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Rakocevic M.,IAPAR | Costes E.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Assad E.D.,Embrapa Informatica Agropecuaria
Annals of Applied Biology | Year: 2011

Yerba-mate is a subtropical, evergreen, dioecious, South American tree. Sexual dimorphism in photosynthesis, leaf allometry and foliage distribution was hypothesised. Virtual trees (constructed in VPlants software from detailed measurements of plant morphogenesis) of the two genders were compared considering two contrasted cultivation environments and three developmental stages. The total crown volume, leaf area per plant (LA), leaf area index (LAI) and leaf area density (LAD) were calculated. The light interception and photosynthesis were computed from mock-ups in VegeSTAR. Structural sexual dimorphism concerned general plant form, internode length, leaf allometry, leaf surface, pattern of leaf area distribution and LAD. Cultivation environment and developmental stage acted strongly on sex expression of all observed structural parameters and physiological stages. Sexual differentiation in LA and light interception was related to leaves positioned in the lowest layers (150 cm above ground), whereas sexual specialisation in leaf and plant photosynthesis was related to early vegetative and reproductive stages. Several sexual responses strongly depended on the environment, especially light conditions, with opposite effects observed on female and male plants whether they were cultivated in monoculture or in forest understorey, under high-light condition or low-light condition, respectively. Optimised foliage structure and physiology in females may compensate for greater reproductive costs in early developmental stages, but females and males equalise in photosynthetic efficiency after 2-year regrowth. © 2011 Association of Applied Biologists.

The least limiting water range (LLWR) is one of the best indicators of soil physical quality in intensive production systems. The objective of this study was to evaluate the physical quality of a Typic Haplorthox by the LLWR after three crop growing seasons and the first year of crop-livestock integration in Xambrê, northwestern Paraná, Brazil. The experiment was established in a randomized block design with three replications. Treatments consisted of four brachiaria heights before grazing (0.10; 0.20; 0.30, and 0.40 m) and a control treatment without grazing. The brachiaria (Brachiaria ruziziensis) was sown in March 2010 and cattle grazed on it continuously for 110 days (March-September). In October 2010, 90 soil samples were collected with metal cylinders (height 0.05 m, diameter 0.05 m) from the center of the layers 0-0.10; 0.10-0.20; 0.20-0.30 m. These samples were used to obtain the water retention curve, the penetration resistance curve and the soil bulk density (Bd), from which the LLWR and the critical bulk density (Bdc) were calculated. The critical limits of -80 hPa for field capacity (qfc), -15,000 hPa for wilting point (qwp), 2.5 MPa for soil resistance to penetration (qsr) and 0.10 m3 m-3 for air filled porosity (qafp) were used. The LLWR was highest in 0-0.10 m and qsr was the most relevant variable to reduce LLWR in all layers, especially the layers 0.10-0.20 m and 0.20-0.30 m. The Bdc decreased with depth for values of 1.68, 1.65 and 1.64 Mg m-3, respectively, in the layers 0-0.10, 0.10-0.20 and 0.20-0.30 m. The management of this soil under integrated crop livestock at a grazing height of 0.10 m had the highest frequency of soil samples with Bd≥Bdc.

To mitigate soil erosion and enhance soil fertility in orange plantations, the permanent protection of the inter-rows by cover species has been suggested. The objective of this study was to evaluate alterations in the microbial biomass, due to different soil tillage systems and intercropped cover species between rows of orange trees. The soil of the experimental area previously used as pasture (Brachiaria humidicola) was an Ultisol (Typic Paleudult) originating from Caiuá sandstone in the northwestern part of the State of Paraná, Brazil. Two soil tillage systems were evaluated: conventional tillage (CT) in the entire area and strip tillage (ST) (strip width 2 m), in combination with different ground cover management systems. The citrus cultivar 'Pera' orange (Citrus sinensis) grafted onto 'Rangpur' lime rootstock was used. Soil samples were collected after five years of treatment from a depth of 0-15 cm, under the tree canopy and in the inter-row, in the following treatments: (1) CT and an annual cover crop with the leguminous species Calopogonium mucunoides; (2) CT and a perennial cover crop with the leguminous peanut Arachis pintoi; (3) CT and an evergreen cover crop with Bahiagrass Paspalum notatum; (4) CT and a cover crop with spontaneous Brachiaria humidicola grass vegetation; and (5) ST and maintenance of the remaining grass (pasture) of Brachiaria humidicola. Soil tillage and the different cover species influenced the microbial biomass, both under the tree canopy and in the interrow. The cultivation of brachiaria increased C and N in the microbial biomass, while bahiagrass increased P in the microbial biomass. The soil microbial biomass was enriched in N and P by the presence of ground cover species and according to the soil P content. The grass species increased C, N and P in the soil microbial biomass from the inter-row more than leguminous species.

