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Ymittos Athens, Greece

Malandraki O.,IAASARS
Journal of Physics: Conference Series

The paper presents an overview of the SH 'Solar and Heliospheric cosmic rays' session of the 24th European Cosmic Ray Symposium (ECRS), Kiel, Germany, 2014. It covers the topics of Solar Energetic Particle (SEP) origin, acceleration and transport at the Sun and in the interplanetary medium, also from the aspect of multi-spacecraft observations, as well as the Galactic Cosmic Ray (GCR) short- and long-term variations and the Jovian electron variations in the heliosphere. Relevant instruments and methods presented are also covered by this review. The paper is written from a personal perspective, emphasizing those results that the author found most interesting. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd. Source

Dresing N.,University of Kiel | Gomez-Herrero R.,University of Alcala | Heber B.,University of Kiel | Klassen A.,University of Kiel | And 4 more authors.
Astronomy and Astrophysics

Context. In February 2011, the two STEREO spacecrafts reached a separation of 180 degrees in longitude, offering a complete view of the Sun for the first time ever. When the full Sun surface is visible, source active regions of solar energetic particle (SEP) events can be identified unambiguously. STEREO, in combination with near-Earth observatories such as ACE or SOHO, provides three well separated viewpoints, which build an unprecedented platform from which to investigate the longitudinal variations of SEP events. Aims. We show an ensemble of SEP events that were observed between 2009 and mid-2013 by at least two spacecrafts and show a remarkably wide particle spread in longitude (wide-spread events). The main selection criterion for these events was a longitudinal separation of at least 80 degrees between active region and spacecraft magnetic footpoint for the widest separated spacecraft. We investigate the events statistically in terms of peak intensities, onset delays, and rise times, and determine the spread of the longitudinal events, which is the range filled by SEPs during the events. Energetic electron anisotropies are investigated to distinguish the source and transport mechanisms that lead to the observed wide particle spreads. Methods. According to the anisotropy distributions, we divided the events into three classes depending on different source and transport scenarios. One potential mechanism for wide-spread events is efficient perpendicular transport in the interplanetary medium that competes with another scenario, which is a wide particle spread that occurs close to the Sun. In the latter case, the observations at 1 AU during the early phase of the events are expected to show significant anisotropies because of the wide injection range at the Sun and particle-focusing during the outward propagation, while in the first case only low anisotropies are anticipated. Results. We find events for both of these scenarios in our sample that match the expected observations and even different events that do not agree with the scenarios. We conclude that probably both an extended source region at the Sun and perpendicular transport in the interplanetary medium are involved for most of these wide-spread events. © ESO, 2014. Source

Gomez-Herrero R.,University of Alcala | Dresing N.,University of Kiel | Klassen A.,University of Kiel | Heber B.,University of Kiel | And 6 more authors.
Astrophysical Journal

Late on 2011 November 3, STEREO-A, STEREO-B, MESSENGER, and near-Earth spacecraft observed an energetic particle flux enhancement. Based on the analysis of in situ plasma and particle observations, their correlation with remote sensing observations, and an interplanetary transport model, we conclude that the particle increases observed at multiple locations had a common single-source active region and the energetic particles filled a very broad region around the Sun. The active region was located at the solar backside (as seen from Earth) and was the source of a large flare, a fast and wide coronal mass ejection, and an EIT wave, accompanied by type II and type III radio emission. In contrast to previous solar energetic particle events showing broad longitudinal spread, this event showed clear particle anisotropies at three widely separated observation points at 1 AU, suggesting direct particle injection close to the magnetic footpoint of each spacecraft, lasting for several hours. We discuss these observations and the possible scenarios explaining the extremely broad particle spread for this event. © 2015. The American Astronomical Society. All rights reserved.. Source

Miteva R.,University Paris Diderot | Klein K.-L.,University Paris Diderot | Kienreich I.,University of Graz | Temmer M.,University of Graz | And 2 more authors.
Solar Physics

We explore the link between solar energetic particles (SEPs) observed at 1 AU and large-scale disturbances propagating in the solar corona, named after the Extreme ultraviolet Imaging Telescope (EIT) as EIT waves, which trace the lateral expansion of a coronal mass ejection (CME). A comprehensive search for SOHO/EIT waves was carried out for 179 SEP events during Solar Cycle 23 (1997 - 2006). 87 % of the SEP events were found to be accompanied by EIT waves. In order to test if the EIT waves play a role in the SEP acceleration, we compared their extrapolated arrival time at the footpoint of the Parker spiral with the particle onset in the 26 eastern SEP events that had no direct magnetic connection to the Earth. We find that the onset of proton events was generally consistent with this scenario. However, in a number of cases the first near-relativistic electrons were detected too early. Furthermore, the electrons had in general only weakly anisotropic pitch-angle distributions. This poses a problem for the idea that the SEPs were accelerated by the EIT wave or in any other spatially confined region in the low corona. The presence of weak electron anisotropies in SEP events from the eastern hemisphere suggests that transport processes in interplanetary space, including cross-field diffusion, play a role in giving the SEPs access to a broad range of helio-longitudes. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source

Williams S.J.,University of Crete | Bonanos A.Z.,IAASARS
Astronomy and Astrophysics

Aims. To complement the study of transient phenomena and to assist subsequent observations in the mid-infrared, we extract point source photometry from archival mosaics of nearby galaxies with high star formation rates within 4 Mpc. Methods. Point spread function photometry was performed on sources detected in both Spitzer IRAC 3.6 μm and 4.5 μm bands at greater than 3σ above background. These data were then supplemented by aperture photometry in the IRAC 5.8 μm and 8.0 μm bands conducted at the positions of the shorter wavelength sources. For sources with no detected object in the longer wavelengths, we estimated magnitude limits based on the local sky background. Results. We present Spitzer IRAC mid-infrared point source catalogs for mosaics covering the fields of the nearby (â 2 4 Mpc) galaxies NGC 55, NGC 253, NGC 2366, NGC 4214, and NGC 5253. We detect a total of 20159 sources in these five fields. The individual galaxy point source breakdown is the following: NGC 55, 8746 sources; NGC 253, 9001 sources; NGC 2366, 505 sources; NGC 4214, 1185 sources; NGC 5253, 722 sources. The completeness limits of the full catalog vary with bandpass and were found to be m3.6 = 18.0, m4.5 = 17.5, m5.8 = 17.0, and m8.0 = 16.5 mag. For all galaxies, this corresponds to detection of point sources brighter than M3.6 =-10. These catalogs can be used as a reference for stellar population investigations, individual stellar object studies, and in planning future mid-infrared observations with the James Webb Space Telescope. © ESO, 2016. Source

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