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Tokutake Y.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology | Iio W.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology | Onizawa N.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology | Onizawa N.,Ibaraki Prefectural Livestock Research Center | And 6 more authors.
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2012

Three coenzyme A (CoA) molecular species, i.e., acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA, and nonesterified CoA (CoASH), in 13 types of fasted rat tissue were analyzed. A relatively larger pool size of total CoA, consisting of acetyl-CoA, malonyl-CoA, and CoASH, was observed in the medulla oblongata, liver, heart, and brown adipose tissue. Focusing on changes in the CoA pool size in response to the nutrient composition of the diet given, total CoA pools in rats continuously fed a high-fat diet for 4. weeks were significantly higher in the hypothalamus, cerebellum, and kidney, and significantly lower in the liver and skeletal muscle than those of rats fed a high-carbohydrate or high-protein diet. In particular, reductions in the liver were remarkable and were caused by decreased CoASH levels. Consequently, the total CoA pool size was reduced by approximately one-fifth of the hepatic contents of rats fed the other diets. In the hypothalamus, which monitors energy balance, all three CoA molecular species measured were at higher levels when rats were fed the high-fat diet. Thus, it was of interest that feeding rats a high-fat diet affected the behaviors of CoA pools in the hypothalamus, liver, and skeletal muscle, suggesting a significant relationship between CoA pools, especially malonyl-CoA and/or CoASH pools, and lipid metabolism in vivo. © 2012 Elsevier Inc. Source


Uyeno Y.,Shinshu University | Uyeno Y.,National Federation of Dairy Co operative Associations | Kawashima K.,Chiba Prefectural Livestock Research Center | Hasunuma T.,Forestry and Fisheries Research Center | And 6 more authors.
Livestock Science | Year: 2013

The effects of oral administration of a prebiotic (cellooligosaccharide [CE]) and a combination of a probiotic (a commercial Clostridium butyricum strain) and prebiotics (referred to as symbiotics [SB]) on performance and intestinal ecology in Holstein calves fed milk replacer (MR) or whole milk were evaluated. Forty female calves (experiment 1) and 14 male and female calves (experiment 2) were used in this study. Calves were fed MR (experiment 1) or whole milk (experiment 2) necessary for daily weight gain of 0.3kg based on birth weight in two daily feedings and weaned at 46 days. Calves were divided into a CE feeding group, SB feeding group (only in experiment 1), and control group. The CE and SB groups were fed CE at 5g/day before weaning and 10g/day postweaning. Only the SB group received 108 colony-forming units (CFU) of C. butyricum culture per day. Commercial calf starter was offered for ad libitum intake. Health and feed intake of the animals were monitored daily, and body weight was measured weekly. Fecal samples were analyzed for determination of bacterial community composition by an RNA-based method (sequence-specific SSU rRNA cleavage method) and for organic acid profiling. In 49-day experiments, feed intake, daily gain, and occurrence of diarrhea of the calves were unaffected by either CE supplementation or SB supplementation, and all calves were healthy during each experiment. The fecal bacterial community compositions and the organic acid profiles were not different among groups in experiment 1. In experiment 2, the level of the Clostridium coccoides-Eubacterium rectale group was higher in the feces of CE group than controls at 4 weeks of age and fecal butyric acid concentration was higher (8.0 vs. 12.2 [mmol/kg feces], P<0.05) at that time. There were no differences in prebiotic bacteria (the genera Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium) between groups at this time point. These results suggested that CE and C. butyricum supplementation have less effect on the performance of healthy calves fed MR. However, prebiotic supplementation seems effective for modulation of the intestinal bacterial community of calves when administered with whole milk. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. Source


Hasunuma T.,Forestry and Fisheries Research Center | Hasunuma T.,University of Tsukuba | Kawashima K.,Chiba Prefectural Livestock Research Center | Nakayama H.,Aichi Prefectural Agricultural Research Center | And 11 more authors.
Animal Science Journal | Year: 2011