Auler P.A.M.,Instituto Agronomico do Parana IAPAR | Neves C.S.V.J.,State University Londrina | Fidalski J.,Instituto Agronomico do Parana IAPAR | Pavan M.A.,IAPAR
Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira | Year: 2011

The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of liming and of rootstocks on root amount, and on the nutrition and yield of 'Valência' orange, in different soil tillage systems. The experiment was set up in a randomized block design with split-split-plot arrangement and three replicates. The plots consisted of two soil tillage systems: conventional tillage or minimum tillage. The sub-plots consisted of two liming levels: with or without liming. The sub-sub-plots consisted of three rootstocks: 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia), 'Cleopatra' mandarin (Citrus reshni) and Poncirus trifoliata. The liming-treatment received 3 Mg ha -1 of dolomite limestone before the implantation, and 1.65 Mg ha -1 four years after planting. Fruit production was evaluated during 12 years; Ca and Mg leaf contents were evaluated 13 years after the experiment implantation; and roots and soil chemical attributes, 14 years after the implantation. Soil tillage systems and their interaction with the other factors did not influence the evaluated variables. 'Rangpur' lime showed the highest adaptation to soil acidity, Al and to the lower contents of Ca and Mg, with no response to liming. Poncirus trifoliate showed the lowest adaptation to soil acidity, and lime increased its root amount in 126% and its fruit production in 26.4%.

Tazima Z.H.,IAPAR | Janeiro Neves C.S.V.,Federal University of Bahia | Yada I.F.U.,IAPAR | Leite Junior R.P.,IAPAR
Scientia Agricola | Year: 2013

Mandarins have become increasingly valued as citrus fruits for the fresh market due to the easy peeling, attractive flavor, and health and nutritional properties. Plant growth and yield, and characteristics of fruits of 'Okitsu' Satsuma mandarin (Citrus unshiu Marc.) trees grafted on nine rootstocks were evaluated in Londrina, northern Paraná, Brazil. The rootstocks were: 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia Osb.); 'Cleopatra' (Citrus reshni hort. ex Tanaka) and 'Sunki' mandarins (Citrus sunki hort. ex Tanaka); 'C-13' [Citrus sinensis × Poncirus trifoliata (L.) Raf.] and 'Carrizo' citranges [C. sinensis × P. trifoliata (L.) Raf.]; 'Volkamer' lemon (Citrus volkameriana V. Ten. & Pasq.); trifoliate orange [P. trifoliata (L.) Raf.; 'Caipira DAC' sweet orange [C. sinensis (L.) Osb.] and 'Swingle' citrumelo [Citrus paradisi Macfad. cv. Duncan × P. trifoliata (L.) Raf.]. The highest plant growth was for the trees on 'Cleopatra' mandarin and 'Caipira DAC' sweet orange. In contrast, the smallest size was for the trees on 'Volkamer' lemon and trifoliate orange. The largest difference between the trunk diameter below and above the grafting point was induced by 'Swingle' citrumelo. Trees of 'Okitsu' Satsuma mandarin on 'Swingle' citrumelo presented the highest yield, while 'C-13', 'Carrizo', 'Sunki', and 'Swingle' induced the largest fruit masses. With regard to fruit characteristics, 'Carrizo' and trifoliate orange induced the best ratio and juice content. Based on theoretical values, 'Rangpur' lime and 'Volkamer' lemon induced the lowest yields.

