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Singh J.,IARI | Kumar A.,CESCRA
International Journal of Agricultural and Statistical Sciences | Year: 2014

An investigation was carried out on "Mobility of heavy metals in sewage sludge applied soil and its uptake by radish (Raphanus sativus L.) " at the Department of Environmental Science, School of Forestry and Environment, Research Farm, SHIATS, Allahabad in Randomized Block Design with three replicates during 2010. Application of sewage with lime, fertilizer, Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria (PSB) and Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR), showed non-significant values for bulk density, particle density, soil pH, soil E.C, whereas significant values with soil organic carbon, available nitrogen, available phosphorous and available potash, respectively in post harvest radish grown plot. The DTPA extractable heavy metals in soil and total heavy metal in radish root and leaf showed higher values in the treatment T1 (10 Tha-1 and T2 (20 Tha-1) as compared to control plot (T0). Adding lime with sewage sludge in the treatment T3(10 Tha-1+ 20 kg lime ha-1) raised soil pH and significantly reduced availability of heavy metals, while phosphatic fertilizer (NPK) in the treatment (T4, T5) and phosphate solubilizing bacteria treatment (T6, T7) showed lower soil pH resulted in increase the availability and mobility of heavy metals in soil and radish root and leaf. Adding plant growth promoting rhizobacteria with sewage sludge in the treatments (T8, T9) also raise the soil pH and reduced the availability of heavy metals in soil and radish root and leaf. The availability of heavy metals were found twice in the treatment (T10, T11) in soil as compared to only sewage sludge application, but in radish root and leaf, the concentration of heavy metals is nearly equal to only sewage sludge application. Heavy metals in sewage sludge were below the internationally recommended (WHO) maximum permissible limits set for agricultural use for all heavy metals except Cadmium. The present study is done to understand the availability of heavy metals in different treatment combinations to assess the use of sewage sludge for vegetable production without any harmful effect on human health and best treatment combination, suitable for phytoremediation in heavy metal contaminated soil. Source

Saha S.,NRM and FS | Kumar J.,NRM and FS | Parmer B.S.,NRM and FS | Prasad D.,IARI
Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection | Year: 2010

Triterpenic saponins isolated from seeds of Madhuca indica and fruit pericarp from Sapindus mukorossi exhibited inhibitory effect against two phyto-parasitic nematodes. Azadirachtin and salanin-nimbin-desacetylnimbin (SND) was extracted from seeds and oil of Azadirachta indica A. Juss, respectively. M. indica and S. mukorossi saponins were found to inhibit the movement of pre-adult (J4) stage of Rotylenchulus reniformis with LC50 of 168.8 and 181.9 μg/mL. Azadirachtin and SND affected the mobility of secondary juvenile stage (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita by 83.3 and 80.1% respectively, at 0.5 mg m/L. M. indica saponin (LC50 220 μg/mL) exhibited a potentiation effect in the presence of azadirachtin in a 1:3 ratio (LC50 120.1 μg/mL). A binary mixture (1:1) of azadirachtin and SND was found to show significant nematicidal activity against M. incognita (LC50 70.9 μg/mL) and R. reniformis (LC50 91.2 μg/mL). © 2010 Taylor & Francis. Source

Das S.,IARI | Dahiya S.,IASRI | Bharadwaj A.,IASRI
2014 International Conference on Computing for Sustainable Global Development, INDIACom 2014 | Year: 2014

Classification is an important and widely carried out task of data mining. It is a predictive modelling task which is defined as building a model for the target variable as a function of the explanatory variables. There are many well established techniques for classification, while decision tree is a very important and popular technique from the machine learning domain. Decision tree is a decision support tool that uses a tree-like graph or model of decisions and their possible consequences, including chance event outcomes, resource costs and utility. C4.5 is a well known decision tree algorithm used for classifying datasets. The C4.5 algorithm is Quintan's extension of his own ID3 algorithm for decision tree classification. It induces decision trees and generates rules from datasets, which could contain categorical and/or numerical attributes. The rules could be used to predict categorical values of attributes from new records. C4.5 performs well in classifying the dataset as well as in generating useful rules. In this paper, a web based software for rule generation and decision tree induction using C4.5 algorithm has been discussed. The visualization in the form of tree structure enhances the understanding of the generated rules. The software contains the feature to impute the missing values in data. The input data can both be categorical and numerical in nature. The software can import TXT, XLS and CSV data file formats. Enhanced waterfall model has been used for the software development process. This software will be useful for academicians, researchers and students working in the area of data mining, agriculture and other fields where huge amount of data is generated. © 2014 IEEE. Source

Sharma B.K.,National Center for Agricultural Economics and Policy Research | Singh J.,IARI | Kumar A.,Center for Environment and Climate Resilient Agriculture | Kumawat R.C.,S. K. N. COA
International Journal of Agricultural and Statistical Sciences | Year: 2014

India is the largest producer as well as exporter of guar in the world. The USA occupied first rank with contributing highest share (52.76 per cent) in total quantity of guar gum import from India. Rajasthan India's biggest State is the world's number one producer of guar. The districts of Bikaner, Churu, Ganganagar, Hanumangarh, Jodhpur, Barmer, Nagaur, Pali and Jaisalmer account for about 80 per cent of the total production in Rajasthan. Bikaner district is contributing to highest share in area, production and market arrivals. The highest growth rate in area (41.52 per cent) and production (67.33 per cent) was observed in Bikaner district during 2001-2010. In case of productivity, it was observed to be highest for Jalore (29.01 per cent). The instability was observed to be highest (67.91 per cent) for Sirohi district and in case of production (127.57 per cent) and productivity (124.54 per cent), it was estimated to be highest for Jaisalmer district during the same period. The effect of yield on changes in production was higher as compared to effect of area in all the major districts of Rajasthan during TE 2000 to TE 2010. During the period ranging from TE 2003 to TE 2010, in major seven districts (Ganganagar, Jaisalmer, Jalore, Jhunjhunu, Nagaur, Sikar and Sirohi) the effect of yield on changes in production was higher whereas in rest of the three districts (Barmer, Bikaner and Churu) the effect of area was higher. Source

Meena R.K.,IARI | Vashisth A.,IARI | Singh B.,NRCSS | Manjaih K.M.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Journal of Agrometeorology | Year: 2014

Field experiment was undertaken at research farm of IARI, New Delhi to study the effect of change in the microenvironment under different colour shade nets during summer and rainy season, of 2012 on yield of spinach. Spinach crop was sown under different colour shade nets such as red, green, black, white along with control (without shade net) during summer and rainy season. Crop duration from sowing to harvesting was 62 days in summer and 58 days in rainy season. Different weather parameters were measured at regular interval in each treatment. Results showed that the light intensity, incoming radiation, canopy temperature, air temperature, soil temperature were found to be lower under different colour shade nets compared to the control. However the relative humidity, soil moisture were found to be higher under colour shade nets compared to control. © 2014 Association of Agrometeorologists. All rights reserved. Source

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