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Curitiba, Brazil

Rakocevic M.,IAPAR | Martim S.F.,Embrapa Informatica Agropecuaria
International Journal of Biometeorology | Year: 2011

To assess differences in the lag-effect pattern in the relationship between yerba-mate biennial growth and environmental factors, a time-series analysis was performed. A generalized Poisson regression model was used to control time trends, temperature, growing degree days (GDD), rainfalls and night length (NL). It was hypothesized that the active growth and growth pauses in yerba-mate are controlled endogenously and modified by environment, and that genders would respond differently to environmental modifications. The patterns in the lag effect from the distributed-lag models were similar to those of time-series models with meteorological data means with lag = 0. GDD and NL were principal factors affecting biennial yerba-mate shoot elongation and the number of green leaves of females grown in monoculture, besides their significant effects on metamer emission and leaf area in males grown in monoculture. NL also had a significant influence on shoot elongation and leaf area of both genders grown in forest understorey (FUS), indicating that yerba-mate growth is synchronized by an internal clock sensitive to temperature adjustments. The morphological plasticity and the adaptation efforts of yerba-mate were more pronounced in monoculture than in FUS. Sexual dimorphism was expressed-males were more sensitive to environmental changes than females, especially in monoculture. Growth modifications were much more intense when plants were grown in a cultivation system that is less like yerba-mate natural habitat (monoculture) than in one resembling its natural habitat (FUS). Our data support the ecological specialization theory. © 2010 ISB. Source


The objective of this work was to evaluate the alterations in carbon and nitrogen mineralization due to different soil tillage systems and groundcover species for intercropped orange trees. The experiment was established in an Ultisol soil (Typic Paleudults) originated from Caiuá sandstone in northwestern of the state of Paraná, Brazil, in an area previously cultivated with pasture (Brachiaria humidicola). Two soil tillage systems were evaluated: conventional tillage (CT) in the entire area and strip tillage (ST) with a 2-m width, each with different groundcover vegetation management systems. The citrus cultivar utilized was the 'Pera' orange (Citrus sinensis) grafted onto a 'Rangpur' lime rootstock. The soil samples were collected at a 0-15-cm depth after five years of experiment development. Samples were collected from under the tree canopy and from the inter-row space after the following treatments: (1) CT and annual cover crop with the leguminous Calopogonium mucunoides; (2) CT and perennial cover crop with the leguminous peanut Arachis pintoi; (3) CT and evergreen cover crop with Bahiagrass Paspalum notatum; (4) CT and cover crop with spontaneous B. humidicola grass vegetation; and (5) ST and maintenance of the remaining grass (pasture) of B. humidicola. The soil tillage systems and different groundcover vegetation influenced the C and N mineralization, both under the tree canopy and in the inter-row space. The cultivation of B. humidicola under strip tillage provided higher potential mineralization than the other treatments in the inter-row space. Strip tillage increased the C and N mineralization compared to conventional tillage. The grass cultivation increased the C and N mineralization when compared to the others treatments cultivated in the inter-row space. Source


To mitigate soil erosion and enhance soil fertility in orange plantations, the permanent protection of the inter-rows by cover species has been suggested. The objective of this study was to evaluate alterations in the microbial biomass, due to different soil tillage systems and intercropped cover species between rows of orange trees. The soil of the experimental area previously used as pasture (Brachiaria humidicola) was an Ultisol (Typic Paleudult) originating from Caiuá sandstone in the northwestern part of the State of Paraná, Brazil. Two soil tillage systems were evaluated: conventional tillage (CT) in the entire area and strip tillage (ST) (strip width 2 m), in combination with different ground cover management systems. The citrus cultivar 'Pera' orange (Citrus sinensis) grafted onto 'Rangpur' lime rootstock was used. Soil samples were collected after five years of treatment from a depth of 0-15 cm, under the tree canopy and in the inter-row, in the following treatments: (1) CT and an annual cover crop with the leguminous species Calopogonium mucunoides; (2) CT and a perennial cover crop with the leguminous peanut Arachis pintoi; (3) CT and an evergreen cover crop with Bahiagrass Paspalum notatum; (4) CT and a cover crop with spontaneous Brachiaria humidicola grass vegetation; and (5) ST and maintenance of the remaining grass (pasture) of Brachiaria humidicola. Soil tillage and the different cover species influenced the microbial biomass, both under the tree canopy and in the interrow. The cultivation of brachiaria increased C and N in the microbial biomass, while bahiagrass increased P in the microbial biomass. The soil microbial biomass was enriched in N and P by the presence of ground cover species and according to the soil P content. The grass species increased C, N and P in the soil microbial biomass from the inter-row more than leguminous species. Source


Auler P.A.M.,Instituto Agronomico do Parana IAPAR | Neves C.S.V.J.,State University Londrina | Fidalski J.,Instituto Agronomico do Parana IAPAR | Pavan M.A.,IAPAR
Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira | Year: 2011

The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of liming and of rootstocks on root amount, and on the nutrition and yield of 'Valência' orange, in different soil tillage systems. The experiment was set up in a randomized block design with split-split-plot arrangement and three replicates. The plots consisted of two soil tillage systems: conventional tillage or minimum tillage. The sub-plots consisted of two liming levels: with or without liming. The sub-sub-plots consisted of three rootstocks: 'Rangpur' lime (Citrus limonia), 'Cleopatra' mandarin (Citrus reshni) and Poncirus trifoliata. The liming-treatment received 3 Mg ha -1 of dolomite limestone before the implantation, and 1.65 Mg ha -1 four years after planting. Fruit production was evaluated during 12 years; Ca and Mg leaf contents were evaluated 13 years after the experiment implantation; and roots and soil chemical attributes, 14 years after the implantation. Soil tillage systems and their interaction with the other factors did not influence the evaluated variables. 'Rangpur' lime showed the highest adaptation to soil acidity, Al and to the lower contents of Ca and Mg, with no response to liming. Poncirus trifoliate showed the lowest adaptation to soil acidity, and lime increased its root amount in 126% and its fruit production in 26.4%. Source


Santos D.H.,Sao Paulo State University | Silva M.A.,Polo Centro Oeste CP 66 | Tiritan C.S.,UNOESTE | Foloni J.S.S.,IAPAR | Echer F.R.,Sao Paulo State University
Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agricola e Ambiental | Year: 2011

The study had the objective to evaluate the effect of the fertilization with filter cake enriched with soluble phosphate on the sugar yield. The experiment carried at Presidente Prudente-SP, used a randomized complete block design, in the factorial scheme 5 × 4, where the first factor consisted of doses of filter cake (0; 0.5; 1.0; 2.0 and 4.0 t ha-1) and the second, doses of phosphorus fertilizer (0, 50, 100, 200 kg ha-1 of P2O5), with 4 replicates, totaling 80 plots. The results indicated that phosphorus applied in planting furrows improves the quality of sugarcane raw matter by increasing the levels of soluble solids, total reducing sugars and sucrose in the stalks. The phosphorus also increases the productivity of sugar. The filter cake applied in planting furrow has the potential to partially replace the chemical fertilization with phosphate aiming to improve the quality and the productivity of sugar. The best combination was filter cake at dose between 2.6 and 2.7 t ha-1 combined with dose between 160 and 190 kg P2O5 ha-1 for obtaining best response of soluble solids and productivity of sugar. Source

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