Kohli M.M.,CAPECO | Mehta Y.R.,IAPAR | Guzman E.,CIAT | de Viedma L.,CRIA | Cubilla L.E.,CAPECO
Czech Journal of Genetics and Plant Breeding | Year: 2011

Wheat blast disease caused by Pyricularia grisea (telemorph Magnaporthe grisea) has become a serious restriction on increasing the area and production of the crop, especially in the tropical parts of the Southern Cone Region of South America. First identified in 1985 in the State of Paraná in Brazil, it has become an endemic disease in the low lying Santa Cruz region of Bolivia, south and south-eastern Paraguay, and central and southern Brazil in recent years. Severe infections have also been observed in the summer planted wheat crop in north-eastern Argentina. So far, only sporadic infections have been seen in Uruguay, especially during the wet and warm years. Spike infection (often confused with Fusarium head blight infection) is the most notable symptom of the disease and capable of causing over 40% production losses. However, under severe infection, the loss of production can be almost complete in susceptible varieties. Wheat blast is mainly a spike disease but can also produce lesions on all the above ground parts of the plant under certain conditions. Depending upon the point of the infection on the rachis, the disease can kill the spike partially or fully. The infected portion of the spike dries out without producing any grain which can be visibly distinguished from the healthy portion. While virulence diversity in the fungus has been reported in the literature and is under further exploration, genetic resistance in the host species has been more difficult to identify. Earlier, Brazilian cultivars such as BH 1146, CNT 8, several IAC and OCEPAR selections were credited as demonstrating different levels of field resistance, but this was not confirmed under artificial inoculation studies. However, other cultivars such as BR18, IPR 85, CD 113, have shown moderate levels of resistance over the years in many locations. Recently, several cultivars and advanced lines derived from the CIMMYT line, Milan, have been observed to carry a high level of resistance to blast disease throughout the endemic region. However, to date, the genetic basis of this resistance is not very clear due to extreme variation in the pathogen. Cultivars showing complete resistance against a few isolates under controlled conditions in the glasshouse, may or may not show field resistance in commercial cultivation. Due to an increase of the area under Milan based resistant wheat cultivars in Bolivia, Brazil and Paraguay, it needs to be combined with other sources of resistance urgently to prevent the selection of a virulent pathotype in the fungus. Besides genetic resistance, avoidance of early dates of seeding and chemical control can reduce the disease severity. Fungicides combining triazols with strobilurins can, under some situations, be effective in disease control at the heading stage. Even when all components of integrated disease management of wheat blast are not in place yet, it is seen as an essential strategy to reduce production losses in this region. Given the threat that the blast disease may pose to world wheat growing areas in the future, more research efforts are deemed urgent and necessary.

Rakocevic M.,IAPAR | Martim S.F.,Embrapa Informatica Agropecuaria
International Journal of Biometeorology | Year: 2011

To assess differences in the lag-effect pattern in the relationship between yerba-mate biennial growth and environmental factors, a time-series analysis was performed. A generalized Poisson regression model was used to control time trends, temperature, growing degree days (GDD), rainfalls and night length (NL). It was hypothesized that the active growth and growth pauses in yerba-mate are controlled endogenously and modified by environment, and that genders would respond differently to environmental modifications. The patterns in the lag effect from the distributed-lag models were similar to those of time-series models with meteorological data means with lag = 0. GDD and NL were principal factors affecting biennial yerba-mate shoot elongation and the number of green leaves of females grown in monoculture, besides their significant effects on metamer emission and leaf area in males grown in monoculture. NL also had a significant influence on shoot elongation and leaf area of both genders grown in forest understorey (FUS), indicating that yerba-mate growth is synchronized by an internal clock sensitive to temperature adjustments. The morphological plasticity and the adaptation efforts of yerba-mate were more pronounced in monoculture than in FUS. Sexual dimorphism was expressed-males were more sensitive to environmental changes than females, especially in monoculture. Growth modifications were much more intense when plants were grown in a cultivation system that is less like yerba-mate natural habitat (monoculture) than in one resembling its natural habitat (FUS). Our data support the ecological specialization theory. © 2010 ISB.

