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Leiden, Netherlands
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Van Dongen W.D.,TNO | Niessen W.M.A.,Hyphen MassSpec | Niessen W.M.A.,VU University Amsterdam
Bioanalysis | Year: 2012

LC-MS has become the method-of-choice in small-molecule drug bioanalysis (molecular mass <800 Da) and is also increasingly being applied as an alternative to ligand-binding assays for the bioanalytical determination of biopharmaceuticals. Triple quadrupole MS is the established bioanalytical technique due to its unpreceded selectivity and sensitivity, but high-resolution accurate-mass MS is recently gaining ground due to its ability to provide simultaneous quantitative and qualitative analysis of drugs and their metabolites. This article discusses current trends in the field of bioanalytical LC-MS (until September 2012), and provides an overview of currently available commercial triple quadrupole MS and high-resolution LC-MS instruments as applied for the bioanalysis of small-molecule and biopharmaceutical drugs. © 2012 Future Science Ltd.


Van Dongen W.D.,Proxy Laboratories | Niessen W.M.A.,Hyphen MassSpec | Niessen W.M.A.,VU University Amsterdam
Bioanalysis | Year: 2011

Therapeutic oligonucleotides (OGNTs) are important biopharmaceutical drugs for the future, due to their ability to selectively reduce or knockout the expression of target genes. For the development of OGNTs, reliable and relatively high-throughput bioanalytical methods are required to perform the quantitative bioanalysis of OGNTs and their metabolites in biological fluids (e.g., plasma, urine and tissue). Although immunoaffinity methods, especially ELISA, are currently widely applied for this purpose, the potential of LC-MS in OGNT analysis is under investigation. Owing to its inherent ability to monitor the individual target OGNTs as well as their metabolites, LC-MS is now evolving into the method-of-choice for the bioanalysis of OGNTs. In this paper, the state-of-the-art of bioanalytical LC-MS of OGNTs and their metabolites in biological fluids is critically reviewed and its advantages and limitations highlighted. Finally, the future perspective of bioanalytical LC-MS, that is, lower detection levels and potential generic LC-MS methodology, is discussed. © 2011 Future Science Ltd.


van den Broek I.,TNO | Niessen W.M.A.,Hyphen MassSpec | Niessen W.M.A.,VU University Amsterdam | van Dongen W.D.,TNO
Journal of Chromatography B: Analytical Technologies in the Biomedical and Life Sciences | Year: 2013

Biotechnology increasingly delivers highly promising protein-based biopharmaceutical candidates to the drug development funnel. For successful biopharmaceutical drug development, reliable bioanalytical methods enabling quantification of drugs in biological fluids (plasma, urine, tissue, etc.) are required to generate toxicokinetic (TK), pharmacokinetic (PK), and bioavailability data. A clear observable trend is that liquid chromatography coupled to (tandem) mass spectrometry (LC-MS(/MS)) is more and more replacing ligand binding assays (LBA) for the bioanalytical determination of protein-based biopharmaceuticals in biological matrices, mainly due to improved selectivity and linear dynamic ranges. Practically all MS-based quantification methods for protein-based biopharmaceuticals traditionally rely on (targeted) proteomic techniques and include "seven critical factors": (1) internal standardization, (2) protein purification, (3) enzymatic digestion, (4) selection of signature peptide(s), (5) peptide purification, (6) liquid chromatographic separation and (7) mass spectrometric detection. For this purpose, the variety of applied strategies for all "seven critical factors" in current literature on MS-based protein quantification have been critically reviewed and evaluated. Special attention is paid to the quantification of therapeutic monoclonal antibodies (mAbs) in serum and plasma since this is a very promising and rapidly expanding group of biopharmaceuticals. Additionally, the review aims to predict the impact of strategies moving away from traditional protein cleavage isotope dilution mass spectrometry (PC-IDMS) toward approaches that are more dedicated to bioanalysis. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Boix C.,Jaume I University | Ibanez M.,Jaume I University | Zamora T.,Jaume I University | Sancho J.V.,Jaume I University | And 2 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2014

