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Cluj-Napoca, Romania

Truta A.,University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca | Truta A.,I Chiricuta Oncology Institute | Hodor Popon T.A.,Clinical Municipal Hospital | Saraci G.,University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca | And 3 more authors.
Clujul Medical | Year: 2016

Bladder cancer is one of the most commonly diagnosed malignancies worldwide, derived from the urothelium of the urinary bladder and defined by long asymptomatic and atypical clinical picture. Its complex etiopathogenesis is dependent on numerous risk factors that can be divided into three distinct categories: genetic and molecular abnormalities, chemical or environmental exposure and previous genitourinary disorders and family history of different malignancies. Various genetic polymorphisms and microRNA might represent useful diagnostic or prognostic biomarkers. Genetic and molecular abnormalities - risk factors are represented by miRNA or genetic polymorphisms proved to be part of bladder carcinogenesis such as: genetic mutations of oncogenes TP53, Ras, Rb1 or p21 oncoproteins, cyclin D or genetic polymorhisms of XPD, ERCC1, CYP1B1, NQO1C609T, MDM2SNP309, CHEK2, ERCC6, NRF2, NQO1Pro187Ser polymorphism and microRNA (miR-143, -145, -222, -210, -10b, 576-3p). The aim of our article is to highlight the most recent acquisitions via molecular biomarkers (miRNAs and genetic polymorphisms) involved in bladder cancer in order to provide early diagnosis, precise therapy according to the molecular profile of bladder tumors, as well as to improve clinical outcome, survival rates and life quality of oncological patients. These molecular biomarkers play a key role in bladder carcinogenesis, clinical evolution, prognosis and therapeutic response and explain the molecular mechanisms involved in bladder carcinogenesis; they can also be selected as therapeutic targets in developing novel therapeutic strategies in bladder malignancies. Moreover, the purpose in defining these molecular non invasive biomarkers is also to develop non invasive screening programs in bladder malignancies with the result of decreasing bladder cancer incidence in risk population.

Tudoran O.M.,I Chiricuta Oncology Institute | Tudoran O.M.,University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca | Balacescu O.,I Chiricuta Oncology Institute | Berindan-Neagoe I.,I Chiricuta Oncology Institute | Berindan-Neagoe I.,University of Medicine and Pharmacy, Cluj-Napoca
Clujul Medical | Year: 2016

Breast cancer is the most frequently diagnosed cancer in women, being also the leading cause of cancer death among female population, including in Romania. Resistance to therapy represents a major problem for cancer treatment. Current cancer treatments are both expensive and induce serious side effects; therefore ineffective therapies are both traumatic and pricy. Characterizing predictive markers that can identify high-risk patients could contribute to dedicated/personalized therapy to improve the life quality and expectancy of cancer patients. Moreover, there are some markers that govern specific tumor molecular features that can be targeted with specific therapies for those patients who are most likely to benefit. The identification of stem cells in both normal and malignant breast tissue have lead to the hypothesis that breast tumors arise from breast cancer stem-like cells (CSCs), and that these cells influence tumor's response to therapy. CSCs have similar self-renewal properties to normal stem cells, however the balance between the signaling pathways is altered towards tumor formation In this review, we discuss the molecular aspects of breast CSCs and the controversies regarding their use in the diagnosis and treatment decision of breast cancer patients.

Virag P.,I Chiricuta Oncology Institute | Perde-Schrepler M.,I Chiricuta Oncology Institute | Fischer-Fodor E.,I Chiricuta Oncology Institute | Tatomir C.,I Chiricuta Oncology Institute | And 4 more authors.
Anti-Cancer Drugs | Year: 2012

Platinum-based chemotherapeutic agents are considered among the most potent anticancer drugs used in the treatment of human tumors. Cisplatin is efficient in the treatment of testicular, ovarian, bladder, and head and neck carcinomas, although its use is limited by severe nephrotoxicity and ototoxicity and resistance. Oxaliplatin has consistently exerted antitumor activity in colon, ovarian, and lung cancers and shown less toxicity than its analogue. Given that most of the literature data are contradictory with respect to the cytotoxicity of these drugs and DNA adduct formation, the present study aimed to determine some of the potential underlying mechanisms in view of their cellular uptakes. We evaluated the cytotoxicity, DNA cross-link formation, and cellular uptake of cisplatin and oxaliplatin in Colo320, HT-29, and Caco-2 colorectal adenocarcinoma cell lines. Our results showed higher cytotoxicity of oxaliplatin in Colo320 (P<0.05) and HT-29 cell lines and of cisplatin in Caco-2 (P<0.05). Oxaliplatin induced more DNA cross-links than cisplatin in a dose-dependent manner in Colo320 cells (P<0.0001); in HT-29 and Caco-2 cells, the induction of DNA damage was not dose dependent. Multiple accumulation of cisplatin versus oxaliplatin occurred in all the cell types, doses, and time points we tested. Oxaliplatin showed more potent biological activities versus cisplatin in terms of a significantly lower cellular uptake. In addition to their analogous mechanisms of action, these drugs might activate different signal transduction pathways, ultimately leading to apoptotic DNA fragmentation and cell death. DNA damage, although perhaps the most important, represents only one aspect of the multiple effects of platinum drugs.© 2012 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.

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