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Wakita M.,Mukogawa Womens University | Fukatsu A.,Hyogo Prefectural Kobe Childrens Hospital | Amagai T.,Mukogawa Womens University
Nutrition in Clinical Practice | Year: 2011

Background: The aim of the present study was to determine whether nutrition assessment helps predict clinical outcomes (COs) in infants who have undergone cardiac surgery. Methods: Study subjects were infants, aged less than 18 months, who had undergone cardiac surgery between April 2007 and August 2008. The nutrition parameters assessed include Onodera's prognostic nutritional index (PNI), height for age, weight for height, and weight for age. COs included mortality rate during hospitalization, length of stay in intensive care unit (LOS-1), length of stay in the hospital after surgery (LOS-2), and duration of mechanical ventilation support. Method-1: the correlation between nutrition parameters and COs was examined by statistical analysis. Method-2: the cutoff point of nutrition parameters was determined using the minimum P value approach. Results: The following results were obtained: Results-1: PNI was the only nutrition parameter found to be correlated with LOS-1. Results-2: the cutoff point for PNI as a predictor of LOS-1 was 55. Conclusions: It appeared that preoperative PNI was the most influential factor on LOS-1 for infants after they underwent cardiac surgery. The PNI cutoff point 55 in infants who underwent cardiac surgery seems to be the best predictor of CO. © 2011 American Society for Parenteral and Enteral Nutrition. Source

Iijima K.,Kobe University | Sako D.M.,National Health Research Institute | Nozu K.,Kobe University | Mori R.,National Health Research Institute | And 13 more authors.
The Lancet | Year: 2014

Background Rituximab could be an effective treatment for childhood-onset, complicated, frequently relapsing nephrotic syndrome (FRNS) and steroid-dependent nephrotic syndrome (SDNS). We investigated the efficacy and safety of rituximab in patients with high disease activity. Methods We did a multicentre, double-blind, randomised, placebo-controlled trial at nine centres in Japan. We screened patients aged 2 years or older experiencing a relapse of FRNS or SDNS, which had originally been diagnosed as nephrotic syndrome when aged 1-18 years. Patients with complicated FRNS or SDNS who met all other criteria were eligible for inclusion after remission of the relapse at screening. We used a computer-generated sequence to randomly assign patients (1:1) to receive rituximab (375 mg/m2) or placebo once weekly for 4 weeks, with age, institution, treatment history, and the intervals between the previous three relapses as adjustment factors. Patients, guardians, caregivers, physicians, and individuals assessing outcomes were masked to assignments. All patients received standard steroid treatment for the relapse at screening and stopped taking immunosuppressive agents by 169 days after randomisation. Patients were followed up for 1 year. The primary endpoint was the relapse-free period. Safety endpoints were frequency and severity of adverse events. Patients who received their assigned intervention were included in analyses. This trial is registered with the University Hospital Medical Information Network linical trials registry, number UMIN000001405. Findings Patients were centrally registered between Nov 13, 2008, and May 19, 2010. Of 52 patients who underwent randomisation, 48 received the assigned intervention (24 were given rituximab and 24 placebo). The median relapsefree period was signifi cantly longer in the rituximab group (267 days, 95% CI 223-374) than in the placebo group (101 days, 70-155; hazard ratio: 0 27, 0 14-0 53; p<0 0001). Ten patients (42%) in the rituximab group and six (25%) in the placebo group had at least one serious adverse event (p=0 36). Interpretation Rituximab is an eff ective and safe treatment for childhood-onset, complicated FRNS and SDNS. Source

Shimizu M.,Kanazawa University | Nakagishi Y.,Hyogo Prefectural Kobe Childrens Hospital | Yachie A.,Kanazawa University
Cytokine | Year: 2013

To assess the serum interleukin (IL)-6 and IL-18 levels in patients with systemic juvenile idiopathic arthritis (s-JIA) and to identify the clinical features of patient subsets with different cytokine profiles, we analyzed the serum levels of IL-6 and IL-18 in patients with s-JIA and compared them with the clinical features of s-JIA. Eighteen patients were analyzed. IL-6 and IL-18 levels were quantified in serum by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays. Interestingly, two distinct s-JIA patient subsets based on their serum IL-6 and IL-18 levels were identified: an IL-6 dominant and an IL-18 dominant. The serum IL-6 and IL-18 levels were consistent both at relapse and at the onset of s-JIA in each subset. The IL-6-dominant subset had a significantly greater number of joints with active disease and higher serum levels of matrix metalloproteinase-3, whereas the IL-18-dominant subset was more likely to develop macrophage activation syndrome (MAS). These findings indicate that two subsets of patients with s-JIA, one which is prone for arthritis and another with prone for MAS, can be identified on the basis of their serum IL-6 and IL-18 levels. These two subsets appear to be characterized by certain distinct clinical features. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Mizowaki T.,Hyogo Prefectural Kobe Childrens Hospital | Mizowaki T.,Kobe University
World neurosurgery | Year: 2014

BACKGROUND: Choroid plexus papilloma (CPP) in the third ventricle is a rare benign intracranial tumor.METHODS: We report 3 pediatric cases of CPP in the third ventricle. The lesions were totally removed by a different surgical approach in each case.RESULTS: When remarkable hydrocephalus is present, the transcortical approach is easier to perform, but may expose the patient to epilepsy and subdural effusion postoperatively. The transcallosal approach offers direct exposure of the ventricle system with minimal risk of cortical damage. The transcallosal-transforaminal approach with posterior enlargement of the foramen of Monro along the choroidal fissure provides a direct trajectory into the third ventricle through the natural cleft. The transcallosal-interforniceal approach does not depend on the size of the foramen of Monro, but it carries a risk for damage to the both fornices. The midline plane of the septum pellucidum and the forniceal columns in children are sometimes easily identifiable and separable, and in such cases the transcallosal-interforniceal approach appears to be a safe route for tumors extending to the posterior third ventricle. The interforniceal approach should be reserved for lesions that cannot be removed safely via the transforaminal approach.CONCLUSIONS: Young children have a small total blood volume and fragile cardiovascular status. Therefore, it is critical to preserve the venous system and to ligate the feeding artery before extirpation of the tumor. The surgical approach to the third ventricular CPPs should be tailored to individual children based on tumor size, location, and vascularity. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved. Source

Doi Y.,Hyogo Prefectural Kobe Childrens Hospital | Kagawa T.,Hyogo Prefectural Kobe Childrens Hospital
Japanese Journal of Anesthesiology | Year: 2013

Most drugs used in practical pediatric anesthesia are off-label. Pediatric anesthesiologists and non-pediatric anesthesiologists who rarely encounter pediatric patients need to be aware of the clinical usage of these drugs based on pediatric pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics to ensure that children are not exposed to unnecessary risks. Clinical guidelines on anesthetic drugs have been made available on the Japanese Society of Anesthesiologists website, and anesthesiologists are encouraged to access this site at least once. Propofol is commonly used in pediatric anesthesia and sedation in several situations. However, we should always consider the possibility of propofol infusion syndrome in the case of long-term administration. Rocuronium is widely used for general anesthesia in elective surgeries, examinations, and minor procedures in pediatric patients. Rocuronium can be used for rapid sequence induction, taking into consideration the dose and duration of action. Sugammadex has recently been introduced for practice in Japan. Rocuronium and sugammadex have been used safely in pediatric patients so far, and may change the induction methods used in difficult airway patients and the management of airway emergencies. Desflurane is novel in Japan and has not been commonly used in pediatric anesthesia. Desflurane may cause very high irritability in the airway and may be used for the maintenance of anesthesia in limited situations. Source

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