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Iniguez L.M.,IAS CSIC | Castiel E.F.,University of Cordoba, Spain
ASABE - 21st Century Watershed Technology Conference and Workshop 2012: Improving Water Quality and the Environment | Year: 2012

Agricultural activities, as part of the natural resource management practice, impact soil and water quality at the watershed or catchment level. Field monitoring is often used to evaluate and acquire knowledge of the impacts of management practices on productivity and environment. Computer simulation models, after calibrated and validated, provide an efficient and effective alternative for evaluating the effects of agricultural practices on soil and water quality at the watershed level. The main objective is calibrate and validate the AnnAGNPS model relatively to runoff and peak flow using five hydrologic years data, for the rain and irrigation season. The study watershed is located in Portugal, and covers an area of 189 ha, divided into 18 fields belonging to four farmers. The climate is typically Mediterranean with continental influence, and the main crops are oat, tobacco, sorghum and maize. The calibration was done manually, but in a systematic away, in order to select values for the statistical parameters so that the model closely simulates runoff and peak flow. The results obtained in calibration and validation of the AnnAGNPS model, confirm a good or very good performance to simulate the peak flow and runoff volume at daily or event scale, in rainfall season. Also, the obtained results are a good indication of the validity of AnnAGNPS model to simulate runoff in irrigation to larger periods of time, for example irrigation season.

Villegas D.,IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology | Casadesus J.,IRTA - Institute of Agricultural-Alimentary Research and Technology | Atienza S.G.,I.A.S. C.S.I.C. | Martos V.,University of Granada | And 4 more authors.
Field Crops Research | Year: 2010

The species × location interaction was of great importance in explaining the behaviour of genetic material. The study presented here shows, for the first time, the performance, under field conditions of the new tritordeum species, compared to wheat and triticale in a wide range of Mediterranean countries (Spain, Lebanon and Tunisia). The results obtained revealed that despite the diversity of environmental conditions, the main differences in yield were due to genotypes, especially to differences between species. The multi-local study with different growth conditions revealed important information about the water availability effect on yield. In the lowest yielding environments (Tunisia rainfed), Tritordeum and triticale yields were equivalent. However under better growth conditions (Spain), tritordeum yield was shown to be lower than wheat and triticale. Interestingly, when water limitation was extended during the pre-anthesis period, differences in tritordeum versus wheat-triticale yield rate were larger than when water stress occurred during anthesis. These variations were explained by the fact that kernel weight has been found as the limiting factor for yield determination in tritordeum, and a delay in the anthesis date may have been the cause for the low kernel weight and low yield under Mediterranean drought conditions. Such differences in yield between tritordeum and wheat or triticale could be explained by the fact that tritordeum is a relatively new species and far fewer resources have been devoted to its improvement when compared to wheat and triticale. Our results suggest that breeding efforts should be directed to an earlier anthesis date and a longer grain filling period. Tritordeum proved to have possibilities to be grown under drought environments as a new crop, since its performance was quite close to wheat and triticale. Besides, it has qualitative added values that may improve farmers' income per unit land. © 2009 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Van Der Wal T.,AeroVision | Abma B.,AeroVision | Viguria A.,CATEC | Previnaire E.,Flying Cam | And 4 more authors.
Precision Agriculture 2013 - Papers Presented at the 9th European Conference on Precision Agriculture, ECPA 2013 | Year: 2013

Satellite remote sensing is considered to be a good source of crop monitoring information. However, regions that experience significant cloud cover are often unable to acquire timely satellite imagery. FieldCopter addresses this problem and explores how unmanned aerial systems (UAS), suitably equipped with multispectral sensors, can provide an alternative, reliable and flexible information source on crop and soil status. Calculations from hourly meteorological data show that satellite-based remote sensing has a 20% probability of producing an adequate image. However, the probability of a usable image from a light-weight, weather sensitive UAS is 45% and over 70% for an all-weather UAS. FieldCopter demonstrates that, despite cloud cover and other adverse weather conditions, the UAS will complement and enhance the performance of any satellite remote sensing service to provide imagery essential for farmers engaged in precision agriculture.

Pilar Dorado M.,Ed Leonardo da Vinci | Pinzi S.,Ed Leonardo da Vinci | De Haro A.,IAS CSIC | Font R.,IAS CSIC | Garcia-Olmo J.,University of Cordoba, Spain
Fuel | Year: 2011

