Horikawa C.,Niigata University |
Kodama S.,Niigata University |
Tanaka S.,Kyoto University |
Fujihara K.,Niigata University |
And 6 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Endocrinology and Metabolism | Year: 2013
Context: Recently, several studies have investigated the relationship between diabetes and hearing impairment, but results were inconsistent. Objective: Our objective was to compare the prevalence of hearing impairment between diabetic and nondiabetic adults. Data Sources: We performed a systematic literature search using MEDLINE (1950 to May 30, 2011) and EMBASE (1974 to May 30, 2011). Study Selection: Cross-sectional studies were included if data on numbers of hearing-impaired and non-hearing-impaired cases with diabetes were presented. Hearing impairment was limited to that assessed by pure-tone audiometry that included at least 2 kHz of frequency range and was defined as progressive, chronic, sensorineural, or without specified cause. Data Extraction: Two authors independently extracted relevant data. Odd ratios (ORs) of hearing impairment related to diabetes calculated in each study were pooled with the random-effects model. Data Synthesis: Data were obtained from 13 eligible studies (20,194 participants and 7,377 cases). Overall pooled OR (95% confidence interval) of hearing impairment for diabetic participants compared with nondiabetic participants was 2.15 (1.72-2.68). OR was higher in younger participants (mean age, ≤60 yr) than in those over 60 yr among which the OR remained significant (2.61 and 1.58, P = 0.008). The strength of the association between diabetes and prevalence of hearing impairment was not significantly influenced by whether participants were matched for age and gender (P = 0.68) or whether participants chronically exposed to noisy environments were excluded (P = 0.19). Conclusions: Current meta-analysis suggests that the higher prevalence of hearing impairment in diabetic patients compared with nondiabetic patients was consistent regardless of age. Copyright © 2013 by The Endocrine Society.
Tsunaka M.,Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences |
Chung J.C.C.,Hong Kong Polytechnic University
Ageing and Society | Year: 2012
Meaningful engagement in activity is associated with the maintenance of health and wellbeing, but reduced activity participation is common among persons with dementia. Family care-givers play an important role in engaging their relatives with dementia in activities but little is known about their perception of occupational engagement. This study aimed to examine care-givers' perception of occupational performance of their relatives from three aspects: person, occupation and environment. Adopting a qualitative methodology, semi-structured and in-depth interviews were conducted with 14 family care-givers. Care-givers were also asked to document the activity patterns of their relative, using the Activity Card Sort Hong Kong version (ACS-HK). The ACS-HK findings suggested that high-demand leisure activities were mostly retained (61%) while instrumental activities of daily living were the least retained (37%). Qualitative analysis revealed that care-givers' perception of activity participation was intertwined with their motives and behaviours to get their relatives engaged in activities. Care-givers acknowledged occupational engagement as a means of maintaining wellness and used various strategies to encourage their relative's activity participation. Apathy and passivity, however, are difficult to deal with. Also, activity decisions appear to depend on the availability of support resources and a balance between safety concern and risk-taking. Clinical practitioners could assist care-givers by suggesting activity strategies and providing support resources for continued engagement of their relative in activities. © 2011 Cambridge University Press.
Mutsuzaki H.,Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences |
Sakane M.,University of Tsukuba
Sports Medicine, Arthroscopy, Rehabilitation, Therapy and Technology | Year: 2011
Background: We developed a novel technique to improve tendon-bone attachment by hybridizing calcium phosphate (CaP) with a tendon graft using an alternate soaking process. However, the long-term result with regard to the interface between the tendon graft and the bone is unclear.Methods: We analyzed bone tunnel enlargement by computed tomography and histological observation of the interface and the tendon graft with and without the CaP hybridization 2 years after anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) reconstruction in goats using EndoButton and the postscrew technique (CaP, n = 4; control, n = 4).Results: The tibial bone tunnel enlargement rates in the CaP group were lower than those in the control group (p < 0.05). In the CaP group, in the femoral and tibial bone tunnels at the anterior and posterior of the joint aperture site, direct insertion-like formation that contained a cartilage layer without tidemarks was more observed at the tendon-bone interface than in the control group (p < 0.05). Moreover, the gap area between the tendon graft and the bone was more observed at the femoral bone tunnel of the joint aperture site in the control group than in the CaP group (p < 0.05). The maturation of the tendon grafts determined using the ligament tissue maturation index was similar in both groups.Conclusions: The CaP-hybridized tendon graft enhanced the tendon-bone healing 2 years after ACL reconstruction in goats. The use of CaP-hybridized tendon grafts can reduce the bone tunnel enlargement and gap area associated with the direct insertion-like formation in the interface near the joint. © 2011 Mutsuzaki and Sakane; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Saito K.,Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences
Nihon rinsho. Japanese journal of clinical medicine | Year: 2013
Smoking is one of the important risk factors of cardiovascular disease. Its effects on arteriosclerotic diseases act not only directly but indirectly, by worsening control of blood pressure, lipid metabolism and glucose metabolism. And in patients with diabetes, it affects both macroangiopathy and diabetic microangiopathy(especially diabetic nephronpathy) adversely. Unfortunately, all effects and mechanisms of smoking on metabolic diseases are not yet unclear. But smoking cessation improves lipid metabolism and may improve glucose metabolism and may decrease risk of impaired glucose tolerance, type 2 diabetes, and diabetic microangiopathy. All patients with metabolic diseases must quit smoking for control of diseases and prevention of arteriosclerotic disease as soon as possible.
