Barochiner J.,Hypertension Section
Romanian journal of internal medicine = Revue roumaine de médecine interne
Orthostatic hypotension (OH) is a risk factor for morbidity and mortality and one of the causes of non compliance to treatment among medicated hypertensive subjects. Our objective was to assess the prevalence of OH among treated hypertensive patients and its association with clinical characteristics and antihypertensive drug class. This was a cross-sectional study in which we assessed the prevalence of OH, defined according to the American Autonomic Society and American Academy of Neurology guidelines, among adult treated hypertensive patients who performed a home blood pressure monitoring at our institution. We also determined the prevalence of OH according to age group (< 65, 65-79 and > 80), antihypertensive drug class, office and home hypertension control status. We included 302 medicated patients in the study. Mean age was 66.6 (+13.8), 67% were women. We found a 9.7% global prevalence of OH, which was significantly higher among older individuals (3.6% among patients < 65 years-old, 12.2% in the 65-79 year-old group and 16.7% among octogenarians, p = 0.02) and those who consumed alpha-blockers (75 vs. 8.5%, p < 0.01). Uncontrolled hypertensive patients at office and/or at home had also a significantly higher prevalence of OH: uncontrolled vs. controlled office blood pressure (BP), 14.3 vs. 6.5%, p = 0.03 and uncontrolled vs. controlled home BP, 15.1 vs. 6.6%, p = 0.02. Remarkably, 64% of patients with OH had their BP under control when considering office-standing BP. OH is a prevalent entity among treated hypertensive patients and systematic measurement of standing BP should be mandatory in the evaluation of these patients. Source
Perman G.,Medical Programmes |
Rossi E.,Medical Programmes |
Waisman G.D.,Hypertension Section |
Aguero C.,Hospital Italiano de Buenos Aires |
And 6 more authors.
Cost Effectiveness and Resource Allocation
Background: Mounting evidence shows that multi-intervention programmes for hypertension treatment are more effective than an isolated pharmacological strategy. Full economic evaluations of hypertension management programmes are scarce and contain methodological limitations. The aim of the study was to evaluate if a hypertension management programme for elderly patients is cost-effective compared to usual care from the perspective of a third-party payer.Methods: We built a cost-effectiveness model using published evidence of effectiveness of a comprehensive hypertension programme vs. usual care for patients 65 years or older at a community hospital in Buenos Aires, Argentina. We explored incremental cost-effectiveness between groups. The model used a life-time framework adopting a third-party payer's perspective. Incremental cost-effectiveness ratio (ICER) was calculated in International Dollars per life-year gained. We performed a probabilistic sensitivity analysis (PSA) to explore variable uncertainty.Results: The ICER for the base-case of the "Hypertension Programme" versus the "Usual care" approach was 1,124 International Dollars per life-year gained. PSA did not significantly influence results. The programme had a probability of 43% of being dominant (more effective and less costly) and, overall, 95% chance of being cost-effective.Discussion: Results showed that "Hypertension Programme" had high probabilities of being cost-effective under a wide range of scenarios. This is the first sound cost-effectiveness study to assess a comprehensive hypertension programme versus usual care. This study measures hard outcomes and explores robustness through a probabilistic sensitivity analysis.Conclusions: The comprehensive hypertension programme had high probabilities of being cost-effective versus usual care. This study supports the idea that similar programmes could be the preferred strategy in countries and within health care systems where hypertension treatment for elderly patients is a standard practice. © 2011 Perman et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source
Tanigaki K.,University of Texas at Dallas |
Vongpatanasin W.,University of Texas at Dallas |
Barrera J.A.,University of Texas at Dallas |
Atochin D.N.,Hypertension Section |
And 4 more authors.
