Hypor Inc

Regina, Canada

Hypor Inc

Regina, Canada

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Farmer C.,Agriculture and Agri Food Canada | Comi M.,University of Milan | Duarte C.R.A.,Mato Grosso State University | Vignola M.,Trouw Nutrition | And 2 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2016

The goal of this project was to determine if different body conditions in late gestation that are due to varying body conditions at mating affect mammary development and mammary gene expression of gilts. Gilts that were fed ad libitum in the growing period were selected based on their backfat depths to form 3 groups at mating, namely, low backfat (LBF; 12-15 mm; n = 14), medium backfat (MBF; 17-19 mm; n = 15), and high backfat (HBF; 22-26 mm; n = 16). During gestation, LBF, MBF, and HBF gilts were fed approximately 1.25, 1.43, and 1.63 times maintenance requirements to maintain their differences in body condition. Feed intake was increased by 1 kg in the last 10 d of gestation. Backfat depths of gilts were ultrasonically measured at mating and on d 30, 50, 70, 100, and 109 of gestation. Blood samples were obtained at mating and on d 109 of gestation to measure concentrations of IGF-1, glucose, insulin, estradiol, urea, free fatty acids, leptin, and adiponectin. Gilts were slaughtered on d 110 of gestation to collect mammary glands for compositional analyses. Mammary extraparenchymal tissue weight was lesser in LBF and MBF gilts than in HBF gilts (1,259.3, 1,402.7, and 1,951.5 ± 70.4 g, respectively; P < 0.01). The weight of parenchymal tissue was not affected by treatment (P > 0.10), but its composition was altered. Concentrations of DNA and RNA decreased as backfat depth increased (P < 0.05), whereas percent fat and DM increased (P < 0.05). Circulating concentrations of leptin tended to be lower at mating (P < 0.10) and were lower on d 109 of gestation (P < 0.05) in LBF gilts than in HBF gilts. On d 109 of gestation, concentrations of insulin (P < 0.01) and IGF-1 (P < 0.05) were lower in LBF and MBF gilts than in HBF gilts, whereas those of urea were greater (P < 0.05). The mRNA abundance in parenchymal tissue for all genes studied was not affected by treatments (P > 0.10) with the exception of CSN2, which had a greater expression level in LBF gilts than in MFB or HBF gilts (P < 0.05). Percent of Ki-67-positive cells, used to assess mammary cell proliferation rate, was greater in HBF gilts than in LBF gilts (P < 0.05). When differences in body conditions of gilts that were present at mating were maintained throughout gestation, it had an impact on mammary development. Extraparenchymal tissue mass was affected and, more importantly, composition of parenchymal tissue was altered, indicating a beneficial effect of gilts being in the thinner treatment groups at mating. © 2016 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.


Zhang C.,University of Alberta | Wang Z.,University of Alberta | Bruce H.,University of Alberta | Kemp R.A.,Genesus Inc | And 4 more authors.
BMC Genetics | Year: 2015

Background: Improving meat quality is a high priority for the pork industry to satisfy consumers' preferences. GWAS have become a state-of-the-art approach to genetically improve economically important traits. However, GWAS focused on pork quality are still relatively rare. Results: Six genomic regions were shown to affect loin pH and Minolta colour a* and b* on both loin and ham through GWAS in 1943 crossbred commercial pigs. Five of them, located on Sus scrofa chromosome (SSC) 1, SSC5, SSC9, SSC16 and SSCX, were associated with meat colour. However, the most promising region was detected on SSC15 spanning 133-134 Mb which explained 3.51% - 17.06% of genetic variance for five measurements of pH and colour. Three SNPs (ASGA0070625, MARC0083357 and MARC0039273) in very strong LD were considered most likely to account for the effects in this region. ASGA0070625 is located in intron 2 of ZNF142, and the other two markers are close to PRKAG3, STK36, TTLL7 and CDK5R2. After fitting MARC0083357 (the closest SNP to PRKAG3) as a fixed factor, six SNPs still remained significant for at least one trait. Four of them are intragenic with ARPC2, TMBIM1, NRAMP1 and VIL1, while the remaining two are close to RUFY4 and CDK5R2. The gene network constructed demonstrated strong connections of these genes with two major hubs of PRKAG3 and UBC in the super-pathways of cell-to-cell signaling and interaction, cellular function and maintenance. All these pathways play important roles in maintaining the integral architecture and functionality of muscle cells facing the dramatic changes that occur after exsanguination, which is in agreement with the GWAS results found in this study. Conclusions: There may be other markers and/or genes in this region besides PRKAG3 that have an important effect on pH and colour. The potential markers and their interactions with PRKAG3 require further investigation © Zhang et al.