Biodiesel quality control is of relevant importance as biodiesel properties influence diesel engine performance. In the present work, the benefits of the use of visible and near-infrared Spectroscopy (NIRS) as a technique for screening undesirable contaminants, i.e. methanol and glycerol content in biodiesel are presented. Excess of methanol decreases heating value and flash point and increases carbon deposits, while the presence of glycerol may cause injector tip coking and deposits in the combustion chamber. Biodiesel samples contaminated with different amounts of methanol and glycerol were scanned by NIRS. Their NIR spectra were acquired at 2-nm intervals over a wavelength range from 400 to 2500 nm (visible plus near-infrared regions). First derivative of the spectra were calculated and correlated to the raw optical data by means of modified partial least-squares (MPLS) regression. First derivative equation of the optical data, pretreated by standard normal variate (SNV) and De-trending (DT) transformations, showed a coefficient of determination r2 in the cross-validation step of 0.99 and 0.81, for the samples contaminated with methanol and glycerol, respectively. Also, the standard deviation to standard error of cross-validation ratio (RPD) was 10.0 and 2.5, respectively. These statistics are indicative of the high capacity of prediction of the equations for methanol content and acceptable for glycerol content. Visible spectra also showed differences related to the samples, thus indicating it could serve to determine the presence of these contaminants. The use of NIRS technology provides a trustworthy and low-cost method to determine the presence of undesirable amounts of methanol and glycerol. It also offers an important saving of time (each analysis requires less than two minutes). © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Gimenez M.J.,IAS CSIC | Piston F.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Atienza S.G.,IAS CSIC
Planta | Year: 2011

Comparative transcriptomics are useful to determine the role of orthologous genes among Triticeae species. Thus they constitute an interesting tool to improve the use of wild relatives for crop breeding. Reverse transcription quantitative real-time PCR (qPCR) is the most accurate measure of gene expression but efficient normalization is required. The choice and optimal number of reference genes must be experimentally determined and the primers optimized for cross-species amplification. Our goal was to test the utility of wheat-reference genes for qPCR normalization when species carrying the following genomes (A, B, D, R, Hv and Hch) are compared either simultaneously or in smaller subsets of samples. Wheat/barley/rye consensus primers outperformed wheat-specific ones which indicate that consensus primers should be considered for data normalization in comparative transcriptomics. All genes tested were stable but their ranking in terms of stability differed among subsets of samples. CDC (cell division control protein, AAA-superfamily of ATPases, Ta54227) and RLI (68 kDa protein HP68 similar to Arabidopsis thaliana RNase L inhibitor protein, Ta2776) were always among the three most stable genes. The optimal number of reference genes varied between 2 and 3 depending on the subset of samples and the method used (geNorm vs. coefficient of determination between sequential normalization factors). In any case a maximum number of three reference genes would provide adequate normalization independent of the subset of samples considered. This work constitutes a substantial advance towards comparative transcriptomics using qPCR since it provides useful primers/reference genes. © 2010 Springer-Verlag.

Gimenez M.J.,I.A.S. C.S.I.C. | Piston F.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Martin A.,I.A.S. C.S.I.C. | Atienza S.G.,I.A.S. C.S.I.C.
Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

Olive oil authentication using DNA-based markers is becoming very important. qRT-PCR was an efficient tool in investigating the utility of PCR primers for olive oil authentication allowing to discard primers with low PCR efficiency. It also allows investigating of the relative effectiveness among four DNA isolation methods and therefore qRT-PCR would be useful for further optimisation of the DNA extraction protocols. The number of target molecules for the amplification of 80 bp amplicons was higher than that of 200 bp. Therefore the amplicon size should be optimised for olive oil authentication since the higher the number of templates the greater the probability of successful amplification. On conclusion, qRT-PCR is a useful tool in the development of molecular markers for olive oil authentication and it should be used for the optimisation of critical parameters such as the amplicon size and the DNA extraction method. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Cruz-Izquierdo S.,Centro Alameda del Obispo | Cruz-Izquierdo S.,Colegio de Mexico | Avila C.M.,Centro Alameda del Obispo | Satovic Z.,University of Zagreb | And 6 more authors.
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2012

This study presents the development of an enhanced map in faba bean. The map contains 258 loci, mostly gene-based markers, organized in 16 linkage groups that expand 1,875 cM, with an average inter-marker distance of 7.26 cM. The combination of EST-derived markers with a number of markers physically located or previously ascribed to chromosomes by trisomic segregation, allowed the allocation of eight linkage groups (229 markers), to specific chromosomes. Moreover, this approach provided anchor points to establish a global homology among the faba bean chromosomes and those of closely-related legumes species. The map was used to identify and validate, for the first time, QTLs controlling five flowering and reproductive traits: days to flowering, flowering length, pod length, number of seeds per pod and number of ovules per pod. Twelve QTLs stable in the 2 years of evaluation were identified in chromosomes II, V and VI. Comparative mapping suggested the conservation of one of the faba bean genomic regions controlling the character days to flowering in other five legume species (Medicago, Lotus, pea, lupine, chickpea). Additional syntenic co-localizations of QTLs controlling pod length and number of seeds per pod between faba bean and Lotus japonicus are likely. The new genetic map opens the way for further translational studies between faba bean and related legume species, and provides an efficient tool for breeding applications such as QTL analysis and marker-assisted selection. © 2012 Springer-Verlag.

