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Singh J.,I.A.R.I. | Kumar A.,CESCRA
International Journal of Agricultural and Statistical Sciences | Year: 2014

An investigation was carried out on "Mobility of heavy metals in sewage sludge applied soil and its uptake by radish (Raphanus sativus L.) " at the Department of Environmental Science, School of Forestry and Environment, Research Farm, SHIATS, Allahabad in Randomized Block Design with three replicates during 2010. Application of sewage with lime, fertilizer, Phosphate Solubilizing Bacteria (PSB) and Plant Growth Promoting Rhizobacteria (PGPR), showed non-significant values for bulk density, particle density, soil pH, soil E.C, whereas significant values with soil organic carbon, available nitrogen, available phosphorous and available potash, respectively in post harvest radish grown plot. The DTPA extractable heavy metals in soil and total heavy metal in radish root and leaf showed higher values in the treatment T1 (10 Tha-1 and T2 (20 Tha-1) as compared to control plot (T0). Adding lime with sewage sludge in the treatment T3(10 Tha-1+ 20 kg lime ha-1) raised soil pH and significantly reduced availability of heavy metals, while phosphatic fertilizer (NPK) in the treatment (T4, T5) and phosphate solubilizing bacteria treatment (T6, T7) showed lower soil pH resulted in increase the availability and mobility of heavy metals in soil and radish root and leaf. Adding plant growth promoting rhizobacteria with sewage sludge in the treatments (T8, T9) also raise the soil pH and reduced the availability of heavy metals in soil and radish root and leaf. The availability of heavy metals were found twice in the treatment (T10, T11) in soil as compared to only sewage sludge application, but in radish root and leaf, the concentration of heavy metals is nearly equal to only sewage sludge application. Heavy metals in sewage sludge were below the internationally recommended (WHO) maximum permissible limits set for agricultural use for all heavy metals except Cadmium. The present study is done to understand the availability of heavy metals in different treatment combinations to assess the use of sewage sludge for vegetable production without any harmful effect on human health and best treatment combination, suitable for phytoremediation in heavy metal contaminated soil.


Sharma B.K.,National Center for Agricultural Economics and Policy Research | Singh J.,I.A.R.I. | Kumar A.,Center for Environment and Climate Resilient Agriculture | Kumawat R.C.,S. K. N. COA
International Journal of Agricultural and Statistical Sciences | Year: 2014

India is the largest producer as well as exporter of guar in the world. The USA occupied first rank with contributing highest share (52.76 per cent) in total quantity of guar gum import from India. Rajasthan India's biggest State is the world's number one producer of guar. The districts of Bikaner, Churu, Ganganagar, Hanumangarh, Jodhpur, Barmer, Nagaur, Pali and Jaisalmer account for about 80 per cent of the total production in Rajasthan. Bikaner district is contributing to highest share in area, production and market arrivals. The highest growth rate in area (41.52 per cent) and production (67.33 per cent) was observed in Bikaner district during 2001-2010. In case of productivity, it was observed to be highest for Jalore (29.01 per cent). The instability was observed to be highest (67.91 per cent) for Sirohi district and in case of production (127.57 per cent) and productivity (124.54 per cent), it was estimated to be highest for Jaisalmer district during the same period. The effect of yield on changes in production was higher as compared to effect of area in all the major districts of Rajasthan during TE 2000 to TE 2010. During the period ranging from TE 2003 to TE 2010, in major seven districts (Ganganagar, Jaisalmer, Jalore, Jhunjhunu, Nagaur, Sikar and Sirohi) the effect of yield on changes in production was higher whereas in rest of the three districts (Barmer, Bikaner and Churu) the effect of area was higher.


Meena R.K.,IARI | Vashisth A.,IARI | Singh B.,NRCSS | Manjaih K.M.,Indian Agricultural Research Institute
Journal of Agrometeorology | Year: 2014

Field experiment was undertaken at research farm of IARI, New Delhi to study the effect of change in the microenvironment under different colour shade nets during summer and rainy season, of 2012 on yield of spinach. Spinach crop was sown under different colour shade nets such as red, green, black, white along with control (without shade net) during summer and rainy season. Crop duration from sowing to harvesting was 62 days in summer and 58 days in rainy season. Different weather parameters were measured at regular interval in each treatment. Results showed that the light intensity, incoming radiation, canopy temperature, air temperature, soil temperature were found to be lower under different colour shade nets compared to the control. However the relative humidity, soil moisture were found to be higher under colour shade nets compared to control. © 2014 Association of Agrometeorologists. All rights reserved.