Omeprazole is one of the world-wide most consumed pharmaceuticals for treatment of gastric diseases. As opposed to other frequently used pharmaceuticals, omeprazole is scarcely detected in urban wastewaters and environmental waters. This was corroborated in a previous research, where parent omeprazole was not detected while four transformation products (TPs), mainly resulting from hydrolysis, were found in effluent wastewaters and surface waters. However, the low abundance of omeprazole TPs in the water samples together with the fact that omeprazole suffers an extensive metabolism, with a wide range of excretion rates (between 0.01 and 30%), suggests that human urinary metabolites should be investigated in the water environment. In this work, the results obtained in excretion tests after administration of a 40. mg omeprazole dose in three healthy volunteers are reported. Analysis by liquid chromatography coupled to hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF MS) reported low concentrations of omeprazole in urine. Up to twenty-four omeprazole metabolites (OMs) were detected and tentatively elucidated. The most relevant OM was an omeprazole isomer, which obviously presented the same exact mass ( m/ z 346.1225), but also shared a major common fragment at m/ z 198.0589. Subsequent analyses of surface water and effluent wastewater samples by both LC-QTOF MS and LC-MS/MS with triple quadrupole revealed that this metabolite (named as OM10) was the compound most frequently detected in water samples, followed by OM14a and OM14b. Up to our knowledge, OM10 had not been used before as urinary biomarker of omeprazole in waters. On the contrary, parent omeprazole was never detected in any of the water samples. After this research, it seems clear that monitoring the presence of omeprazole in the aquatic environment should be focused on the OMs suggested in this article instead of the parent compound. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.


Boix C.,Jaume I University | Ibanez M.,Jaume I University | Sancho J.V.,Jaume I University | Niessen W.M.A.,Hyphen MassSpec | Hernandez F.,Jaume I University
Journal of Mass Spectrometry | Year: 2013

Omeprazole is one of the most consumed pharmaceuticals around the world. However, this compound is scarcely detected in urban wastewater and surface water. The absence of this pharmaceutical in the aquatic ecosystem might be due to its degradation in wastewater treatment plants, as well as in receiving water. In this work, different laboratory-controlled degradation experiments have been carried out on surface water in order to elucidate generated omeprazole transformation products (TPs). Surface water spiked with omeprazole was subjected to hydrolysis, photo-degradation under both sunlight and ultraviolet radiation and chlorination. Analyses by liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-QTOF MS) permitted identification of up to 17 omeprazole TPs. In a subsequent step, the TPs identified were sought in surface water and urban wastewater by LC-QTOF MS and by LC coupled to tandem mass spectrometry with triple quadrupole. The parent omeprazole was not detected in any of the samples, but four TPs were found in several water samples. The most frequently detected compound was OTP 5 (omeprazole sulfide), which might be a reasonable candidate to be included in monitoring programs rather than the parent omeprazole. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Copyright © 2013 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Bijlsma L.,Jaume I University | Sancho J.V.,Jaume I University | Hernandez F.,Jaume I University | Niessen W.M.A.,Hyphen MassSpec
Journal of Mass Spectrometry | Year: 2011

A study of the fragmentation pathways of several classes of drugs of abuse (cannabinoids, ketamine, amphetamine and amphetamine-type stimulants (ATS), cocaine and opiates) and their related substances has been made. The knowledge of the fragmentation is highly useful for specific fragment selection or for recognition of related compounds when developing MS-based analytical methods for the trace-level determination of these compounds in complex matrices. In this work, accurate-mass spectra of selected compounds were obtained using liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometry, performing both MS/MS and MS E experiments. As regards fragmentation behavior, the mass spectra of both approaches were quite similar and were useful to study the fragmentation of the drugs investigated. Accurate-mass spectra of 37 drugs of abuse and related compounds, including metabolites and deuterated analogues, were studied in this work, and structures of fragment ions were proposed. The accurate-mass data obtained allowed to confirm structures and fragmentation pathways previously proposed based on nominal mass measurements, although new insights and structure proposals were achieved in some particular cases, especially for amphetamine and ATS, 11-nor-9-carboxy-Δ 9- tetrahydrocannabinol (THC-COOH) and opiates. © 2011 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.