Elevations in C-reactive protein (CRP) are associated with an increased risk of insulin resistance. Whether CRP plays a causal role is unknown. Here we show that CRP transgenic mice and wild-type mice administered recombinant CRP are insulin resistant. Mice lacking the inhibitory Fcg receptor IIB (FcgRIIB) are protected from CRP-induced insulin resistance, and immunohistochemistry reveals that FcgRIIB is expressed in skeletal muscle microvascular endothelium and is absent in skeletal muscle myocytes, adipocytes, and hepatocytes. The primary mechanism in glucose homeostasis disrupted by CRP is skeletal muscle glucose delivery, and CRP attenuates insulin-induced skeletal muscle blood flow. CRP does not impair skeletal muscle glucose delivery in FcgRIIB2/2 mice or in endothelial nitric oxide synthase knock-in mice with phosphomimetic modification of Ser1176, which is normally phosphorylated by insulin signaling to stimulate nitric oxide-mediated skeletal muscle blood flow and glucose delivery and is dephosphorylated by CRP/FcgRIIB. Thus, CRP causes insulin resistance in mice through FcgRIIBmediated inhibition of skeletal muscle glucose delivery. Copyright © 2013 by the American Diabetes Association. Source
Differences in cardiovascular disease risk when antihypertensive medication adherence is assessed by pharmacy fill versus self-report: The Cohort Study of Medication Adherence among Older Adults (CoSMO)
Krousel-Wood M.,Tulane University |
Krousel-Wood M.,Center for Health Research |
Holt E.,Center for Health Research |
Joyce C.,Tulane University |
And 9 more authors.
Journal of Hypertension
Background: Pharmacy refill adherence assesses the medication-filling behaviors, whereas self-report adherence assesses the medication-taking behaviors. We contrasted the association of pharmacy refill and self-reported antihypertensive medication adherence with blood pressure (BP) control and cardiovascular disease (CVD) incidence. METHODS AND RESULTS: Adults (n = 2075) from the prospective Cohort Study of Medication Adherence among Older Adults recruited between August 2006 and September 2007 were included. Antihypertensive medication adherence was determined using a pharmacy refill measure, medication possession ratio (MPR; low, medium, and high MPR: <0.5, 0.5 to <0.8, and ≥0.8, respectively) and a self-reported measure, eight-item Morisky Medication Adherence Scale (MMAS-8; low, medium, and high MMAS-8: <6, 6 to <8, and 8, respectively). Incident CVD events (stroke, myocardial infarction, congestive heart failure, or CVD death) through February 2011 were identified and adjudicated. The prevalence of low, medium, and high adherence was 4.5, 23.7, and 71.8% for MPR and 14.0, 34.3, and 51.8% for MMAS-8, respectively. During a median of 3.8 years' follow-up, 240 (11.5%) people had a CVD event. Low MPR and low MMAS-8 were associated with uncontrolled BP at baseline and during follow up. After multivariable adjustment and compared to those with high MPR, the hazard ratios for CVD associated with medium and low MPR were 1.17 [95% confidence interval (CI) 0.87-1.56)] and 1.87 (95% CI: 1.06-3.30), respectively. Compared to those with high MMAS-8, the hazard ratios (95% CI) for MMAS-8 for medium and low MMAS-8 were 1.04 (0.79-1.38) and 0.89 (0.58-1.35), respectively. Conclusion: While both adherence measures were associated with BP control, pharmacy refill but not self-report antihypertensive medication adherence was associated with incident CVD. The differences in these associations may be because of the distinctions in what each adherence measure assesses. © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. Source
Aparicio L.S.,Hypertension Section |
Alfie J.,Hypertension Section |
Barochiner J.,Hypertension Section |
Cuffaro P.E.,Hypertension Section |
And 6 more authors.
Journal of the American Society of Hypertension
We aimed to compare atenolol versus bisoprolol regarding general hemodynamics, central-peripheral blood pressure (BP), pulse wave parameters, and arterial stiffness. In this open-label, crossover study, we recruited 19 hypertensives, untreated or with stable monotherapy. Patients were randomized to receive atenolol (25-50 mg) or bisoprolol (2.5-5 mg), and then switched medications after 4 weeks. Studies were performed at baseline and after each drug period. In pulse wave analyses, both drugs significantly increased augmentation index (P <.01) and ejection duration (P <.02), and reduced heart rate (P <.001), brachial systolic BP (P ≤.01), brachial diastolic BP (P ≤.001), and central diastolic BP (P ≤.001), but not central systolic BP (P ≥.06). Impedance cardiographic assessment showed a significantly increased stroke volume (P ≤.02). There were no significant differences in the effects between drugs. In conclusion, atenolol and bisoprolol show similar hemodynamic characteristics. Failure to decrease central systolic BP results from bradycardia with increased stroke volume and an earlier reflected aortic wave. © 2015 American Society of Hypertension. All rights reserved. Source