Saha S.,CID | Walia S.,I.A.R.I | Kumar J.,I.A.R.I | Dhingra S.,I.A.R.I | Parmar B.S.,I.A.R.I
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2010

Antifeeding and insect growth regulatory effects of saponins and its hydrolyzed products from Diploknema butyracea and Sapindus mukorossi on the insect pest Spodoptera litura (F.) were investigated in the laboratory. D. butyracea saponins as well as their hydrolyzed prosapogenins were found to be better biologically active In controlling pests. A concentration of 1200 and 3400 mg L-1 alkaline and acid hydrolyzed D. butyracea saponins exhibited significant antifeeding and toxic effects to third instar larvae when compared to the emulsified water as control. The n-BuOH extract after prepHPLC separation provided two saponins from the D. butyracea saponin mixture: 3-O-[β-D-glucopyar-nosyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-16-α- hydroxyprotobassic acid-28-O-[ara-glc-xyl]-ara (MI-I) and 3-O-β-D- glucopyranosyl-glucopyranosyl-glucopyranosyl-16-α-hydroxyprotobassic acid-28-0-[ara-xyl-ara]-apiose (MI-III). The single saponin extracted from the S. mukorossi saponin mixture was 3-O-[β-D-xyl-(OAc)-β-D- arabinopyranosyl-β-D-rhamnopyranosyl] hederagenin-28-O-[β-D- glc·-β-D-glc·β-D-rhamnopyranosyl] ester (SM-I). Five days after saponin treatment on larvae, the growth index (Gl50) was reduced from 0.92% to 1520 ppm in alkaline hydrolyzed D. butyracea saponins. Upon hydrolysis, growth regulatory activity was improved in S. mukorossi saponin, whereas very little difference was found in antifeedant activity. Hydrophile-lipophile balance is important for the proper functioning of saponin/prosapogenin/sapogenin, which could be achieved by manipulating the sugar molecule in the triterpenic skeleton. © 2009 American Chemical Society.


Saha S.,I.A.R.I | Walia S.,I.A.R.I | Kumar J.,I.A.R.I | Parmar B.S.,I.A.R.I
Journal of Applied Botany and Food Quality | Year: 2010

To investigate the plant growth regulatory effect of saponins, two bisdesmosidic triterpenic saponins with hederagenin and 16-αhydroxy protobassic acid as an aglycon were isolated from Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn (Family: Sapindeae) and Diploknema butyracea (Family: Sapotaceae). Two triterpenoids were applied on the rice and maize seeds for germination and growth regulation tests. We concluded the following. 16-α-hydroxy protobassic acid glycosides had a growth promoting activity in maize and rice. The effect was more prominent in maize than in rice. Whereas, hederagenin glycoside had a slight growth inhibitory effect on rice. The saponin showed growth promoting activity in maize below 250 μg ml-1. In general, hederagenin glycoside showed root growth inhibiting effect in rice and 16-α-hydroxy protobassic acid glycosides had promotive effects on the entire plant of rice and maize at low concentration. These active compounds from D. butyracea could be further exploited as potential plant growth regulators in agricultural applications in the future.


Saha S.,NRM and FS | Kumar J.,NRM and FS | Parmer B.S.,NRM and FS | Prasad D.,I.A.R.I
Archives of Phytopathology and Plant Protection | Year: 2010

Triterpenic saponins isolated from seeds of Madhuca indica and fruit pericarp from Sapindus mukorossi exhibited inhibitory effect against two phyto-parasitic nematodes. Azadirachtin and salanin-nimbin-desacetylnimbin (SND) was extracted from seeds and oil of Azadirachta indica A. Juss, respectively. M. indica and S. mukorossi saponins were found to inhibit the movement of pre-adult (J4) stage of Rotylenchulus reniformis with LC50 of 168.8 and 181.9 μg/mL. Azadirachtin and SND affected the mobility of secondary juvenile stage (J2) of Meloidogyne incognita by 83.3 and 80.1% respectively, at 0.5 mg m/L. M. indica saponin (LC50 220 μg/mL) exhibited a potentiation effect in the presence of azadirachtin in a 1:3 ratio (LC50 120.1 μg/mL). A binary mixture (1:1) of azadirachtin and SND was found to show significant nematicidal activity against M. incognita (LC50 70.9 μg/mL) and R. reniformis (LC50 91.2 μg/mL). © 2010 Taylor & Francis.


Saha S.,I.A.R.I | Walia S.,I.A.R.I | Kumar J.,I.A.R.I | Parmar B.S.,I.A.R.I
Pest Management Science | Year: 2010

