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Abedinpour M.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Sarangi A.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Rajput T.B.S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Singh M.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | And 2 more authors.
Agricultural Water Management | Year: 2012

Crop growth simulation models of varying complexity have been developed for predicting the effects of soil, water and nutrients on grain and biomass yields and water productivity of different crops. These models are calibrated and validated for a given region using the data generated from field experiments. In this study, a water-driven crop model AquaCrop, developed by FAO was calibrated and validated for maize crop under varying irrigation and nitrogen regimes. The experiment was conducted at the research farm of the Water Technology Centre, IARI, New Delhi during kharif 2009 and 2010. Calibration was done using the data of 2009 and validation with the data of 2010. Irrigation applications comprised rainfed, i.e. no irrigation (W 1) irrigation at 50% of field capacity (FC) (W 2) at 75% FC (W 3) and full irrigation (W 4). Nitrogen application levels were no nitrogen (N 1), 75kgha -1 (N 2) and 150kgha -1 (N 3). Model efficiency (E), coefficient of determination (R 2), Root Mean Square error (RMSE) and Mean Absolute Error (MAE) were used to test the model performance. The model was calibrated for simulating maize grain and biomass yield for all treatment levels with the prediction error statistics 0.95 Source

Yadachi S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Mani I.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Kalra M.S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Lande S.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Varghese C.,IASRI
AMA, Agricultural Mechanization in Asia, Africa and Latin America | Year: 2014

The biometric properties of seeds play an important role in designing seed metering device. Physical and engineering properties of carrot seed both uncoated S1 and coated with biogas slurry S2 and Thirame S3 were evaluated in the laboratory. The average length and breadth of the uncoated, slurry coated and Thirame coated seed were 2.90 ± 0.58 and 0.96 ± 0.2 mm; 3.01 ± 0.45 and 1.02 ± 0.1 mm; 2.77 ± 0.69 and 1.40 ± 0.42 mm, respectively. Biogas slurry coating enhanced the length and breadth, mean diameter of seed with 5 % level of significance. Roundness and sphericity of uncoated, slurry coated and Thirame coated seed were 48.82 ± 0.33 and 34.57 ± 0.34; 30.75 ± 0.27 % and 34.4 ± 0.41; 44.12 ± 0.42 % and 33.3 ± 0.21 %, respectively. Mean diameter was maximum for Thirame coated seed S3 (1.33 ± 0.26mm) followed by slurry coated seed S2 (1.23 ± 0.18 mm), and uncoated seed S1 (1.17 ± 0.11 mm), respectively. Thousand seed weight, W 1, 000 of S1, S2 and S3 was 1.63 ± 0.13 g, 2.15 ± 0.6 g and 3.77 ± 0.50 g, respectively. Percent increment in 1,000 seed weight of S2 was 24.03 due to biogas slurry coating and the W 1,000 of S3 was highest, which was 56.37 percent higher than the uncoated seed S1. Angle of repose and static coefficient of friction for mild steel surface were 35.3 ± 14.1° and 0.73 ± 0.05; 36.13 ± 10.8° and 0.74 ± 0.03; 36.46 ± 13.1° and 0.78 ± 0.1 for uncoated seed S1, slurry coated seed S2 and Thirame coated seed S3, respectively. Source

Yadav D.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Singh Y.V.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Kumar D.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Gaind S.,IASRI | And 2 more authors.
Indian Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2015

A field experiment was conducted at New Delhi in rainy (kharif) season of 2013 to study the effect of 2 sources of phosphorus, viz. rock phosphate (RP) and di-ammonium phosphate (DAP), 2 levels of phosphorus viz. 15 and 30 kgP/ha and 2 microbial inoculants viz. phosphate-solubilizing bacteria (PSB) and arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi (AMF) in different combination along with control on growth, productivity and economics of aerobic rice (Oryza sativa L.). Seed was inoculated with liquid formulation of PSB @ 250 ml/ha before sowing and AMF was applied @ 12 kg/ha in the furrows at the time of sowing. Recommended doses of N (120 kg/ha) and K (40 kg/ha) were applied in all the treatments. Results revealed that plant height, tillers/plant, dry-matter/plant, panicle/plant and yield (5.62 t/ha) of aerobic rice increased significantly due to application of 30 kg P/ha through RP + PSB + AMF. There was significant increase in plant height, tillers, dry-matter, number of panicles and grain yield of aerobic rice with increase in P application rate from 15 kg P/ha to 30 kg P/ha applied either through DAP or RP. The application of 30 kg P/ha through RP + PSB + AMF resulted in highest net return (139.0 × 103 ₹/ha) of aerobic rice. © 2015 Indian Society of Agronomy. All rights reserved. Source

Narain P.,IASRI
Molecular Breeding | Year: 2010

Most characters of economic importance in plants and animals, and complex diseases in humans, exhibit quantitative variation, the genetics of which has been a fascinating subject of study since Mendel's discovery of the laws of inheritance. The classical genetic basis of continuous variation based on the infinitesimal model of Fisher and mostly using statistical methods has since undergone major modifications. The advent of molecular markers and their extensive mapping in several species has enabled detection of genes of metric characters known as quantitative trait loci (QTL). Modeling the high-resolution mapping of QTL by association analysis at the population level as well as at the family level has indicated that incorporation of a haplotype of a pair of single-nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) in the model is statistically more powerful than a single marker approach. High-throughput genotyping technology coupled with micro-arrays has allowed expression of thousand of genes with known positions in the genome and has provided an intermediate step with mRNA abundance as a sub-phenotype in the mapping of genotype onto phenotype for quantitative traits. Such gene expression profiling has been combined with linkage analysis in what is known as eQTL mapping. The first study of this kind was on budding yeast. The associated genetic basis of protein abundance using mass spectrometry has also been attempted in the same population of yeast. A comparative picture of transcript vs. protein abundance levels indicates that functionally important changes in the levels of the former are not necessarily reflected in changes in the levels of the latter. Genes and proteins must therefore be considered simultaneously to unravel the complex molecular circuitry that operates within a cell. One has to take a global perspective on life processes instead of individual components of the system. The network approach connecting data on genes, transcripts, proteins, metabolites etc. indicates the emergence of a systems quantitative genetics. It seems that the interplay of the genotype-phenotype relationship for quantitative variation is not only complex but also requires a dialectical approach for its understanding in which 'parts' and 'whole' evolve as a consequence of their relationship and the relationship itself evolves. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Pandey R.K.,Amity University | Singh S.R.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Gupta P.K.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute | Goswami B.K.,Amity University | And 2 more authors.
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2011

Biocontrol potential of the parasitic fungus Paecilomyces lilacinus (Pl-181) strain was isolated from the egg masses of the nematode affected tomato (Solanum esculentum L.; syn Lycopersium esculentum Mill.) crops was evaluated for the management of root-knot nematode (Meloidogyne incognita Chitwood). The fungal isolate grown on starch rich grains was tested for an ideal formulation with different natural and synthetic inert carrier material. Keeping in view the parameters like colony count, shelf-life coupled with easy dispersibility out of Attapulgite-based clay dust powder +peat powder, heavy loam soil powder + peat powder, talc fine powder + peat powder, kaolin light powder + peat powder, boric acid powder + peat powder, bentonite powder + peat powder and Paecilomyces lilacinus + alone were tried separately. Attapulgite-based clay dust powder + peat powder + Acacia gum powder showed best performance in respect to all the three parameters and also suppressed M. incognita population to a greater extent. Source

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