San Michele Mondovì, Italy
San Michele Mondovì, Italy
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Gomez-Brandon M.,University of Innsbruck | Ascher-Jenull J.,University of Innsbruck | Ascher-Jenull J.,University of Florence | Bardelli T.,University of Innsbruck | And 12 more authors.
Forest Ecology and Management | Year: 2017

Although slope aspect determines the amount of solar irradiation, with implications on the functioning of forest ecosystems, little is known yet about how this affects the aboveground deadwood decomposition dynamics. Therefore, we set up a climosequence case study to evaluate the impact of slope exposure (north- vs. south-facing sites) on the physico-chemical and microbiological properties of Picea abies coarse woody debris (CWD) at different stages of natural decay (decay classes, DCls 1–5) in an Italian Alpine setting. Variations in bacterial, fungal and archaeal abundances were assessed by real-time PCR in the extra- and intracellular DNA fractions (eDNA vs. iDNA) of the total deadwood DNA pool. Physico-chemical wood properties (macro- and micronutrients; lignin and cellulose content; 3D structure via X-ray microtomography) were also performed along with the determination of key enzymatic activities involved in the main nutrient cycles. Overall, higher microbial abundances were registered in Picea abies CWD samples at the cooler, more acidic and moister north-facing site, which are favourable conditions especially for fungal wood decomposers. This thermal signal (N > S) was more evident for the advanced decay stages (DCls 4 and 5), being wood pH the most determinant factor for discriminating between both slopes. We also found that the impact of exposure was enzyme-specific and strongly dependent on the decay class, except for those enzymes involved in the P cycle. In addition, the eDNA/iDNA ratio provided a simple yet powerful index of microbial activity in terms of exposure, with lower values at the north-facing slope indicative of a higher microbial activity. This is in line with the more pronounced physical wood damage detected at this slope by the X-ray microtomography. A higher microbial activity at the cooler north-facing site rather seems surprising – a circumstance that probably is not due to temperature itself but due to increased moisture availability at this slope. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.

Mathey M.M.,Oregon State University | Mookerjee S.,Michigan State University | Mahoney L.,University of New Hampshire | Finn C.E.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 13 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2014

Strawberry is one of the five fruit crops included in the USDA-funded multiinstitutional and trans-disciplinary project, "RosBREED: Enabling Marker- Assisted Breeding in Rosaceae". A Crop Reference Set (CRS) was developed of 900 genotypes and seedlings from 40 crosses representing the breadth of relevant diversity and encompassing founders used in breeding the domesticated strawberry. Individual native species and cultivar genotypes were included along with 10 progeny from 36 of the crosses of genotypes representing eastern and western North American and European short day and remontant cultivars. This CRS has been phenotyped in five U.S. states. Over 14 fruit quality traits have been studied, as well as remontancy, truss size, peduncle length, crop estimate, plant architecture, and disease resistance. The phenotyping conducted in the first growing season showed considerable variability amongst the genotypes and the locations for all of the characteristics. General and specific combining ability variance components were determined from the populations in order to provide breeders with guidance on the most effective breeding strategies for incorporating the superior traits from this germplasm into their programs.

Fasolato L.,University of Padua | Novelli E.,University of Padua | Camin F.,IASMA | Perini M.,IASMA | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

The aim of this study was to apply biometric measurements and analyses of proximate composition, fatty acid composition, and ratios of stable isotopes of carbon (δ13C) and nitrogen (δ15N) in muscle tissue to reliably differentiate between wild and farmed European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax). Farmed (n = 20) and wild (n = 19) European sea bass were purchased between March and May 2008 and used as standard samples. In the same months, a survey was conducted to evaluate the truthfulness of the statements on the labels of European sea bass sold in retail markets (declared farmed n = 34 and declared wild n = 33). In addition, data from the literature (reference) were employed to build the profile type of wild and farmed European sea bass. Primarily, an exploration and comparison of the analytical data of the standard data set based on principal component analysis and permutation test were performed. Afterward, an inferential statistical approach based on nonparametric combination test methodology (NPC) was applied on standard samples to check its suitability in discriminating the production method. This multivariate statistical analysis selected 30 variables on a total of 36 available. The validation of standard fish data set was accomplished by a novel nonparametric rank-based method according to profile type (just 1 misclassification over 39 samples). Both the NPC test and nonparametric rank-based method were then applied to survey fishes using the selected variables with the aim to classify the individual European sea bass as "true farmed" or "true wild". The former test segregated 10 fishes over 33 declared wild, whereas the results obtained by the nonparametric rank-based method showed that 11 of 33 declared wild European sea bass samples could be unquestionably attributed to the wild cluster. Moreover, considering the comparative contribution of profile type, a few surveyed farmed samples were ascribed to the wild cluster. ©2010 American Chemical Society.

