Zitko R.,Jozef Stefan Institute |
Van Midden H.J.P.,Jozef Stefan Institute |
Zupanic E.,Jozef Stefan Institute |
Prodan A.,Jozef Stefan Institute |
And 4 more authors.
International Journal of Hydrogen Energy | Year: 2011
Titanium borates show promising hydrogen storage characteristics. Structural relaxation around individual hydrogen atoms and the binding energies are studied by means of the density functional theory methods for a number of hydrogenated TiB2, TiB and Ti2B structures. Starting with the possible symmetric hydrogen sites a random structure searching has been performed, in addition to locate all energetically stable adsorption sites. It is shown that for the three bulk compounds considered, the lowest binding energies are obtained for TiB2 (in the 0.3-1.8 eV range), the largest for Ti2B (in the 3.9-4.7 eV range), while for TiB they are intermediate (in the 2.8-3.5 eV range). Calculations performed on hydrogenated Ti2B result in two energetically stable sites for two different starting environments, suggesting a possible soft mode solution. © 2011, Hydrogen Energy Publications, LLC. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Koultoukis E.D.,Z Energy |
Koultoukis E.D.,Greek National Center For Scientific Research |
Koultoukis E.D.,Aristotle University of Thessaloniki |
Gkanas E.I.,Greek National Center For Scientific Research |
And 7 more authors.
International Journal of Energy Research | Year: 2014
SUMMARY: A reliable process for compressing hydrogen and for removing all contaminants is that of the metal hydride thermal compression. The use of metal hydride technology in hydrogen compression applications, though, requires thorough structural characterization of the alloys and investigation of their sorption properties. The samples have been synthesized by induction - levitation melting and characterized by Rietveld analysis of the X-ray diffraction patterns. Volumetric pressure-composition isotherm measurements have been conducted at 20, 60 and 90 °C, in order to investigate the maximum pressure that can be reached from the selected alloys using water of 90°C. Experimental evidence shows that the maximum hydrogen uptake is low since all the alloys are consisted of Laves phases, but it is of minor importance if they have fast kinetics, given a constant volumetric hydrogen flow. Hysteresis is almost absent while all the alloys release nearly all the absorbed hydrogen during desorption. Due to hardware restrictions, the maximum hydrogen pressure for the measurements was limited at 100 bars. Practically, the maximum pressure that can be reached from the last alloy is more than 150 bars. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Odysseos M.,Hystore Technologies Ltd. |
De Rango P.,CNRS Neel Institute |
Christodoulou C.N.,Hystore Technologies Ltd. |
Hlil E.K.,CNRS Neel Institute |
And 9 more authors.
Journal of Alloys and Compounds | Year: 2013
The present work has been aiming at the synthesis and study of a series of La1-xCexNi5 (x = 0, 0.2, 0.3, 0.4, 0.5, 0.6, 0.7, 0.8) alloys in an attempt to investigate possible alterations of the hydrogen absorption/desorption properties The alloys were prepared by induction melting of the constituent elements. The systematic characterization of all new compounds by means of XRD and hydrogen sorption measurements revealed the effect of the partial substitution of La with Ce on the crystal structure and the final hydrogen storage properties of the alloys. Extensive absorption/desorption experiments (Van't Hoff diagrams) have shown that such alloys can be used to build a metal hydride compressor (MHC), compressing H 2 gas from 0.2 MPa to 4.2 MPa using cold (20 C) and hot (80 C) water. © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IAPP | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2013-IAPP | Award Amount: 2.65M | Year: 2014
ATLAS-MHC is proposed as a follow-up action of the successfully running ATLAS-H2 IAPP project which has already provided remarkable achievements on solving challenging issues in compressing and storing hydrogen. The major aims are to up-scale the laboratory prototype metal-hydride compressor (MHC) developed under ATLAS-H2 and to evaluate the pilot scale, precompetitive MHC implemented in a complete renewable energy storage system. A significant objective of the project will also be the assessment of the current market for metal-hydride compressors especially in storing energy from Renewable Sources (RES) in the form of hydrogen. Market penetration activities & a concrete business plan will be developed in that respect. This proposal builds upon the promising results of the running ATLAS-H2 IAPP project on solving challenging issues in high pressure hydrogen storage without mechanical compression and with reduced energy losses. Indeed, in the frame of ATLAS-H2 a laboratory prototype Metal Hydride Compressor (MHC) for hydrogen has been designed and developed at the premises of the participating SME Hystore Technologies. ATLAS-H2 has successfully undergone a thorough mid-term review eight months ago (May 2012) by external expert reviewer appointed by the EC. The mid-term review report includes very positive comments about the remarkable achievements and the work done so far, the prospects for the remaining project duration, the qualifications and scientific level of the participating staff and the very efficient coordination. The present extension of the original ATLAS project aspires to upscale and bring close to commercialization the main outcome of ATLAS-H2 (the Metal Hydride Compressor) while paying considerable attention to the demonstration of its potential applications (RES storage, hydrogen filling stations for vehicles, etc) and the development of a complete business plan for market deployment and penetration.
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: MC-IAPP | Phase: FP7-PEOPLE-2009-IAPP | Award Amount: 2.27M | Year: 2010
ATLAS-H2 is an Industry-Academia Partnership on hydrogen storage in solid materials aiming to develop and test (in the short term) and bring to the market (in the medium to longer term) integrated advanced metal hydride tanks with high added value applications especially for stationary systems and hydrogen compression. Storing H2 without compression and energy losses is a challenge for the widespread use of hydrogen as energy carrier and the establishment of a hydrogen economy. Hydrides offer the best volumetric density for H2 storage, far better than storage in liquid state insulated reservoir or high pressure tanks. In a complete new process, thermal heat energy is stored within the metal hydride tank and is kept available for desorption with high insulating patented materials. The so called adiabatic metal hydride tanks are ideal for the storage of Renewable Energy, power peak shaving to stabilize electricity grid distribution, waste heat valorisation, but also transport applications as these new ternary alloy hydrides can feed directly fuel cells. On the other hand, compression of H2 using reversible metal hydride alloys offers an economical alternative to traditional mechanical hydrogen compressors. Hydride compressors are compact, silent, do not have dynamic seals, require very little maintenance and can operate unattended for long periods. When powered by waste heat, energy consumption is only a fraction of that required for mechanical compression, which reduces the cost of H2 production and storage. The simplicity and passive operation of the hydride compression process offers many advantages over mechanical compressors. The main ATLAS-H2 objectives will be achieved by implementing a well structured IAPP program between two high level European Research Institutes and two key SME partners, all having considerable background on hydrogen storage, materials R&D and energy systems.