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Yoshida K.,Kyoto University | Takahashi N.,Kyoto University | Kondo N.,Kyoto University | Mano S.,Kyoto University | And 6 more authors.
American Society of Agricultural and Biological Engineers Annual International Meeting 2010, ASABE 2010 | Year: 2010

Serum Vitamin A level is important indication to control the beef quality in Japan. The beef quality depends on serum vitamin A (VA) level. From 16 months to 24 months, serum VA level should be maintained low level and kept at about 30 IU/dl to produce the high quality meat. It is need to control serum VA level without cattle diseases. Generally, serum vitamin A level is mainly detected by blood assay. However, it is time-consuming, expensive, and stressful to the cattle. Therefore, a non-invasive, rapid, and simple method for monitoring serum VA level is desirable to produce the high quality beef. In the previous study, pupil reflection was related to the serum VA level. The photosensitive pigment rhodopsin related to serum VA has an absorption about 380nm, so it would appear that there is the relationship between pupil reflection in 375nm-wavelength and VA level in blood. The objective of this study was to predict serum VA level with pupil reflection using ultraviolet (UV) camera. Materials were eye balls from 32 live Japanese black cattle and 22 slaughtered cattle. The positive correlation between pupil reflection and VA level was observed in live cattle, whereas the negative correlation between tapetum reflection and VA level in slaughtered cattle was found. These results suggested that LED light doesn't reach tapetum and it seems to be difficult to get the tapetum information from pupil images.

The effects of crude protein (CP) concentration in feed using soybean meal as its source in the early fattening period on the levels of free amino acids (FAAs) and dipeptides in the blood, and the levels in the M. longissimus thoracis after slaughter were studied in Japanese Black steers. Sixteen steers were divided into four groups and given feed with a CP content of 12, 14, 16, or 18% of dry matter (DM) from 10 to 20 months old, and they were fed with the same level of CP (13.5-13.9% of DM) until slaughter at 30 months of age. There was no significant difference in the weight gain, carcass weight or marbling score between the groups. Concerning the serum FAA and dipeptide contents at 20 months of age, the alanine, tyrosine and tryptophan levels decreased, while the carnosine (Car) level increased, with increases in the CP level in the feed. Although there were no significant differences in the FAA contents of the Longissimus thoracis muscle between the groups, the Car content decreased with increases in the feed protein level. © 2010 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2010 Japanese Society of Animal Science.

Han S.,Kyoto University | Kondo N.,Kyoto University | Ogawa Y.,Kyoto University | Mano S.,Kyoto University | And 7 more authors.
Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and Food | Year: 2013

Color change of pupil area was investigated in Red, Green, Blue (RGB)and Hue, Saturation, Intensity (HSI)color models from July to November in 2010 and from May to December in 2011to estimate the serum vitamin A level of Japanese black cattle during their vitamin A controlled stage. A 2CCD camera was used to acquire the eye images. The results showed lower vitamin A level cattle usually accompanied with higher red component value, lower saturation in their eye images. An estimation model was built based on red and green component ratio. The estimation error is about 10 IU/dL. The reasonable result shows the feasibility to estimate the vitamin A level by color change of pupil area in Japanese black cattle.

Takahashi N.,Kyoto University | Kondo N.,Kyoto University | Tuan N.Q.,Kyoto University | Mano S.,Kyoto University | And 7 more authors.
Engineering in Agriculture, Environment and Food | Year: 2010

The optimum wavelength for measuring pupil reflection in order to estimate serum vitamin A level in slaughtered and live cattle was investigated. A multispectrum camera was used to obtain the eye images. The highest coefficient of determination 0.76 between pupil reflection and serum vitamin A level was obtained at 500 nm. Since the photosensitive pigment rhodopsin has a maximum absorption of about 500 nm, the results suggest that 500 nm could be the optimum wavelength for measuring pupil reflection.

Han S.,Kyoto University | Kondo N.,Kyoto University | Ogawa Y.,Kyoto University | Fujiura T.,Kyoto University | And 6 more authors.
Computers and Electronics in Agriculture | Year: 2014

To produce beef with a higher marbling standard, Japanese black cattle farmers usually actively attempt to lower the serum vitamin A level in the fattening period to a minimum desired level (about 30. IU/dL). However, early identification of suboptimal vitamin A deficiency in the cattle is important to prevent them from becoming susceptible to contracting serious diseases. In this study, we investigated the feasibility of using Pupillary Light Reflex (PLR) analysis to identify vitamin A deficient cattle during this fattening period. PLRs of 43 cattle were recorded monthly from June 2012 to February 2013 using a 2CCD camera based handheld machine vision system. A new image processing algorithm to segment the pupil from the background was developed. Compared with manually selected results, the root mean square error associated with the constriction amplitude (CA) acquired by the image processing algorithm was only 2.3%, indicating the effectiveness of this algorithm. No significant differences were found between results of CA from fattening cattle in the high (>60. IU/dL) and low (<30. IU/dL) vitamin A period. However, two fattening cattle were identified with severe vitamin A deficiency, because of their weak PLR (CA< 10%). Initial Pupil Roundness (IPR) results showed cattle in a dark environment possessed less-dilated pupils during the vitamin A deficient period (p< 0.05). These results highlight the potential, as well as the limitations of this method. Due to the natural variation of PLR in healthy cattle, monthly measurements are not sufficient to make accurate identification. To realize early identification of severe vitamin A deficiency in fattening cattle, a more frequent PLR measurements regime needs to be explored. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

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