Petrillo M.,University of Zürich | Petrillo M.,Swiss Federal Institute of forest | Cherubini P.,Swiss Federal Institute of forest | Sartori G.,Museo delle Science | And 8 more authors.
IForest | Year: 2016

To describe the decay stage of coarse woody debris (CWD) a five decay-class system has been introduced and it is currently the most commonly applied. This system is based on visual, geometric and tactile features of the wood in the field; however, a detailed chemical characterization is often missing. Furthermore, the driving mechanisms (particularly substrate quality vs. environmental conditions) of deadwood decay are controversially discussed. Consequently, we investigated how typical major and minor chemical parameters of wood were correlated with the decay stage. The decomposition patterns of Norway spruce (Picea abies (L.) Karst) and European larch (Larix deciduas Mill.) CWD of an Alpine setting were analyzed, and how the chemical and physical parameters were affected by the substrate and environmental conditions was checked. Two altitudinal sequences, having a different exposure (northvs. south-facing sites), were sampled. We measured main biochemical compounds (lignin and cellulose), physical properties (density and water content), element concentrations (C, N, P, K, Ca, Mg, Fe, Mn), and the carbon isotopic signature (δ13C) of living trees and CWD at five decomposition stages (decay classes). Most investigated wood physico-chemical parameters such as wood density, water content, lignin and cellulose and even minor constituents (N, Ca, Mg, P, Fe, Mn) correlated well to the five decay-class system. Some important components, such as the carbon concentration and δ13C, did not vary with increasing decomposition. Our hypothesis that the different substrate should be traceable during CWD decay had to be rejected, although some statistically significant chemical differences between larch and spruce were measured in the living trees. The chosen tree species were probably not different enough to be chemically traceable in the CWD. Already in decay class 1, these differences were zeroed. The site conditions (expressed by the different altitudes and exposure) influenced only some of the investigated parameters, namely lignin, the δ13C isotopic ratio and nutrients such as P, Ca and K. © SISEF.

Ottavian M.,University of Padua | Facco P.,University of Padua | Fasolato L.,University of Padua | Novelli E.,University of Padua | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2012

The possibility of using near-infrared spectroscopy (NIRS) for the authentication of wild European sea bass (Dicentrarchus labrax) was investigated in this study. Three different chemometric techniques to process the NIR spectra were developed, and their ability to discriminate between wild and farmed sea bass samples was evaluated. One approach used spectral information to directly build the discrimination model in a latent variable space; the second approach first used wavelets to transform the spectral information and subsequently derived the discrimination model using the transformed spectra; in the third approach a cascaded arrangement was proposed whereby very limited chemical information was first estimated from spectra using a regression model, and this estimated information was then used to build the discrimination model in a latent variable space. All techniques showed that NIRS can be used to reliably discriminate between wild and farmed sea bass, achieving the same classification performance as classification methods that use chemical properties and morphometric traits. However, compared to methods based on chemical analysis, NIRS-based classification methods do not require reagents and are simpler, faster, more economical, and environmentally safer. All proposed techniques indicated that the most predictive spectral regions were those related to the absorbance of groups CH, CH 2, CH 3, and H 2O, which are related to fat, fatty acids, and water content. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Tedeschi R.,University of Turin | Baldessari M.,IASMA | Mazzoni V.,IASMA | Trona F.,IASMA | Angeli G.,IASMA
Journal of Economic Entomology | Year: 2012

In the current study, incidence of 'Candidatus Phytoplasma mali' in an experimental apple orchard in northeast Italy, in addition to abundance and phytoplasma infectivity of Cacopsylla melanoneura (Frster) (Hemiptera: Psyllidae) was determined and the role of this psyllid as a vector of 'Ca. P. mali' in this region was reviewed. Insect samples collected in the orchard by the beating method indicated high abundance of C. melanoneura (up to 7.92 specimens/branch); however, the psyllid C. picta was not observed. Molecular analyses revealed presence of 'Ca. P. mali' in 6.25% of overwintered psyllids. This infection rate is quite high in comparison to other localities where C. melanoneura is known as the main vector of the phytoplasma. This finding supports the assumption that C. melanoneura also is paramount in the epidemiology of the apple proliferation disease also in northeast Italy. Moreover, we correlated immigration dynamics to the temperatures registered in the apple orchard, and defined an immigration index to predict the progressive arrival of the overwintered adults from winter sites. Psyllids start to reach the apple orchards when either the average of the maximum temperature of the 7 d is above 9.5°C or the immigration index has a positive value. This index will be a useful tool for the growers to prevent apple proliferation phytoplasma spread with well-timed insecticide treatments targeted against C. melanoneura. However, further research is needed to validate or adjust the index to other apple growing regions, which may affect more efficacious management of this disease and psyllid vector. © 2012 Entomological Society of America.

Iglesias I.,IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology | Bonany J.,IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology | Batlle I.,IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology | Reig G.,IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology | And 7 more authors.
Acta Horticulturae | Year: 2016

Red coloration of apple skin is a key factor for consumer acceptance of fruit within the marketplace and is used as a grading standard in the main producing countries. Red colour intensity results from the accumulation of anthocyanin pigments, which is dependent on the cultivar, fruit maturity and environmental conditions, in particular light and temperature. Many red skin apple cultivars grown under warm summer conditions do not redden as much when they are grown in locations with cool summer; however, some strains of 'Gala' (e.g., 'Brookfield GalaTM') and other red skin cultivars (e.g. 'ModiTM'), are capable of reddening under warm conditions, which indicates genetic variability exists for response to temperature. To unravel the role of temperature on the regulation of the expression of key genes involved in the biosynthesis of anthocyanin a combined approach was used, on fruits of the same cultivar, grown in two different environments, that were exposed to warm (Spain) and cool (New Zealand) controlled temperatures. Genetic markers linked to high intensity colouration have been developed for use in marker-assisted breeding, which will enable the development of red skin apples adapted to these conditions.

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