Bijlsma L.,Jaume I University | Boix C.,Jaume I University | Niessen W.M.A.,Hyphen MassSpec | Ibanez M.,Jaume I University | And 2 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2013

In this work, ultra-high-performance liquid chromatography (UHPLC) coupled to a hybrid quadrupole time-of-flight mass spectrometer (QTOF MS) has allowed the discovery and elucidation of degradation products of cocaine and its main metabolite benzoylecgonine (BE) in water. Spiked surface water was subjected to hydrolysis, chlorination and photo-degradation (both ultraviolet irradiation and simulated sunlight). After degradation of cocaine, up to sixteen compounds were detected and tentatively identified (1 resulting from hydrolysis; 8 from chlorination; 7 from photo-degradation), three of which are well known cocaine metabolites (BE, norbenzoylecgonine and norcocaine). Regarding BE degradation, up to ten compounds were found (3 from chlorination; 7 from photo-degradation), including one known metabolite (norbenzoylecgonine). Since reference standards were available for the major metabolites, they could be confirmed using information on retention time and fragment ions. The other degradates resulted from chlorination, dealkylation, hydroxylation and nitration, or from a combination of these processes. Several influent and effluent sewage water, and surface water samples were then screened for the identified compounds (known and unknown) using UHPLC-tandem MS with triple quadrupole. BE, norcocaine and norbenzoylecgonine were identified in these samples as major metabolites. Four previously unreported degradates were also found in some of the samples under study, illustrating the usefulness and applicability of the degradation experiments performed in this work. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.


The identification of drugs and related compounds by LC-MS-MS is an important analytical challenge in several application areas, including clinical and forensic toxicology, doping control analysis, and environmental analysis. Although target-compound based analytical strategies are most frequently applied, at some point the information content of the MS-MS spectra becomes relevant. In this article, the positive-ion MS-MS spectra of a wide variety of drugs and related substances are discussed. Starting point was an MS-MS mass spectral library of toxicologically relevant compounds, available on the internet. The positive-ion MS-MS spectra of ∼570 compounds were interpreted by chemical and therapeutic class, thus involving a wide variety of drug compound classes, such benzodiazepines, beta-blockers, angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors, phenothiazines, dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers, diuretics, local anesthetics, vasodilators, as well as various subclasses of anti-diabetic, antidepressant, analgesic, and antihistaminic drugs. In addition, the scientific literature was searched for available MS-MS data of these compound classes and the interpretation thereof. The results of this elaborate study are presented in this article. For each individual compound class, the emphasis is on class-specific fragmentation, as discussing fragmentation of all individual compounds would take far too much space. The recognition of class-specific fragmentation may be quite informative in determining the compound class of a specific unknown, which may further help in the identification. In addition, knowledge on (class-specific) fragmentation may further help in the optimization of the selectivity in targeted analytical approaches of compounds of one particular class. © 2011 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.


Current strategies in the LC-MS analysis of pesticides and related compounds in environmental samples, fruits and vegetables, and biological samples mostly rely on the selection of appropriate precursor/product-ion combinations (transitions) for selected reaction monitoring (SRM), often based on automated parameter optimization and selection of the transition. Such a procedure does not require any information on the type of fragmentation reaction involved in the generation of the product ion from the selected precursor ion. However, such information does become important in untargeted screening for unknown contaminants in environmental and food samples, which are generally based on a combination of high-resolution mass spectrometry and (multistage) tandem mass spectrometry. With this in mind, the group-specific fragmentation behaviour has been studied for six classes of pesticides and herbicides, i.e., triazines, organophosphorous pesticides, phenylurea herbicides, carbamates, sulfonylurea herbicides, and chlorinated phenoxy acid herbicides. When relevant, some comparison was made between fragmentation of protonated molecules in MS-MS and of molecular ions generated by electron ionization in GC-MS. © 2009 Elsevier B.V.


Negative-ion LC-MS analysis of drugs is applied far less frequently than positive-ion LC-MS. Data on the interpretation of negative-ion MS-MS spectra are even more scarce. Therefore, following the recent review on the class-specific fragmentation of toxicologically relevant compounds in positive-ion MS-MS, it was decided to perform a similar study in negative-ion MS-MS. To this end, a set of over 500 negative-ion MS-MS spectra was collected from three libraries applied in toxicological general unknown screening and systematic toxicological analysis. The compounds involved were classified by chemical and therapeutic class. The MS-MS spectra were manually interpreted and relevant interpretation data were searched for in the scientific literature. The emphasis in the discussion is on class-specific fragmentation, because discussing fragmentation of all individual compounds would take far too much space. Negative-ion MS-MS fragmentation is discussed for a wide variety of toxicologically relevant compounds, including dihydropyridine calcium channel blockers, diuretics, barbiturates, anti-inflammatory drugs, anti-diabetics, sulfonamide and betalactam antibiotics, and a number of classes of pesticides. © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Mass Spec Rev 31:626-665, 2012 Copyright © 2012 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

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