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Millbury, MA, United States

Jongen Y.,IBA Inc
CYCLOTRONS 2010 - 19th International Conference on Cyclotrons and Their Applications

The science and technology of proton and carbon therapy was initially developed in national and university laboratories. The first hospital based proton therapy facility was built at Loma Linda University with the help from Fermilab. After this initial phase, and starting with the tender for the proton therapy system at MGH, many proton and carbon beam facilities have been ordered from industry and built. Industrially made proton and carbon therapy facilities represent today the vast majority of the installed base. Source

Berejka A.J.,Ionicorp | Cleland M.R.,IBA Inc | Walo M.,Institute of Nuclear Chemistry and Technology of Poland
Radiation Physics and Chemistry

The evolution of industrial radiation processing is traced from Roentgen's discovery of X-radiation in 1895 by following the development of high current, electron beam accelerators (EB) throughout the twentieth century. Although Becquerel soon followed Roentgen with his discovery of what became to be known as radioactivity, electrical sources for ionizing radiation dominate industrial processing with there being more than ten times as many industrial installations using high current EB equipment than the facilities relying upon large concentrations of radioactive isotopes. In the 1950s, the discovery that ionizing radiation would enhance the value of what has become the world's largest volume commodity plastic, polyethylene (PE), opened the way for full scale commercial use of high current EB equipment. While the crosslinking of the PE insulation on wire became one of the first major industrial applications, other uses of EB processing soon followed. In the 1970s, low-energy, self-shielded EB equipment made the surface curing of inks, coatings and adhesives more industrially viable. In the early part of the twenty-first century, new market applications involving the low-energy EB surface decontamination of packaging materials emerged. This new area poses challenges for the metrology needed to control industrial processes, in that there is limited EB penetration into what have been used as dosimeters by industry. Major industrial use of radiation process is now over 50 years old. Because of the diversity of end-uses and the fact that the use of ionizing radiation in industry is a process technique, it is hard to quantify the value-added to numerous commercial products that benefit from this energy efficient process. It may be in excess of a trillion Euros in value-added to articles of commerce. In this milieu, there are some broad-based opportunities for research which are noted. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Ghani S.,IBA Inc
IWCMC 2010 - Proceedings of the 6th International Wireless Communications and Mobile Computing Conference

The Self Similar nature of Internet traffic is a widely known phenomenon. This paper studies the impact of such traffic on a variety of wireless LAN scenarios. Simulations are carried out using the QualNet simulator. These are compared to estimated theoretical delays of a truncated Pareto distribution. The results illustrate that the impact on delay of Self Similar traffic on wireless LANs can be significant in certain scenarios. Selected results are also compared with theoretical approximations for estimating these delays. © 2010 ACM. Source

Cleland M.R.,IBA Inc | Stichelbaut F.,Ion Beam Applications IBA
Radiation Physics and Chemistry

The radiation processing of materials and commercial products with high-energy X-rays, which are also identified by the German term bremsstrahlung, can produce beneficial changes that are similar to those obtained by irradiation with nuclear gamma rays emitted by cobalt-60 sources. Both X-rays and gamma rays are electromagnetic radiations with short wavelengths and high photon energies that can stimulate chemical reactions by creating ions and free radicals in irradiated materials. Nevertheless, there are some physical differences in these energy sources that can influence the choice for practical applications. The English translation of bremsstrahlung is braking radiatiorn or deceleration radiation. It is produced when energetic electrons are deflected by the strong electric field near an atomic nucleus. The efficiency for producing this kind of electromagnetic energy increases with the kinetic energy of the electrons and the atomic number of the target material. The energy spectrum of the emitted X-ray photons is very broad and extends up to the maximum energy of the incident electrons. In contrast, a cobalt-60 nucleus emits two gamma rays simultaneously, which have well-defined energies. Another significant difference is the angular distribution of the radiation. Nuclear gamma rays are emitted in all directions, but high-energy bremsstrahlung photons are concentrated in the direction of the incident electrons when they strike the target material. This property enables an X-ray processing facility to be more compact than a gamma-ray processing facility with similar throughput capacity, and it increases the penetration and the efficiency for absorbing the emitted X-ray energy in the irradiated material. Recent increases in the electron energy and the electron beam power from modern industrial accelerators have increased the throughput rates in X-ray processing facilities, so that this irradiation method is now economically competitive with large cobalt-60 facilities. Several industrial facilities are now equipped to provide radiation processing with X-rays. This paper describes the characteristics of high-energy, high-power X-rays, and some practical applications in curing polymeric materials with this kind of radiation. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Corcoran A.T.,The Surgical Center | Russo P.,Sloan Kettering Cancer Center | Lowrance W.T.,University of Utah | Asnis-Alibozek A.,IBA Inc | And 4 more authors.

Objective: To clearly define the proportions of benign vs malignant histologic findings in resected renal masses through an in-depth review of the contemporary medical data to assist in preoperative risk assessment. Materials and Methods: PubMed and select oncology congresses were searched for publications that identify the histologic classification of resected renal masses in a representative sample from the contemporary data: [search] incidence AND (renal cell carcinoma AND benign); incidence AND (renal tumor AND benign); percentage AND (renal cell carcinoma AND benign); limit 2003-2011. Results: We identified 26 representative studies meeting the inclusion criteria and incorporating 27,272 patients. The frequency of benign tumors ranged from 7% to 33%, with most studies within a few percentage points of the mean (14.5% ± 5.2%, median 13.9%). Clear cell renal cell carcinoma occurred in 46% to 83% of patients, with a mean of 68.3% (median 61.3; SD = 11.9%). An inverse relationship between tumor size and benign pathologic features was identified in 14 of 19 (74%) studies that examined an association between tumor size and pathologic characteristics. A statistically significant correlation between clear cell renal cell carcinoma and tumor size was identified in 13 of 19 studies (63%). The accuracy of preoperative cross-sectional imaging was low in the 2 studies examining computed tomography (17%). Conclusion: Benign renal tumors represent ∼15% of detected surgically resected renal masses and are more prevalent among small clinical T1a lesions. Noninvasive preoperative differentiation between more and less aggressive renal masses would be an important clinical advance that could allow clinicians greater diagnostic confidence and guide patient management through improved risk stratification. © 2013 Elsevier Inc. Source

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