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Hansen M.B.,Hyperbaric Unit | Olsen N.V.,Copenhagen University | Hyldegaard O.,Hyperbaric Unit
Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2013

Hyperbaric oxygen therapy (HBOT) or intravenous hydroxocobalamin (OHCob) both abolish cyanide (CN)-induced surges in interstitial brain lactate and glucose concentrations. HBOT has been shown to induce a delayed increase in whole blood CN concentrations, whereas OHCob may act as an intravascular CN scavenger. Additionally, HBOT may prevent respiratory distress and restore blood pressure during CN intoxication, an effect not seen with OHCob administration. In this report, we evaluated the combined effects of HBOT and OHCob on interstitial lactate, glucose, and glycerol concentrations as well as lactate-to-pyruvate ratio in rat brain by means of microdialysis during acute CN poisoning. Anesthetized rats were allocated to three groups: 1) vehicle (1.2 ml isotonic NaCl intra-arterially); 2) potassium CN (5.4 mg/kg intra-arterially); 3) potassium CN, OHCob (100 mg/kg intra-arterially) and subsequent HBOT (284 kPa in 90 min). OHCob and HBOT significantly attenuated the acute surges in interstitial cerebral lactate, glucose, and glycerol concentrations compared with the intoxicated rats given no treatment. Furthermore, the combined treatment resulted in consistent low lactate, glucose, and glycerol concentrations, as well as in low lactate-to-pyruvate ratios compared with CN intoxicated controls. In rats receiving OHCob and HBOT, respiration improved and cyanosis disappeared, with subsequent stabilization of mean arterial blood pressure. The present findings indicate that a combined administration of OHCob and HBOT has a beneficial and persistent effect on the cerebral metabolism during CN intoxication. Copyright © 2013 the American Physiological Society.

Chateau-Degat M.-L.,Hyperbaric Unit | Ferland A.,Aurora University | Dery S.,Direction Regionale de Sante Publique du Nunavik
European Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2012

Western dietary pattern, and particularly high dietary sodium intake (DSI), is recognized for its detrimental impact on blood pressure (BP). This paper examined the association of DSI with BP in Nunavik Inuit (Québec), a population known to have an optimal BP on average. In a population-based study, we recruited 421 normotensive participants aged 18-74 years from 14 coastal villages, situated north of the 55th parallel. BP, biochemistry and anthropometry were obtained. DSI was assessed by a 24-h dietary recall. Mean (s.e.) DSI was higher in men than in women (2358 (101) vs 1702 (100) mg/d, P<0.0001). Similar gender difference was found in systolic BP (118 (0.7) vs 111 (0.6) mm Hg; P<0.0001). After adjustment for confounders, we found a positive association between BP and DSI (all P<0.05). In a normotensive population, BP shows a linear relationship with DSI. Our results emphasize the potent deleterious impact of DSI on BP. © 2012 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Ferland A.,Aurora University | Chteau-Degat M.-L.,Hyperbaric Unit | Hernandez T.L.,Aurora University | Eckel R.H.,Aurora University
Obesity | Year: 2012

This study evaluated if the effect of dietary macronutrient composition on adipose tissue lipoprotein lipase (ATLPL) and skeletal muscle lipoprotein lipase (SMLPL) predicted the long-term (over 4 years) changes in body weight and composition in free-living adults. Using a crossover design, 39 healthy subjects (n = 24 normal weight, n = 7 overweight, n = 8 obese) each followed a 2-week isocaloric high-carbohydrate (HC; 55% CHO:25% fat) and high-fat (HF; 30% CHO:50% fat) diet. On day 15 of each diet, biopsies were performed in the fasted state and 6 h after a meal. Body weight and composition were measured annually over 4 years. The outcomes for body weight, fat mass and % body fat were assessed using a linear two-stage mixed model. The mean (SEM) increase in body weight and fat mass over 4 years was 0.29 ± 0.15 kg/year (P = 0.063) and 0.31 ± 0.15 kg/year (P = 0.051), respectively. The most consistent predictors of future body weight and fat changes were the ΔATLPL and ΔSMLPL responses (0-6 h) to a HC diet/meal. For the HC diet/meal, the subjects who had an increase in ATLPL activity/cell gained more % body fat over 4 years (P = 0.006) whereas subjects who had a decrease in SMLPL activity/g also had an increase in fat mass (P = 0.021). No significant relationships were observed between fasting ATLPL and SMLPL or enzyme responses to meals and any of the outcomes following the HF diet. In free-living adults the variability in tissue-specific lipoprotein lipase (LPL) responsiveness to a HC diet/meal predicts longitudinal changes in body composition.

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