly, this phage was also capable of causing partial damage to the biofilms leading to the release of the non-susceptible host (S. lentus) from the dual species biofilms to the planktonic phase. The efficiency of phage treatment of biofilms was to some extent dependent on the number of cells present and also conditioned by the infection strategy (dynamic or static) utilized in the infection of the biofilms. Nevertheless, in most circumstances phages were well capable of controlling their target hosts.
Fernandes P.,IBB Institute for Biotechnology And Bioengineering
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2010
The use of biocatalysts for the production of both consumer goods and building blocks for chemical synthesis is consistently gaining relevance. A significant contribution for recent advances towards further implementation of enzymes and whole cells is related to the developments in miniature reactor technology and insights into flow behavior. Due to the high level of parallelization and reduced requirements of chemicals, intensive screening of biocatalysts and process variables has become more feasible and reproducibility of the bioconversion processes has been substantially improved. The present work aims to provide an overview of the applications of miniaturized reactors in bioconversion processes, considering multi-well plates and microfluidic devices, update information on the engineering characterization of the hardware used, and present perspective developments in this area of research. © 2010 by the authors.
Mussatto S.I.,IBB Institute for Biotechnology And Bioengineering
Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture | Year: 2014
Brewer's spent grain (BSG) is the most abundant by-product generated from the beer-brewing process, representing approximately 85% of the total by-products obtained. This material is basically constituted by the barley grain husks obtained as solid residue after the wort production. Since BSG is rich in sugars and proteins, the main and quickest alternative for elimination of this industrial by-product has been as animal feed. However, BSG is a raw material of interest for application in different areas because of its low cost, large availability throughout the year and valuable chemical composition. In the last decade, many efforts have been directed towards the reuse of BSG, taking into account the incentive that has been given to recycle the wastes and by-products generated by industrial activities. Currently, many interesting and advantageous methods for application of BSG in foods, in energy production and in chemical and biotechnological processes have been reported. The present study presents and discusses the most recent perspectives for BSG application in such areas. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.
Rodrigues L.R.,IBB Institute for Biotechnology And Bioengineering
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology | Year: 2011
Microbial infections resulting from bacterial adhesion to biomaterial surfaces have been observed on almost all medical devices. Biofilm infections pose a number of clinical challenges due to their resistance to immune defence mechanisms and antimicrobials, and, regardless of the sophistication of the implant, all medical devices are susceptible to microbial colonisation and infection. Research efforts are currently directed towards eliminating or reducing infection of medical devices. Strategies to prevent biofilm formation include physiochemical modification of the biomaterial surface to create anti-adhesive surfaces, incorporation of antimicrobial agents into medical device polymers, mechanical design alternatives, and release of antibiotics. Nevertheless, the success of these alternatives has been modest, mainly due to the various environments into which devices are placed and the diversity of ways in which organisms can colonise surfaces. Biosurfactants have been reported as a promising strategy as they effectively inhibit bacterial adhesion and retard biofilm formation, and are thus potentially useful as a new generation of anti-adhesive and antimicrobial coatings for medical devices. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.
Alves D.,IBB Institute for Biotechnology And Bioengineering |
Olivia Pereira M.,IBB Institute for Biotechnology And Bioengineering
Biofouling | Year: 2014
Biomaterial-associated infections remain a serious concern in modern healthcare. The development of materials that can resist or prevent bacterial attachment constitutes a promising approach to dealing with this problem. Antimicrobial peptides (AMPs) and enzymes have been recognized as promising candidates for the new generation of antimicrobial surfaces. AMPs have been the focus of great interest in recent years owing to a low propensity for developing bacterial resistance, broad-spectrum activity, high efficacy at very low concentrations, target specificity, and synergistic action with classical antibiotics. Biofilm-dispersing enzymes have been shown to inhibit biofilm formation, detach established biofilm, and increase biofilm susceptibility to other antimicrobials. This review critically examines the potential of these protein-like compounds for developing antibacterial coatings by reporting their immobilization into different substrata using different immobilization strategies. © 2014 © 2014 Taylor & Francis.
Paterson R.R.M.,IBB Institute for Biotechnology And Bioengineering |
Lima N.,IBB Institute for Biotechnology And Bioengineering
Food Research International | Year: 2010
This invited review and opinion piece, assesses the impact of climate change on mycotoxins in food: only one paper and an abstract referred directly from a substantial literature search and then only in relation to Europe. Climate change is an accepted probability by most scientists. Favourable temperature and water activity are crucial for mycotoxigenic fungi and mycotoxin production. Fungal diseases of crops provide relevant information for pre-harvest mycotoxin contamination. However, the mycotoxin issue also involves post-harvest scenarios. There are no data on how mycotoxins affect competing organisms in crop ecosystems. In general, if the temperature increases in cool or temperate climates, the relevant countries may become more liable to aflatoxins. Tropical countries may become too inhospitable for conventional fungal growth and mycotoxin production. Could this lead to the extinction of thermotolerant Aspergillus flavus? Currently cold regions may become liable to temperate problems concerning ochratoxin A, patulin and Fusarium toxins (e.g. deoxynivalenol). Regions which can afford to control the environment of storage facilities may be able to avoid post-harvest problems but at high additional cost. There appears to be a lack of awareness of the issue in some non-European countries. The era will provide numerous challenges for mycotoxicologists. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd.
Resende T.,IBB Institute for Biotechnology And Bioengineering
Journal of integrative bioinformatics | Year: 2013
Helicobacter pylori is a pathogenic bacterium that colonizes the human epithelia, causing duodenal and gastric ulcers, and gastric cancer. The genome of H. pylori 26695 has been previously sequenced and annotated. In addition, two genome-scale metabolic models have been developed. In order to maintain accurate and relevant information on coding sequences (CDS) and to retrieve new information, the assignment of new functions to Helicobacter pylori 26695s genes was performed in this work. The use of software tools, on-line databases and an annotation pipeline for inspecting each gene allowed the attribution of validated EC numbers and TC numbers to metabolic genes encoding enzymes and transport proteins, respectively. 1212 genes encoding proteins were identified in this annotation, being 712 metabolic genes and 500 non-metabolic, while 191 new functions were assignment to the CDS of this bacterium. This information provides relevant biological information for the scientific community dealing with this organism and can be used as the basis for a new metabolic model reconstruction.