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Cruz-Izquierdo S.,Centro Alameda del Obispo | Cruz-Izquierdo S.,Colegio de Mexico | Avila C.M.,Centro Alameda del Obispo | Satovic Z.,University of Zagreb | And 6 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2012

This study presents the development of an enhanced map in faba bean. The map contains 258 loci, mostly gene-based markers, organized in 16 linkage groups that expand 1,875 cM, with an average inter-marker distance of 7.26 cM. The combination of EST-derived markers with a number of markers physically located or previously ascribed to chromosomes by trisomic segregation, allowed the allocation of eight linkage groups (229 markers), to specific chromosomes. Moreover, this approach provided anchor points to establish a global homology among the faba bean chromosomes and those of closely-related legumes species. The map was used to identify and validate, for the first time, QTLs controlling five flowering and reproductive traits: days to flowering, flowering length, pod length, number of seeds per pod and number of ovules per pod. Twelve QTLs stable in the 2 years of evaluation were identified in chromosomes II, V and VI. Comparative mapping suggested the conservation of one of the faba bean genomic regions controlling the character days to flowering in other five legume species (Medicago, Lotus, pea, lupine, chickpea). Additional syntenic co-localizations of QTLs controlling pod length and number of seeds per pod between faba bean and Lotus japonicus are likely. The new genetic map opens the way for further translational studies between faba bean and related legume species, and provides an efficient tool for breeding applications such as QTL analysis and marker-assisted selection. © 2012 Springer-Verlag. Source

Satovic Z.,Centro Alameda del Obispo | Satovic Z.,University of Zagreb | Avila C.M.,Centro Alameda del Obispo | Cruz-Izquierdo S.,Centro Alameda del Obispo | And 11 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2013

Background: Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is among the earliest domesticated crops from the Near East. Today this legume is a key protein feed and food worldwide and continues to serve an important role in culinary traditions throughout Middle East, Mediterranean region, China and Ethiopia. Adapted to a wide range of soil types, the main faba bean breeding objectives are to improve yield, resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, seed quality and other agronomic traits. Genomic approaches aimed at enhancing faba bean breeding programs require high-quality genetic linkage maps to facilitate quantitative trait locus analysis and gene tagging for use in a marker-assisted selection. The objective of this study was to construct a reference consensus map in faba bean by joining the information from the most relevant maps reported so far in this crop.Results: A combination of two approaches, increasing the number of anchor loci in diverse mapping populations and joining the corresponding genetic maps, was used to develop a reference consensus map in faba bean. The map was constructed from three main recombinant inbreed populations derived from four parental lines, incorporates 729 markers and is based on 69 common loci. It spans 4,602 cM with a range from 323 to 1041 loci in six main linkage groups or chromosomes, and an average marker density of one locus every 6 cM. Locus order is generally well maintained between the consensus map and the individual maps.Conclusion: We have constructed a reliable and fairly dense consensus genetic linkage map that will serve as a basis for genomic approaches in faba bean research and breeding. The core map contains a larger number of markers than any previous individual map, covers existing gaps and achieves a wider coverage of the large faba bean genome as a whole. This tool can be used as a reference resource for studies in different genetic backgrounds, and provides a framework for transferring genetic information when using different marker technologies. Combined with syntenic approaches, the consensus map will increase marker density in selected genomic regions and will be useful for future faba bean molecular breeding applications. © 2013 Satovic et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

De la Rosa R.,IFAPA Centro Alameda del Obispo | Talhaoui N.,IFAPA Centro Alameda del Obispo | Rouis H.,IFAPA Centro Alameda del Obispo | Velasco L.,IAS CSIC | Leon L.,IFAPA Centro Alameda del Obispo
Food Research International | Year: 2013