Iizuka M.,Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences
Advances in Experimental Medicine and Biology | Year: 2010
In this brief review, I focused on the abdominal expiratory motor pattern in the rat. In the vagotomized adult rat, hypercapnic acidosis evoked two patterns of the abdominal expiratory activity; one with low amplitude expiratory discharge (E-all activity) that persisted throughout the expiratory phase, and another with late expiratory and high amplitude bursts (E2 activity) superimposed on the E-all activity. The E-all activity appeared from milder acidosis than the E2 activity. In the anesthetized, vagotomized or vagus-intact neonatal rats, abdominal muscles often showed not only E2 activity but also a smaller additional burst occurred just after the termination of diaphragmatic inspiratory activity (E1 activity). Since this E1 activity is rarely observed in the adult rat, the abdominal respiratory motor pattern likely changes during postnatal development. Under light anesthesia, vagal afferent feedback shortened the respiratory cycle period due to shortening of the expiratory duration. Further decrement in depth of anesthesia changed the biphasic E2+E1 abdominal motor activity pattern to E-all activity pattern in the vagus-intact neonatal rat. Since this Eall activity was typically observed with short cycle period in the vagus-intact neonatal rat, relation with the E-all activity in the vagotomized adult rat remained unknown. The vagal feedback should have roles not only in setting the cycle period short but also shaping the expiratory motor pattern in the neonatal rat. Although abdominal muscles in the in vitro preparation from neonatal rat also showed biphasic E2+E1 activity, E2 activity was shorter and/or smaller than the E1 activity. © Springer Science+Business Media, LLC 2010.
Iizuka M.,Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences
Respiratory Physiology and Neurobiology | Year: 2011
The abdominal muscles form part of the expiratory pump in cooperation with the other expiratory muscles, primarily the internal intercostal and triangularis sterni muscles. The discharge of abdominal muscles is divided into four main patterns: augmenting, plateau, spindle and decrementing. The patterns tend to be species-specific and dependent on the state of the central nervous system. Recent studies suggest that the abdominal muscles are more active than classically thought, even under resting conditions. Expiratory bulbospinal neurons (EBSN) in the caudal ventral respiratory group are the final output pathway to abdominal motoneurons in the spinal cord. Electrophysiological and anatomical studies indicated the excitatory monosynaptic inputs from EBSN to the abdominal motoneurons, although inputs from the propriospinal neurons seemed to be necessary to produce useful motor outputs. Respiration-related sensory modulation of expiratory neurons by vagal afferents that monitor the rate of change of lung volume and the end-expiratory lung volume (EELV) play a crucial role in modulating the drive to the abdominal musculature. Studies using in vitro and in situ preparations of neonatal and juvenile rats show bi-phasic abdominal activity, characterized by bursting at the end of expiration, a silent period during the inspiratory period, and another burst that occurs abruptly after inspiratory termination. Since the abdominal muscles rarely show these post-inspiratory bursts in the adult rat, the organization of the expiratory output pathway must undergo significant development alterations. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.
Akizuki K.,Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences |
Ohashi Y.,Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences
Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport | Year: 2014
Purpose: The influence of attention on postural control and the relationship between attention and falling has been reported in previous studies. Although a dual-task procedure is commonly used to measure attentional demand, such procedures are affected by allocation policy, which is a mental strategy to divide attention between simultaneous tasks. Therefore, we examined the effectiveness of salivary α-amylase, which is a physiological method for measuring attentional demand during postural control.Method: Sixteen healthy participants performed a postural-control task using the Balance System, which is a device that can be calibrated to a specific stability level ("Level 1 = least stable" to "Level 8 = most stable"). Levels 1, 2, and 3 were used for this study. Dependent variables measured were overall stability index, which represents the variance of platform displacement in degrees from a horizontal plane; probe reaction time, which was measured using a sound stimulator and recorder; and salivary α-amylase, which was measured using a portable salivary amylase analyzer.Results: As stability level of the test task decreased, both stability index and probe reaction time significantly increased. In addition, we identified a positive moderate correlation between probe reaction time and salivary α-amylase.Conclusions: Our results suggest that salivary α-amylase and probe reaction time reflect the change in attentional demands during a postural-control task and that salivary α-amylase may be an effective tool for evaluating attentional demands during postural control because it is noninvasive and simple to perform. © 2014 SHAPE America.
