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Nishi-Tokyo-shi, Japan

Omichi K.,University of Tokyo | Inoue Y.,University of Tokyo | Hasegawa K.,University of Tokyo | Sakamoto Y.,University of Tokyo | And 5 more authors.
British Journal of Surgery | Year: 2015

Background: Real-time tissue elastography is an innovative tool that informs the surgeon about tissue elasticity by applying the principle of ultrasonography. The aim of this study was to investigate the accuracy of intraoperative real-time tissue elastography (IORTE) for the detection and characterization of liver tumours. Methods: Between October 2010 and November 2011, IORTE was performed for liver lesions after the completion of routine B-mode intraoperative ultrasonography (IOUS). The elasticity images of all tumours, except those of cysts, were classified into six categories according to modified criteria (types 1-6), according to the degree of strain contrast with the surrounding liver. The concordance of IORTE with pathological examination of the tumour, B-mode IOUS and clinical diagnosis after follow-up was assessed. Results: Images were obtained from 92 hepatocellular carcinomas (HCCs), 92 adenocarcinomas, 19 other malignant tumours and 18 benign tumours in 158 patients. Using a minilinear probe, 73 of 88 HCCs were classified as having a 'HCC pattern' (type 3, 4 or 5), resulting in a sensitivity of 83·0 per cent, a specificity of 67·2 per cent and an accuracy of 73·7 per cent. Some 66 of 90 adenocarcinomas were classified as 'adenocarcinoma pattern' (type 6), resulting in a sensitivity of 73·3 per cent, specificity of 95·1 per cent and accuracy of 85·9 per cent. IORTE detected seven new lesions (8 per cent). Conclusion: IORTE is useful for the detection and characterization of liver tumours. © 2014 BJS Society Ltd. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

Tsuruya K.,Kyushu University | Yoshida H.,Kyushu University | Nagata M.,Kyushu University | Kitazono T.,Kyushu University | And 13 more authors.
American Journal of Kidney Diseases | Year: 2015

Background The impact of the triglycerides to high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (TG:HDL-C) ratio on chronic kidney disease (CKD) is unclear. Study Design Longitudinal cohort study. Setting & Participants 124,700 participants aged 39 to 74 years in the Japanese Specific Health Check and Guidance System, including 50,392 men, 74,308 women, 102,900 without CKD, and 21,800 with CKD. Predictor Quartiles of TG:HDL-C ratio. Outcomes & Measurements Changes in estimated glomerular filtration rate (eGFR) and urinary protein excretion during the 2-year study period. Incident CKD in participants without CKD, and progression of CKD in participants with CKD. Results In the entire study population, higher quartile of TG:HDL-C ratio at baseline was significantly associated with greater decline in eGFR and increase in urinary protein excretion during the 2-year study period, even after adjustment for confounding factors. A higher ratio was associated with higher risk of incident CKD in participants without CKD and higher risk of rapid decline in eGFR and increase in urinary protein excretion in participants with CKD. Higher TG:HDL-C ratio was more strongly associated with decline in eGFR (P for interaction = 0.002) and with incident CKD (P for interaction = 0.05) in participants with diabetes than without diabetes. Limitations Short observation period and single measurement of all variables. Conclusions A higher TG:HDL-C ratio affects the decline in eGFR and incidence and progression of CKD in the Japanese population. © 2015 National Kidney Foundation, Inc.

Yano Y.,Northwestern University | Fujimoto S.,University of Miyazaki | Kramer H.,Loyola Medical Center | Sato Y.,University of Miyazaki | And 13 more authors.
Hypertension | Year: 2015

Whether long-term blood pressure (BP) variability among individuals without diabetes mellitus is associated with new-onset chronic kidney disease (CKD) risk, independently of other BP parameters (eg, mean BP, cumulative exposure to BP) and metabolic profile changes during follow-up, remains uncertain. We used data from a nationwide study of 48 587 Japanese adults aged 40 to 74 years (mean age, 61.7 years; 39% men) without diabetes mellitus or CKD (estimated glomerular filtration rate <60 mL/min per 1.73 m2 or proteinuria by dipstick). BP was measured at baseline and during 3 annual follow-up visits (4 visits). BP variability was defined as standard deviation (SD) and average real variability during the 4 visits. At the year 3 follow-up visit, 6.3% of the population had developed CKD. In multivariable-adjusted logistic regression models, 1 SD increases in SDSBP (per 5 mmHg), SDDBP (per 3 mmHg), average real variabilitySBP (per 6 mmHg), and average real variabilityDBP (per 4 mmHg) were associated with new-onset CKD (odds ratios [ORs] and 95% confidence intervals, 1.15 [1.11-1.20], 1.08 [1.04-1.12], 1.13 [1.09-1.17], 1.06 [1.02-1.10], respectively; all P<0.01) after adjustment for clinical characteristics, and with mean BP from year 0 to year 3. The associations of SDBP and average real variabilityBP with CKD remained significant after additional adjustments for metabolic parameter changes during follow-up (ORs, 1.06-1.15; all P<0.01). Sensitivity analyses by sex, antihypertensive medication use, and the presence of hypertension showed similar conclusions. Among those in the middle-aged and elderly general population without diabetes mellitus, long-term BP variability during 3 years was associated with new-onset CKD risk, independently of mean or cumulative exposure to BP and metabolic profile changes during follow-up. © 2015 American Heart Association, Inc.

