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Nishinomiya, Japan

Takesue Y.,Hyogo Medical College Hospital | Oda S.,Chiba University | Fujishima S.,Keio University | Mikamo H.,Aichi Medical University | Aikawa N.,Keio University
Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy | Year: 2012

Although itraconazole exhibits potent activity against Candida species, there have been few studies examining the use ofintravenous itraconazole in the treatment of invasive candidiasis. A nationwide multicenter clinical study was conducted toevaluate the efficacy and safety of intravenous itraconazole in the management of invasive candidiasis, includingnon-albicans Candida species, in non-neutropenic patients undergoing surgery and critical care. Between September 2007 andAugust 2009, patients with proven and presumed candidiasis were enrolled at 22 participating institutions. Patients withpresumed candidiasis had a deep-body temperature of 37.8°C or higher and were positive for serum β-d-glucan or twoor more colonization sites of Candida species. The main exclusion criterion was severe renal impairment (creatinine clearance<30 ml/min). The primary efficacy analysis was based on clinical and microbiological responses 5-10 days after the end oftreatment, assessed by an independent data review committee. Of the 60 patients enrolled, 49 were included in the modifiedintention-to-treat population; 31 patients received a definitive diagnosis and 18 patients a presumed diagnosis. Intravenousitraconazole was used as first-line therapy to treat 39 patients and as second-line therapy for 10 patients. The isolatedspecies included Candida albicans (25 strains with definitive diagnosis and 17 with presumed diagnosis) and non-albicansspecies (16 and 10, respectively). Treatment was successful in 61.5% patients (65.5% in first-line and 50.0% in second-linetherapy); 60% of proven invasive candidiasis (IC) patients were judged as successful compared with 63.2% of presumedcandidiasis patients. Eradication rate was 63.6% for C. albicans and 71.4% for C. glabrata. Adverse effects occurred in 9 of60 patients (15.0%), commonly impaired liver function. The clinical efficacy and safety of intravenous itraconazole weresuggested in the management of proven and presumed candidiasis including C. glabrata in non-neutropenic patients. The statusof intravenous itraconazole in the Japanese guideline warrants reconsideration. © 2012 Japanese Society of Chemotherapyand The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases.

Okada K.,Tokyo Womens Medical University | Kimura T.,Tokyo Womens Medical University | Mikamo H.,Aichi Medical University | Kasahara K.,Nara Medical University | And 14 more authors.
Journal of Infection and Chemotherapy | Year: 2014

Arbekacin (ABK) was approved and widely used in Japan for treatment of patients infected with MRSA, and TDM was introduced in clinical practice. The Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and the Japanese Society of Therapeutic Drug Monitoring decided to develop a clinical practice guidelines for TDM of ABK for the following reasons. First, although the daily dose of 150e200 mg was approved in Japan, recent PKPD studies revealed that higher serum concentration is required to achieve better clinical efficacy and several findings concerning the usefulness of higher dosage regimen have obtained recently. Second, although maximal concentrations that obtained immediately after the end of administration (Cmax) was generally adopted, the serum concentration at 1 h after initiation of administration [peak serum concentration (Cpeak)] proved to be more suitable as an efficacy indicator of aminoglycosides. Lastly, as ABK is approved only in Japan, no international practice guideline for TDM has not been available in ABK to date. This guideline evaluated the scientific data associated with serum ABK monitoring and provided recommendations based on the available evidence. Potential limitations of this guideline, however, include the findings that few prospective clinical trials of TDM of ABK are available in the treatment of MRSAinfections and that most of the published literature describes observational studies. © 2013, Japanese Society of Chemotherapy and The Japanese Association for Infectious Diseases.

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