Mutsuzaki H.,Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences |
Ikeda K.,Ichihara Hospital
Journal of Orthopaedic Surgery and Research | Year: 2012
Background: Patients undergoing cementless total knee arthroplasty (TKA) sometimes suffer large blood loss. In a retrospective study, we explored whether postoperative intra-articular retrograde injection of tranexamic acid (TA) and leaving a drain clamp in place for 1 h reduced blood loss.Patients and methods: Patients (n = 140) treated with unilateral primary cementless TKA (posterior cruciate ligament retained) were divided into two groups: those who had an intra-articular injection of TA (1000 mg) and drain clamping for 1 h postoperatively (study group, n = 70) and those who were not given TA and did not undergo clamping of their drains (control group, n = 70). Postoperative total blood loss, volume of drainage, hemoglobin level, transfusion amounts and rates, D-dimer level at postoperative day (POD) 7, and complications were recorded.Results: Total blood loss, total drainage, mean transfusion volume, and transfusion rates were lower in the study group than in controls (P < 0.001). Hemoglobin levels on PODs 1 and 14 were similar in the groups, but on POD 7 the hemoglobin level was higher in the study group than in controls (P < 0.001). D-dimer level on POD 7 was lower in the study group than in controls (P < 0.05). There were no complications in either group.Conclusions: Immediately postoperative intra-articular retrograde injection of TA and 1 h of drain-clamping effectively reduced blood loss and blood transfusion after cementless TKA. We believe that this method is simple, easy, and suitable for these patients. © 2012 Mutsuzaki and Ikeda; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.
Yoshiba-Suzuki S.,Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences |
Sagara J.-I.,Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences |
Bannai S.,Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences |
Makino N.,Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences
Journal of Biochemistry | Year: 2011
Glutathione (GSH) plays an important neuroprotective role, and its synthesis depends on the amount of available cysteine (CSH) in the cells. Various kinds of evidence suggest that astrocytes can provide CSH or GSH to neurons, but the delivery mechanism of the thiol-compounds has not been elucidated. In this study, the dynamics of CSH, GSH and their disulphides in astrocyte culture medium were investigated by following the time-course of concentration changes and by computer simulation and curve fitting to experimental data using a mathematical model. The model consists of seven reactions and three transports, which are grouped into four categories: autoxidation of thiols into disulphides, thiol-disulphide exchange and reactions of thiols with medium components, as well as the cellular influx and efflux of thiols and disulphides. The obtained results are interpreted that cystine (CSSC) after entering astrocyte is reduced to CSH, most of which is released to medium and autoxidized to CSSC. The efflux of GSH was estimated to be considerably slower than that of CSH, and most of the excreted GSH is converted to cysteine-glutathione disulphide principally through the thiol-disulphide exchange. The results seem to indicate that astrocytes provide neurons mainly with CSH, rather than GSH, as the antioxidant material for neuroprotection. © The Authors 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Japanese Biochemical Society. All rights reserved.
Kawamura H.,Ibaraki Prefectural University of Health Sciences
Nihon Hoshasen Gijutsu Gakkai zasshi | Year: 2013
Polymer gels can be used as tissue equivalent dosimeters, and polymer gel dosimetry can be employed without perturbation of the radiation field. In this study, polymer gel dosimetry was used for small circular irradiation fields 10-30 mm in diameter using a radiation planning system. The irradiated gels were compared with planned data for a 50% dose width of 6 Gy dose maximum, and for the dose difference between gels and planned data over an 80% dose maximum area. The present study investigated magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) conditions based on an optimal dose-R2 calibration curve. The average difference between the full width half maximum of the 50% dose width between gels and planned data was 11%. The average dose difference over 80% of the dose was 5.6%. Optimal dose-R2 calibration curves were acquired using images with echo times of 30 and 60 ms. For cases of larger thicknesses and an increasing number of averages, the coefficients of variance of the curves were smaller than under other conditions. Compared to other traditional dosimetric tools, polymer gels have the advantage of providing three-dimensional dosimetric data. An arbitrary profile from the gel's data can be compared with the profile of the planned data. In the future, new gel dosimeters will be needed that demonstrate improved dose evaluation under 1 Gy and stability in high dose areas.