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Agency: European Commission | Branch: H2020 | Program: IA | Phase: SPIRE-07-2015 | Award Amount: 6.62M | Year: 2015

Specific raw materials become increasingly important to manufacture high level industrial products. Especially electronic equipment contains precious metals and a series of strategic raw materials. To date the material specific recycling is focused on mass stream concepts such as shredder processes and metallurgy to extract the high-value metallic constituents, i.e. copper, gold, silver. However, a series of critical elements cannot be recovered efficiently or is even lost in dust or residual fractions. The goal of ADIR is to demonstrate the feasibility of a key technology for next generation urban mining. An automated disassembly of electronic equipment will be worked out to separate and recover valuable materials. The concept is based on image processing, robotic handling, pulsed power technology, 3D laser measurement, real-time laser material identification (to detect materials), laser processing (to access components, to selectively unsolder these; to cut off parts of a printed circuit board), and automatic separation into different sorting fractions. A machine concept will be worked out being capable to selectively disassemble printed circuit boards and mobile phones with short cycle times to gain sorting fractions containing high amounts of valuable materials. Examples are those materials with high economic importance and significant supply risk such as tantalum, rare earth elements, germanium, cobalt, palladium, gallium and tungsten. A demonstrator will be developed and evaluated in field tests at a recycling company. The obtained sorting fractions will be studied with respect to their further processing and recovery potential for raw materials. Refining companies will define requirements and test the processing of sorting fractions with specific material enrichments. An advisory board will be established incorporating three telecommunication enterprises.

Kawano K.,Kyushu University | Kawano K.,Panasonic | Nagayoshi K.,Kyushu University | Nagayoshi K.,i-Cube | And 3 more authors.
Organic Electronics: physics, materials, applications | Year: 2014

In this paper, we report the fabrication of small-molecule-based thin-film layers with a thickness of several tens of nanometers on a release layer by bar coating and subsequent stacking onto other organic layers by the developed film transfer method using driving belts and rollers as a prototype roll-to-roll technique. We use novel thermally activated delayed fluorescence (TADF) materials in this process, achieving multilayered organic light-emitting diodes (OLEDs) with high external quantum efficiency (EQE), which is comparable to those of OLEDs prepared by conventional vacuum deposition. The developed film transfer method shows great potential to realize OLEDs with high efficiency at low cost. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Noh H.-J.,i-Cube | Lee S.-G.,i-Cube | Nam S.-P.,i-Cube | Lee Y.-H.,Kwangwoon University
Materials Research Bulletin | Year: 2010

The Sr and Ca added to BaTiO3 in order to shift transition temperature near room temperature. The donor (Yb2O3) and acceptor (MnCO3) impurities were added to the (Ba,Sr,Ca)TiO3 powder for the improvement of structural and electrical properties. The (Ba,Sr,Ca)TiO3 powder was made by sol-gel method and the thick films were fabricated by screen-printing. We fabricated array type thick films. The 1 mm × 3 mm array thick films were arranged 2 × 8. Relative dielectric constant and dielectric loss of Yb2O3 0.1 mol% doped (Ba,Sr,Ca)TiO3 array thick film were 1068 and 2.8%, respectively at Curie temperature, 44 °C. Pyroelectric coefficient and F.M.D* showed 21.7 × 10-9 C/cm2 K and 3.2 × 10-9 C cm/J, respectively. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Nam S.-P.,i-Cube | Noh H.-J.,i-Cube | Lee S.-G.,i-Cube | Lee Y.-H.,Kwangwoon University
Materials Research Bulletin | Year: 2010