Satovic Z.,Centro Alameda del Obispo | Satovic Z.,University of Zagreb | Avila C.M.,Centro Alameda del Obispo | Cruz-Izquierdo S.,Centro Alameda del Obispo | And 11 more authors.
BMC Genomics | Year: 2013

Background: Faba bean (Vicia faba L.) is among the earliest domesticated crops from the Near East. Today this legume is a key protein feed and food worldwide and continues to serve an important role in culinary traditions throughout Middle East, Mediterranean region, China and Ethiopia. Adapted to a wide range of soil types, the main faba bean breeding objectives are to improve yield, resistance to biotic and abiotic stresses, seed quality and other agronomic traits. Genomic approaches aimed at enhancing faba bean breeding programs require high-quality genetic linkage maps to facilitate quantitative trait locus analysis and gene tagging for use in a marker-assisted selection. The objective of this study was to construct a reference consensus map in faba bean by joining the information from the most relevant maps reported so far in this crop.Results: A combination of two approaches, increasing the number of anchor loci in diverse mapping populations and joining the corresponding genetic maps, was used to develop a reference consensus map in faba bean. The map was constructed from three main recombinant inbreed populations derived from four parental lines, incorporates 729 markers and is based on 69 common loci. It spans 4,602 cM with a range from 323 to 1041 loci in six main linkage groups or chromosomes, and an average marker density of one locus every 6 cM. Locus order is generally well maintained between the consensus map and the individual maps.Conclusion: We have constructed a reliable and fairly dense consensus genetic linkage map that will serve as a basis for genomic approaches in faba bean research and breeding. The core map contains a larger number of markers than any previous individual map, covers existing gaps and achieves a wider coverage of the large faba bean genome as a whole. This tool can be used as a reference resource for studies in different genetic backgrounds, and provides a framework for transferring genetic information when using different marker technologies. Combined with syntenic approaches, the consensus map will increase marker density in selected genomic regions and will be useful for future faba bean molecular breeding applications. © 2013 Satovic et al.; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

De la Rosa R.,IFAPA Centro Alameda del Obispo | Talhaoui N.,IFAPA Centro Alameda del Obispo | Rouis H.,IFAPA Centro Alameda del Obispo | Velasco L.,IAS CSIC | Leon L.,IFAPA Centro Alameda del Obispo
Food Research International | Year: 2013

Changes in olive growing techniques in the last years have shown the need for new bred cultivars able to replace the traditional ones today cultivated. In this work, seven new advanced selections recently obtained in the olive breeding program of Córdoba, Spain, and coming from crosses between 'Arbequina' and 'Picual' were evaluated for fruit traits and oil quality parameters. Fruit weight, oil and moisture content, ripening index, fruit removal force and fatty acid composition were analyzed once a month over the ripening season from September to December over two consecutive years. Analysis of variance showed that the genotype effect was the main contributor to the total sums of squares for most of the traits evaluated. However, high influence of year, harvest date and interactions was also observed in some cases. Significant differences between cultivars were observed for all the evaluated characters. Ranking correlations indicate that the evaluation in a single common harvest date could be a reliable indicator for a correct classification of advanced olive selections for the traits considered. This would avoid the need for repeated measurements throughout the season or for collection of samples at a common ripening index for comparison. The correlations observed among fruit characteristics and fatty acids could be of interest in future breeding programs for those traits and some of them confirm previous results with seedling progenies and other breeding selections. Among all the selections evaluated, UC-I-42-48 seems promising for its good fruit size, oil content and low fruit removal force. Additionally UC-I-2-35 could be highlighted for its high oleic acid content, although further evaluation will be carried out in the future to obtain a complete commercial evaluation under different environmental conditions. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.

Martin A.C.,I.A.S C.S.I.C | Atienza S.G.,I.A.S C.S.I.C | Ramirez M.C.,I.A.S C.S.I.C | Barro F.,I.A.S C.S.I.C | Martin A.,I.A.S C.S.I.C
Theoretical and Applied Genetics | Year: 2010

A new CMS system designated as 'msH1' has been reported in bread wheat using the cytoplasm of H.chilense. While testing this system in different wheat backgrounds,a highly fertile line with chromosome number 42 plus an extra acrocentric chromosome was obtained. The extra chromosome did not pair with any wheat chromosome at meiosis, and progeny from this line which lack the acrocentric chromosome showed pollen abortion and male sterility. In order to establish the origin of this chromosome, FISH using H. chilense genomic DNA as probe was used and showed that it had originated from H. chilense chromosome(s). The novel chromosome did not possess sequences similar to wheat rDNA; however,the probe pSc119. 2 from S. cereale containing the 120 bp family was found to occur at the end of its long arm. Data obtained from FISH and EST molecular markers confirm that the long arm of the acrocentric chromosome is indeed, the short arm of chromosome 1Hch from H. chilense. We suggest that the novel chromosome originated from a deletion of the distal part of the long arm of chromosome 1Hch. Neither the 1HchS short arm, nor the whole chromosome 1Hch restores pollen fertility of the alloplasmic wheat. Therefore, the restorer gene on the acrocentric chromosome must be located on the retained segment from the hypothetical 1HchL, while some pollen fertility inhibitor could be present on the deleted 1HchL distal segment. Disomic addition of the acrocentric chromosome was obtained and this line resulted fully stable and fertile. © Springer-Verlag 2010.

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