Miar Y.,University of Alberta | Miar Y.,University of Queensland | Miar Y.,Hypor Inc. | Miar Y.,McKay GENSTAT Consultants Inc.
Journal of animal science | Year: 2014

Pork quality and carcass characteristics are now being integrated into swine breeding objectives because of their economic value. Understanding the genetic basis for these traits is necessary for this to be accomplished. The objective of this study was to estimate phenotypic and genetic parameters for carcass and meat quality traits in 2 Canadian swine populations. Data from a genomic selection study aimed at improving meat quality with a mating system involving hybrid Landrace × Large White and Duroc pigs were used to estimate heritabilities and phenotypic and genetic correlations among them. Data on 2,100 commercial crossbred pigs for meat quality and carcass traits were recorded with pedigrees compromising 9,439 animals over 15 generations. Significant fixed effects (company, sex, and slaughter batch), covariates (cold carcass weight and slaughter age), and random additive and common litter effects were fitted in the models. A series of pairwise bivariate analyses were implemented in ASReml to estimate phenotypic and genetic parameters. Heritability estimates (±SE) for carcass traits were moderate to high and ranged from 0.22 ± 0.08 for longissimus dorsi muscle area to 0.63 ± 0.04 for trimmed ham weight, except for firmness, which was low. Heritability estimates (±SE) for meat quality traits varied from 0.10 ± 0.04 to 0.39 ± 0.06 for the Minolta b* of ham quadriceps femoris muscle and shear force, respectively. Generally, most of the genetic correlations were significant (P < 0.05) and ranged from low (0.18 ± 0.07) to high (-0.97 ± 0.35). There were high negative genetic correlations between drip loss with pH and shear force and a positive correlation with cooking loss. Genetic correlations between carcass weight (both hot and cold) with carcass marbling were highly positive. It was concluded that selection for increasing primal and subprimal cut weights with better pork quality may be possible. Furthermore, the use of pH is confirmed as an indicator for pork water-holding capacity and cooking loss. The heritabilities of carcass and pork quality traits indicated that they can be improved using traditional breeding methods and genomic selection, respectively. The estimated genetic parameters for carcass and meat quality traits can be incorporated into the breeding programs that emphasize product quality in these Canadian swine populations.


Zhang C.,University of Alberta | Bruce H.,University of Alberta | Yang T.,University of Alberta | Charagu P.,Hypor Inc. | And 5 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2016

Of all the meat quality traits, tenderness is considered the most important with regard to eating quality and market value. In this study we have utilised genome wide association studies (GWAS) for peak shear force (PSF) of loin muscle as a measure of tenderness for 1,976 crossbred commercial pigs, genotyped for 42,721 informative SNPs using the Illumina Por-cineSNP60 Beadchip. Four 1 Mb genomic regions, three on SSC2 (at 4 Mb, 5 Mb and 109 Mb) and one on SSC17 (at 20 Mb), were detected which collectively explained about 15.30% and 3.07% of the total genetic and phenotypic variance for PSF respectively. Markers ASGA0008566, ASGA0008695, DRGA0003285 and ASGA0075615 in the four regions were strongly associated with the effects. Analysis of the reference genome sequence in the region with the most important SNPs for SSC2-5 identified FRMD8, SLC25A45 and LTBP3 as potential candidate genes for meat tenderness on the basis of functional annotation of these genes. The region SSC2-109 was close to a previously reported candidate gene CAST; however, the very weak LD between DRGA0003285 (the best marker representing region SSC2-109) and CAST indicated the potential for additional genes which are distinct from, or interact with, CAST to affect meat tenderness. Limited information of known genes in regions SSC2-109 and SSC17-20 restricts further analysis. Re-sequencing of these regions for informative animals may help to resolve the molecular architecture and identify new candidate genes and causative mutations affecting this trait. These findings contribute significantly to our knowledge of the genomic regions affecting pork shear force and will potentially lead to new insights into the molecular mechanisms regulating meat tenderness. © 2016 Zhang et al.This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.