BACKGROUND: Triterpenic saponins from Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn. and Diploknema butyracea JF Gmelin were evaluated for in vitro antifungal activity against four phytopathogenic fungi. The study of the structure-antifungal activity relationships of protobassic acid saponins was widened by including semi-synthetic derivatives. RESULTS: Diploknema butyracea saponins exhibited significant antifungal activity against three fungi (ED50 230-455 μgmL&-1), whereas S. mukorossi saponin was effective against two fungi (ED50 181-407 μgmL&-1). The n-butanol extract after preparative HPLC separation provided two saponins from D. butyracea saponin mixture: 3-O-[β-D-glucopyarnosyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl]-16-α-hydroxyprotobassic acid-28-O-[arabinopyranosyl-glucopyranosyl-xylopyranosyl]-arabinopyranoside (MI-I), and 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-glucopyranosyl-glucopyranosyl-16-α-hydroxyprotobassic acid-28-O-[arabinopyranosylxylopyranosyl-arabinopyranosyl]-apiofuranoside (MI-III). The single saponin extracted from S. mukorossi saponin mixture was identified as 3-O-[O-acetyl-β-D-xylopyranosyl-β-D-arabinopyranosyl-β-D-rhamnopyranosyl] hederagenin-28-O[β-Dglucopyranosyl-β-D-glucopyranosyl-β-D-rhamnopyranosyl] ester (SM-I). Monodesmosides resulting from the partial degradation of hederagenin and hydroxyprotobassic acid bisdesmosides exhibited significant reduction in antifungal effect. Further removal of sugar moiety yielded complete loss in activity. The antifungal activity of the triterpenic saponins was associated with their aglycone moieties, and esterification of the hydroxyl group led to change in antifungal activity. CONCLUSION: Sapindus mukorossi saponin, which is effective against Rhizoctonia bataticola (Taub.) Briton Jones and Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc., can be exploited for the development of a natural fungicide. A sugar moiety is a prerequisite for the antifungal activity of triterpenic saponin. © 2010 Society of Chemical Industry.


Das S.,I.A.R.I | Dahiya S.,IASRI | Bharadwaj A.,IASRI
2014 International Conference on Computing for Sustainable Global Development, INDIACom 2014 | Year: 2014

Classification is an important and widely carried out task of data mining. It is a predictive modelling task which is defined as building a model for the target variable as a function of the explanatory variables. There are many well established techniques for classification, while decision tree is a very important and popular technique from the machine learning domain. Decision tree is a decision support tool that uses a tree-like graph or model of decisions and their possible consequences, including chance event outcomes, resource costs and utility. C4.5 is a well known decision tree algorithm used for classifying datasets. The C4.5 algorithm is Quintan's extension of his own ID3 algorithm for decision tree classification. It induces decision trees and generates rules from datasets, which could contain categorical and/or numerical attributes. The rules could be used to predict categorical values of attributes from new records. C4.5 performs well in classifying the dataset as well as in generating useful rules. In this paper, a web based software for rule generation and decision tree induction using C4.5 algorithm has been discussed. The visualization in the form of tree structure enhances the understanding of the generated rules. The software contains the feature to impute the missing values in data. The input data can both be categorical and numerical in nature. The software can import TXT, XLS and CSV data file formats. Enhanced waterfall model has been used for the software development process. This software will be useful for academicians, researchers and students working in the area of data mining, agriculture and other fields where huge amount of data is generated. © 2014 IEEE.


Triterpenic saponins from Sapindus mukorossi Gaertn. and Diploknema butyracea JF Gmelin were evaluated for in vitro antifungal activity against four phytopathogenic fungi. The study of the structure-antifungal activity relationships of protobassic acid saponins was widened by including semi-synthetic derivatives.Diploknema butyracea saponins exhibited significant antifungal activity against three fungi (ED(50) 230-455 microg mL(-1)), whereas S. mukorossi saponin was effective against two fungi (ED(50) 181-407 microg mL(-1)). The n-butanol extract after preparative HPLC separation provided two saponins from D. butyracea saponin mixture: 3-O-[beta-D-glucopyarnosyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl]-16-alpha-hydroxyprotobassic acid-28-O-[arabinopyranosyl-glucopyranosyl-xylopyranosyl]-arabinopyranoside (MI-I), and 3-O-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-glucopyranosyl-glucopyranosyl-16-alpha-hydroxyprotobassic acid-28-O-[arabinopyranosyl-xylopyranosyl-arabinopyranosyl]-apiofuranoside (MI-III). The single saponin extracted from S. mukorossi saponin mixture was identified as 3-O-[O-acetyl-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-beta-D-arabinopyranosyl-beta-D-rhamnopyranosyl] hederagenin-28-O[beta-D-glucopyranosyl-beta-D-glucopyranosyl-beta-D-rhamnopyranosyl] ester (SM-I). Monodesmosides resulting from the partial degradation of hederagenin and hydroxyprotobassic acid bisdesmosides exhibited significant reduction in antifungal effect. Further removal of sugar moiety yielded complete loss in activity. The antifungal activity of the triterpenic saponins was associated with their aglycone moieties, and esterification of the hydroxyl group led to change in antifungal activity.Sapindus mukorossi saponin, which is effective against Rhizoctonia bataticola (Taub.) Briton Jones and Sclerotium rolfsii Sacc., can be exploited for the development of a natural fungicide. A sugar moiety is a prerequisite for the antifungal activity of triterpenic saponin.

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