Wakasugi M.,Niigata University | Kazama J.J.,Niigata University | Narita I.,Comprehensive Care | Iseki K.,Comprehensive Care | And 11 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Background: Although lifestyle factors such as cigarette smoking, excessive drinking, obesity, low or no exercise, and unhealthy dietary habits have each been associated with inadequate sleep, little is known about their combined effect. The aim of this study was to quantify the overall impact of lifestyle-related factors on non-restorative sleep in the general Japanese population.Methods and Findings: A cross-sectional study of 243,767 participants (men, 39.8%) was performed using the Specific Health Check and Guidance System in Japan. A healthy lifestyle score was calculated by adding up the number of low-risk lifestyle factors for each participant. Low risk was defined as (1) not smoking, (2) body mass index<25 kg/m2, (3) moderate or less alcohol consumption, (4) regular exercise, and (5) better eating patterns. Logistic regression analysis was used to examine the relationship between the score and the prevalence of non-restorative sleep, which was determined from questionnaire responses. Among 97,062 men (mean age, 63.9 years) and 146,705 women (mean age, 63.7 years), 18,678 (19.2%) and 38,539 (26.3%) reported non-restorative sleep, respectively. The prevalence of non-restorative sleep decreased with age for both sexes. Compared to participants with a healthy lifestyle score of 5 (most healthy), those with a score of 0 (least healthy) had a higher prevalence of non-restorative sleep (odds ratio, 1.59 [95% confidence interval, 1.29-1.97] for men and 2.88 [1.74-4.76] for women), independently of hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes, and chronic kidney disease. The main limitation of the study was the cross-sectional design, which limited causal inferences for the identified associations.Conclusions: A combination of several unhealthy lifestyle factors was associated with non-restorative sleep among the general Japanese population. Further studies are needed to establish whether general lifestyle modification improves restorative sleep. © 2014 Wakasugi et al.

Terawaki H.,Fukushima Medical University | Nakayama M.,Fukushima Medical University | Asahi K.,Fukushima Medical University | Asahi K.,Comprehensive Care | And 16 more authors.
Clinical and Experimental Nephrology | Year: 2015

Background: The most superior GFR-estimating equation from the viewpoint of cardiovascular disease (CVD) prediction remains unclear. Thus, we performed cross-sectional comparison between two GFR-estimating equations (Japanese GFR equation and coefficient-modified CKD-EPI equation) and CVD incidence using Japanese nationwide “specific health checkup” data. Methods: We recruited Japanese residents (241,159 individuals; mean 63 years; male, 38.6 %) who had not experienced CVD event (cardiac disease or stroke, or both). We calculated estimated GFR using two equations, and compared their predictive value for first symptomatic CVD event within 1 year. Results: Of all subjects, the mean GFR estimated by the Japanese GFR equation (JPN-eGFR) modified for Japanese was 75.83 ± 16.18 mL/min/1.73 m2, and that by the coefficient-modified CKD-EPI equation (mCKDEPI-eGFR) was 76.39 ± 9.61 mL/min/1.73 m2. Area under the receiver operating characteristics curves (95 % confidence intervals) for predicting CVD event by mCKDEPI-eGFR vs. JPN-eGFR were 0.596 (0.589–0.603) vs. 0.562 (0.554–0.569). Using mCKDEPI-eGFR, the crude odds ratio (OR) for CVD incident in the 4th quartile group was far more than double (OR 2.46, 95 % CI 2.29–2.66) that in the 1st quartile group. Using JPN-eGFR, the crude OR in the 4th quartile group was less than double (OR 1.61, 95 % CI 1.51–1.73) that in the 1st quartile group. However, such superior predictive value of mCKDEPI-eGFR disappeared after adjustment for confounding factors (age, gender, BMI, presence of proteinuria, hypertension, diabetes, dyslipidemia and current smoking). Conclusion: GFR estimated by the coefficient-modified CKD-EPI equation was more closely related to CVD incidence than that estimated by the Japanese GFR equation. However, it is possible that low mCKDEPI-eGFR also reflects some cardiovascular risk(s) other than kidney dysfunction. © 2014, Japanese Society of Nephrology.

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