Miar Y.,University of Alberta | Plastow G.,University of Alberta | Bruce H.,University of Alberta | Moore S.,University of Alberta | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Genetic correlations between performance traits with meat quality and carcass traits were estimated on 6,408 commercial crossbred pigs with performance traits recorded in production systems with 2,100 of them having meat quality and carcass measurements. Significant fixed effects (company, sex and batch), covariates (birth weight, cold carcass weight, and age), random effects (additive, litter and maternal) were fitted in the statistical models. A series of pairwise bivariate analyses were implemented in ASREML to estimate heritability, phenotypic, and genetic correlations between performance traits (n = 9) with meat quality (n = 25) and carcass (n = 19) traits. The animals had a pedigree compromised of 9,439 animals over 15 generations. Performance traits had low-to-moderate heritabilities (6SE), ranged from 0.0760.13 to 0.4560.07 for weaning weight, and ultrasound backfat depth, respectively. Genetic correlations between performance and carcass traits were moderate to high. The results indicate that: (a) selection for birth weight may increase drip loss, lightness of longissimus dorsi, and gluteus medius muscles but may reduce fat depth; (b) selection for nursery weight can be valuable for increasing both quantity and quality traits; (c) selection for increased daily gain may increase the carcass weight and most of the primal cuts. These findings suggest that deterioration of pork quality may have occurred over many generations through the selection for less backfat thickness, and feed efficiency, but selection for growth had no adverse effects on pork quality. Low-to-moderate heritabilities for performance traits indicate that they could be improved using traditional selection or genomic selection. The estimated genetic parameters for performance, carcass and meat quality traits may be incorporated into the breeding programs that emphasize product quality in these Canadian swine populations. © 2014 Miar et al.


Miar Y.,University of Alberta | Plastow G.S.,University of Alberta | Moore S.S.,University of Alberta | Moore S.S.,University of Queensland | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Animal Science | Year: 2014

Pork quality and carcass characteristics are now being integrated into swine breeding objectives because of their economic value. Understanding the genetic basis for these traits is necessary for this to be accomplished. The objective of this study was to estimate phenotypic and genetic parameters for carcass and meat quality traits in 2 Canadian swine populations. Data from a genomic selection study aimed at improving meat quality with a mating system involving hybrid Landrace × Large White and Duroc pigs were used to estimate heritabilities and phenotypic and genetic correlations among them. Data on 2,100 commercial crossbred pigs for meat quality and carcass traits were recorded with pedigrees compromising 9,439 animals over 15 generations. Significant fixed effects (company, sex, and slaughter batch), covariates (cold carcass weight and slaughter age), and random additive and common litter effects were fitted in the models. A series of pairwise bivariate analyses were implemented in ASReml to estimate phenotypic and genetic parameters. Heritability estimates (±SE) for carcass traits were moderate to high and ranged from 0.22 ± 0.08 for longissimus dorsi muscle area to 0.63 ± 0.04 for trimmed ham weight, except for firmness, which was low. Heritability estimates (±SE) for meat quality traits varied from 0.10 ± 0.04 to 0.39 ± 0.06 for the Minolta b* of ham quadriceps femoris muscle and shear force, respectively. Generally, most of the genetic correlations were significant (P < 0.05) and ranged from low (0.18 ± 0.07) to high (-0.97 ± 0.35). There were high negative genetic correlations between drip loss with pH and shear force and a positive correlation with cooking loss. Genetic correlations between carcass weight (both hot and cold) with carcass marbling were highly positive. It was concluded that selection for increasing primal and subprimal cut weights with better pork quality may be possible. Furthermore, the use of pH is confirmed as an indicator for pork water-holding capacity and cooking loss. The heritabilities of carcass and pork quality traits indicated that they can be improved using traditional breeding methods and genomic selection, respectively. The estimated genetic parameters for carcass and meat quality traits can be incorporated into the breeding programs that emphasize product quality in these Canadian swine populations. © 2014 American Society of Animal Science. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Hypor Inc., McKay GENSTAT Consultants Inc., University of Queensland, Genesus Genetics and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2014