We investigated the effect of cellooligosaccharide (CE) or a combination of dextran and Lactobacillus casei ssp. casei strain JCM1134 T (synbiotic; SB) feeding on growth performance, fecal condition and hormone concentrations in Holstein calves. Fifty-two female Holstein calves were randomly assigned to three treatment groups: CE feeding group (n=16), SB feeding group (n=18), and control group (n=18). Body weight at 90days of age, as well as daily body weight gain (DG) and feed efficiency after weaning to 90days of age were greater (P<0.05) in the CE feeding group than in the control group. The total fecal score tended to be lower (P<0.1) in the SB feeding group than in the control group. Plasma insulin concentration was higher (P<0.05) in the CE feeding group than in the control group at 90days of age. Our results indicate that CE feeding improved DG and feed efficiency in calves. On the other hand, there was less effect on growth performance and fecal Escherichia coli counts in calves fed SB. © 2011 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science. Source


Ishii T.,Ibaraki Prefectural Livestock Research Center | Ishii T.,University of Tsukuba | Kawashima K.,Chiba Prefectural Livestock Research Center | Oribe H.,University of Tsukuba | And 10 more authors.
Animal Science Journal | Year: 2011

To decrease the age at first calving in Holsteins, the effects of average daily body weight gain (ADG) and crude protein (CP) level until first insemination on growth performance and milk production were examined. The MM group had a target ADG of 0.75kg and received a diet with a CP level of 14%. The HM and HH groups had a target ADG of 1kg; both these groups received a diet with CP levels 14% and 16%, respectively. The ADG in the HM and HH groups was 1.1kg, whereas in the MM group it was 0.97kg (P<0.01). The HM and HH groups showed no differences in withers height at body weight 350kg. The ages at first calving in MM, HM and HH groups were 23.1, 21.0 and 21.8months, respectively. The HM and HH groups had lower milk yield at day 305 than the MM group (P<0.01). These results suggest that growth performance until first insemination should be maintained at an ADG of 0.97kg or less with a CP level of approximately 14%, to shorten time until first insemination and prevent the decrease of milk yield. © 2011 The Authors. Animal Science Journal © 2011 Japanese Society of Animal Science. Source


Akagi S.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Yamaguchi D.,Ibaraki Prefectural North Livestock Hygiene Service Center | Matsukawa K.,Kochi University | Mizutani E.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Reproduction and Development | Year: 2011

Aggregation of somatic cell nuclear transfer (SCNT) embryos in mice is reported to improve full-term development. In the present study, we attempted to improve the development of SCNT embryos by aggregation in cattle. In Experiment 1, to examine the effect of the timing of aggregation on in vitro development of cumulus-cell NT embryos, we aggregated two or three SCNT embryos (2X or 3X embryos) at the 1-cell, 8-cell and 16- to 32-cell stages. Irrespective of the timing of aggregation, 3X embryos developed to the blastocyst stage at a high rate. However, aggregation did not improve the total blastocyst formation rate of the embryos used. The cell numbers of 3X embryos aggregated at the 1-cell stage and 2X embryos tended to be higher than that of single NT embryos (1X embryos). Furthermore, a significant increase in cell number was observed in 3X embryos aggregated at the 8-cell stage and 16- to 32-cell stage. In Experiment 2, we used fibroblast cells as nuclear donors and examined in vitro development of 3X embryos aggregated at the 8-cell stage and 16- to 32-cell stage. As a result, 3X embryos had high blastocyst formation rates and higher cell numbers than 1X embryos, which was consistent with the results of Experiment 1. In Experiment 3, we examined the full-term developmental ability of 3X embryos aggregated at the 8-cell stage and 16- to 32-cell stage. After transfer of fibroblast-derived NT embryos into recipient animals, a significantly higher pregnancy rate was obtained on Day 60 in 3X embryos than in 1X embryos. Two embryos aggregated at 8-cell stage and one embryo aggregated at the 16- to 32-cell stage developed to term, while no pregnancies derived from 1X embryos that lasted to Day 60. However, two of the cloned calves were stillborn. These results suggest that aggregation of the 8-cell stage or 16- to 32-cell stage SCNT embryos may improve the pregnancy rate, but that it cannot reduce the high incidence of fetal loss and stillbirth, which is often observed in bovine SCNT. © 2011 by the Society for Reproduction and Development. Source

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