The vanadium tungsten oxide thin films deposited on Pt/Ti/SiO2/Si substrates by RF sputtering exhibited good TCR and dielectric properties. The dependence of crystallization and electrical properties are related to the grain size of V1.85W0.15O5 thin films with different annealing temperatures. It was found that the dielectric properties and TCR properties of V1.85W0.15O5 thin films were strongly dependent upon the annealing temperature. The dielectric constants of the V1.85W0.15O5 thin films annealed at 400 °C were 44, with a dielectric loss of 0.83%. The TCR values of the V1.85W0.15O5 thin films annealed at 400 °C were about -3.45%/K. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Lu J.,CAS Beijing Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research | Lu J.,University of Chinese Academy of Sciences | Lu J.,i-Cube | Tang R.,CAS Beijing Institute of Geographic Sciences and Nature Resources Research | And 3 more authors.
Water Resources Research | Year: 2014

This study develops a method for estimating surface energy fluxes (surface sensible heat flux (H), latent heat flux (LE), and soil heat flux (G)) simultaneously from continuous observations of surface temperature (T s), air temperature (Ta), and net radiation (R n) without calculating various resistances. First, H, LE, and G are parameterized by some constant parameters that remain fairly invariant during a given day and some known functions related to Ts and Ta. Second, these constant parameters are solved by a minimization technique based on surface energy balance. Data from ground-based measurements at the Yucheng station were used to evaluate the performance of the developed method. Results show that the simplified parameterization schemes well reproduce H, LE, and G with a root mean square error (RMSE) of ∼20 W/m2 at the instantaneous time scale, and perform better at the daily scale. For the estimates of H, LE, and G using the known Ts, Ta, and Rn measured at the Yucheng station as inputs, the RMSE is ∼60 W/m2 at the instantaneous time scale and ∼20 W/m2 at the daily scale. The requirement of continuous observations throughout a day in the developed method could be met by remotely sensed data from geostationary meteorological satellites. Fewer input variables and the obviation of calculating various resistances give the method the potential to generate surface fluxes over a large area. Key Points Parameterization schemes of surface energy fluxes are simplified Surface energy fluxes are estimated without calculating resistances Fewer input variables are required © 2014. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.

Ha J.K.,i-Cube | Cho K.K.,Gyeongsang National University
Applied Mechanics and Materials | Year: 2012

Silicon oxide (SiOx) nanowires may have many applications due to their electrical, mechanical and optical properties. Many methods have been reported for the synthesis of SiOx nanowires, including laser ablation, sol-gel, thermal evaporation, carbothermal reduction, physical evaporation, rapid thermal annealing, chemical vapor deposition and thermal oxidation route, oxide assisted growth and thermal sublimation. In this paper, we reported SiOx nanowires fabricated by simple thermal heating process of catalyst thin film-coated Si substrates with various parameters, such as synthesis temperature, synthesis gases, catalysts, and buffer layer (SiO 2 layer). Synthesized silicon oxide nanowires were amorphous crystalline. The best synthesis condition of prepared SiOx nanowire is slightly varied with catalysts and buffer layer. The flow rate of synthesis gas affected diameter of silicon oxide nanowires. © (2012) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

Bay F.,MINES ParisTech | Jeanson A.-C.,MINES ParisTech | Jeanson A.-C.,i-Cube | Zapata J.A.,MINES ParisTech
Procedia Engineering | Year: 2014

Electromagnetic Forming is a very promising high-speed forming process. However, designing these processes remains quite intricate as it leads to deal with strongly coupled multiphysics process and thus requires the use of computational models. We present here the main features of the numerical model which we are currently developing to model this process. Accurate knowledge of constitutive law parameters for material at high strain rates remains quite difficult to access. We thus introduce here a procedure which has been developed in order to deal with identification of these parameters. © 2014 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.


i-Cube | Date: 2015-12-21

Alloys of precious metal; precious stones; time instruments, namely, watches; clocks; gemstones, pearls and precious metals, and imitations thereof; jewellery. Animal skins; trunks being luggage; valises; umbrellas; walking staffs; whips; saddlery; imitation leather, namely, moleskin; leather and imitation leather. Clothing, namely, shirts, pants; footwear; hats.

i-Cube | Date: 2013-01-11

Software for easily publishing existing content on websites to tablet computers as stories for the purpose of making it feel like an individual custom built application.

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