Genetic correlations between performance traits with meat quality and carcass traits were estimated on 6,408 commercial crossbred pigs with performance traits recorded in production systems with 2,100 of them having meat quality and carcass measurements. Significant fixed effects (company, sex and batch), covariates (birth weight, cold carcass weight, and age), random effects (additive, litter and maternal) were fitted in the statistical models. A series of pairwise bivariate analyses were implemented in ASREML to estimate heritability, phenotypic, and genetic correlations between performance traits (n=9) with meat quality (n=25) and carcass (n=19) traits. The animals had a pedigree compromised of 9,439 animals over 15 generations. Performance traits had low-to-moderate heritabilities (SE), ranged from 0.070.13 to 0.450.07 for weaning weight, and ultrasound backfat depth, respectively. Genetic correlations between performance and carcass traits were moderate to high. The results indicate that: (a) selection for birth weight may increase drip loss, lightness of longissimus dorsi, and gluteus medius muscles but may reduce fat depth; (b) selection for nursery weight can be valuable for increasing both quantity and quality traits; (c) selection for increased daily gain may increase the carcass weight and most of the primal cuts. These findings suggest that deterioration of pork quality may have occurred over many generations through the selection for less backfat thickness, and feed efficiency, but selection for growth had no adverse effects on pork quality. Low-to-moderate heritabilities for performance traits indicate that they could be improved using traditional selection or genomic selection. The estimated genetic parameters for performance, carcass and meat quality traits may be incorporated into the breeding programs that emphasize product quality in these Canadian swine populations.


PubMed | University of Alberta, Hypor Inc and Genesus Inc
Type: | Journal: BMC genetics | Year: 2015

Improving meat quality is a high priority for the pork industry to satisfy consumers preferences. GWAS have become a state-of-the-art approach to genetically improve economically important traits. However, GWAS focused on pork quality are still relatively rare.Six genomic regions were shown to affect loin pH and Minolta colour a* and b* on both loin and ham through GWAS in 1943 crossbred commercial pigs. Five of them, located on Sus scrofa chromosome (SSC) 1, SSC5, SSC9, SSC16 and SSCX, were associated with meat colour. However, the most promising region was detected on SSC15 spanning 133-134 Mb which explained 3.51% - 17.06% of genetic variance for five measurements of pH and colour. Three SNPs (ASGA0070625, MARC0083357 and MARC0039273) in very strong LD were considered most likely to account for the effects in this region. ASGA0070625 is located in intron 2 of ZNF142, and the other two markers are close to PRKAG3, STK36, TTLL7 and CDK5R2. After fitting MARC0083357 (the closest SNP to PRKAG3) as a fixed factor, six SNPs still remained significant for at least one trait. Four of them are intragenic with ARPC2, TMBIM1, NRAMP1 and VIL1, while the remaining two are close to RUFY4 and CDK5R2. The gene network constructed demonstrated strong connections of these genes with two major hubs of PRKAG3 and UBC in the super-pathways of cell-to-cell signaling and interaction, cellular function and maintenance. All these pathways play important roles in maintaining the integral architecture and functionality of muscle cells facing the dramatic changes that occur after exsanguination, which is in agreement with the GWAS results found in this study.There may be other markers and/or genes in this region besides PRKAG3 that have an important effect on pH and colour. The potential markers and their interactions with PRKAG3 require further investigation.


PubMed | Hypor Inc., University of Alberta and Genesus Inc.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2016

Of all the meat quality traits, tenderness is considered the most important with regard to eating quality and market value. In this study we have utilised genome wide association studies (GWAS) for peak shear force (PSF) of loin muscle as a measure of tenderness for 1,976 crossbred commercial pigs, genotyped for 42,721 informative SNPs using the Illumina PorcineSNP60 Beadchip. Four 1 Mb genomic regions, three on SSC2 (at 4 Mb, 5 Mb and 109 Mb) and one on SSC17 (at 20 Mb), were detected which collectively explained about 15.30% and 3.07% of the total genetic and phenotypic variance for PSF respectively. Markers ASGA0008566, ASGA0008695, DRGA0003285 and ASGA0075615 in the four regions were strongly associated with the effects. Analysis of the reference genome sequence in the region with the most important SNPs for SSC2_5 identified FRMD8, SLC25A45 and LTBP3 as potential candidate genes for meat tenderness on the basis of functional annotation of these genes. The region SSC2_109 was close to a previously reported candidate gene CAST; however, the very weak LD between DRGA0003285 (the best marker representing region SSC2_109) and CAST indicated the potential for additional genes which are distinct from, or interact with, CAST to affect meat tenderness. Limited information of known genes in regions SSC2_109 and SSC17_20 restricts further analysis. Re-sequencing of these regions for informative animals may help to resolve the molecular architecture and identify new candidate genes and causative mutations affecting this trait. These findings contribute significantly to our knowledge of the genomic regions affecting pork shear force and will potentially lead to new insights into the molecular mechanisms regulating meat tenderness.

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