Changes in olive growing techniques in the last years have shown the need for new bred cultivars able to replace the traditional ones today cultivated. In this work, seven new advanced selections recently obtained in the olive breeding program of Córdoba, Spain, and coming from crosses between 'Arbequina' and 'Picual' were evaluated for fruit traits and oil quality parameters. Fruit weight, oil and moisture content, ripening index, fruit removal force and fatty acid composition were analyzed once a month over the ripening season from September to December over two consecutive years. Analysis of variance showed that the genotype effect was the main contributor to the total sums of squares for most of the traits evaluated. However, high influence of year, harvest date and interactions was also observed in some cases. Significant differences between cultivars were observed for all the evaluated characters. Ranking correlations indicate that the evaluation in a single common harvest date could be a reliable indicator for a correct classification of advanced olive selections for the traits considered. This would avoid the need for repeated measurements throughout the season or for collection of samples at a common ripening index for comparison. The correlations observed among fruit characteristics and fatty acids could be of interest in future breeding programs for those traits and some of them confirm previous results with seedling progenies and other breeding selections. Among all the selections evaluated, UC-I-42-48 seems promising for its good fruit size, oil content and low fruit removal force. Additionally UC-I-2-35 could be highlighted for its high oleic acid content, although further evaluation will be carried out in the future to obtain a complete commercial evaluation under different environmental conditions. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Villegas D.,IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology | Casadesus J.,IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology | Atienza S.G.,IAS CSIC | Martos V.,University of Granada | And 4 more authors.
Field Crops Research | Year: 2010

The species × location interaction was of great importance in explaining the behaviour of genetic material. The study presented here shows, for the first time, the performance, under field conditions of the new tritordeum species, compared to wheat and triticale in a wide range of Mediterranean countries (Spain, Lebanon and Tunisia). The results obtained revealed that despite the diversity of environmental conditions, the main differences in yield were due to genotypes, especially to differences between species. The multi-local study with different growth conditions revealed important information about the water availability effect on yield. In the lowest yielding environments (Tunisia rainfed), Tritordeum and triticale yields were equivalent. However under better growth conditions (Spain), tritordeum yield was shown to be lower than wheat and triticale. Interestingly, when water limitation was extended during the pre-anthesis period, differences in tritordeum versus wheat-triticale yield rate were larger than when water stress occurred during anthesis. These variations were explained by the fact that kernel weight has been found as the limiting factor for yield determination in tritordeum, and a delay in the anthesis date may have been the cause for the low kernel weight and low yield under Mediterranean drought conditions. Such differences in yield between tritordeum and wheat or triticale could be explained by the fact that tritordeum is a relatively new species and far fewer resources have been devoted to its improvement when compared to wheat and triticale. Our results suggest that breeding efforts should be directed to an earlier anthesis date and a longer grain filling period. Tritordeum proved to have possibilities to be grown under drought environments as a new crop, since its performance was quite close to wheat and triticale. Besides, it has qualitative added values that may improve farmers' income per unit land. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source

Gimenez M.J.,IAS CSIC | Piston F.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Atienza S.G.,IAS CSIC
Planta | Year: 2011

Comparative transcriptomics are useful to determine the role of orthologous genes among Triticeae species. Thus they constitute an interesting tool to improve the use of wild relatives for crop breeding. Reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is the most accurate measure of gene expression but efficient normalization is required. The choice and optimal number of reference genes must be experimentally determined and the primers optimized for cross-species amplification. Our goal was to test the utility of wheat-reference genes for qPCR normalization when species carrying the following genomes (A, B, D, R, Hv and Hch) are compared either simultaneously or in smaller subsets of samples. Wheat/barley/rye consensus primers outperformed wheat-specific ones which indicate that consensus primers should be considered for data normalization in comparative transcriptomics. All genes tested were stable but their ranking in terms of stability differed among subsets of samples. CDC (cell division control protein, AAA-superfamily of ATPases, Ta54227) and RLI (68 kDa protein HP68 similar to Arabidopsis thaliana RNase L inhibitor protein, Ta2776) were always among the three most stable genes. The optimal number of reference genes varied between 2 and 3 depending on the subset of samples and the method used (geNorm vs. coefficient of determination between sequential normalization factors). In any case a maximum number of three reference genes would provide adequate normalization independent of the subset of samples considered. This work constitutes a substantial advance towards comparative transcriptomics using qPCR since it provides useful primers/reference genes. © 2010 Springer-Verlag. Source

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