Santos D.H.,São Paulo State University | Silva M.A.,Polo Centro Oeste CP 66 | Tiritan C.S.,UNOESTE | Foloni J.S.S.,IAPAR | Echer F.R.,São Paulo State University
Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agricola e Ambiental | Year: 2011

The study had the objective to evaluate the effect of the fertilization with filter cake enriched with soluble phosphate on the sugar yield. The experiment carried at Presidente Prudente-SP, used a randomized complete block design, in the factorial scheme 5 × 4, where the first factor consisted of doses of filter cake (0; 0.5; 1.0; 2.0 and 4.0 t ha-1) and the second, doses of phosphorus fertilizer (0, 50, 100, 200 kg ha-1 of P2O5), with 4 replicates, totaling 80 plots. The results indicated that phosphorus applied in planting furrows improves the quality of sugarcane raw matter by increasing the levels of soluble solids, total reducing sugars and sucrose in the stalks. The phosphorus also increases the productivity of sugar. The filter cake applied in planting furrow has the potential to partially replace the chemical fertilization with phosphate aiming to improve the quality and the productivity of sugar. The best combination was filter cake at dose between 2.6 and 2.7 t ha-1 combined with dose between 160 and 190 kg P2O5 ha-1 for obtaining best response of soluble solids and productivity of sugar.

Rosolem C.A.,São Paulo State University | Oosterhuis D.M.,University of Arkansas | De Souza F.S.,IAPAR
Scientia Agricola | Year: 2013

Gibberellin inhibitor growth regulators are used for cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L.) canopy manipulation to avoid excess growth and yield losses. However, under temperatures below or over the optimum for cotton production the effect of mepiquat chloride (MC) has not always been significant. In this experiment, cotton plants were grown in growth chambers to study the response to MC as affected by temperature and to determine if an increase in dose could overcome the temperature effects. Mepiquat chloride was applied at rates of 0, 15 and 30 g ai ha-1 at the pinhead square stage. Plants were then grown under three temperature regimes: 25/15 °C, 32/22 °C, and 39/29 °C (day/night temperatures) for 51 days. Higher temperatures increased plant height, reproductive branches, fruit number, fruit abscission, and photosynthesis per unit area, but decreased leaf area and chlorophyll. The largest effect of MC on plant height was observed when the daily temperature was 32 °C, with nights of 22 °C, which was also best for plant growth. High temperatures not only decreased the effectiveness of MC on plant height control, but also caused lower dry matter and fruit number per plant. Low temperatures (25/15 o C) decreased cotton growth and fruit retention, but a higher concentration of MC was required per unit of growth reduction as compared with 32/22 oC. At high temperatures, the rate of MC to be applied must be disproportionately increased, because either plant growth is impaired by high temperature lessening the effect of MC, or degradation of MC within the plant is too rapid.

The objective of this work was to evaluate the alterations in carbon and nitrogen mineralization due to different soil tillage systems and groundcover species for intercropped orange trees. The experiment was established in an Ultisol soil (Typic Paleudults) originated from Caiuá sandstone in northwestern of the state of Paraná, Brazil, in an area previously cultivated with pasture (Brachiaria humidicola). Two soil tillage systems were evaluated: conventional tillage (CT) in the entire area and strip tillage (ST) with a 2-m width, each with different groundcover vegetation management systems. The citrus cultivar utilized was the 'Pera' orange (Citrus sinensis) grafted onto a 'Rangpur' lime rootstock. The soil samples were collected at a 0-15-cm depth after five years of experiment development. Samples were collected from under the tree canopy and from the inter-row space after the following treatments: (1) CT and annual cover crop with the leguminous Calopogonium mucunoides; (2) CT and perennial cover crop with the leguminous peanut Arachis pintoi; (3) CT and evergreen cover crop with Bahiagrass Paspalum notatum; (4) CT and cover crop with spontaneous B. humidicola grass vegetation; and (5) ST and maintenance of the remaining grass (pasture) of B. humidicola. The soil tillage systems and different groundcover vegetation influenced the C and N mineralization, both under the tree canopy and in the inter-row space. The cultivation of B. humidicola under strip tillage provided higher potential mineralization than the other treatments in the inter-row space. Strip tillage increased the C and N mineralization compared to conventional tillage. The grass cultivation increased the C and N mineralization when compared to the others treatments cultivated in the inter-row space.

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