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Sugano S.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science | Sugimoto T.,Hyogo Agricultural Institute for Agriculture | Takatsuji H.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science | Jiang C.-J.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science
Plant Pathology | Year: 2013

This study investigated the protective effects of various phytohormones and plant activators on soyabean resistance to Phytophthora sojae, the cause of root and stem rot. It was found that application of benzothiadiazole (BTH, an activator of salicylic acid (SA) signalling) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid (ACC, a precursor of ethylene (ET) biosynthesis) markedly induced resistance to P. sojae. By contrast, gibberellin (GA) and abscisic acid (ABA) rendered soyabean seedlings more susceptible to P. sojae. Simultaneous application of ABA with BTH or ACC suppressed the protective effects of BTH and ACC, indicating that ABA acts antagonistically on the SA- and ET-signalling pathways. Neither BTH nor ACC directly inhibited growth of P. sojae. The protective effect of ACC was diminished by co-treatment with its analogue α-aminoisobutyric acid, suggesting that ET biosynthesis is required for ACC-induced soyabean resistance. Expression analysis of ET- and SA-responsive genes demonstrated the activation of ET- and SA-signalling pathways during P. sojae infection. Furthermore, ACC treatments augmented the expression of ET-responsive and pathogenesis-related genes. Taken together, the results indicate that ACC (ET)-induced soyabean resistance to P. sojae relies on transcriptional augmentation of defence-related genes. © 2012 British Society for Plant Pathology. Source

Sugimoto T.,Hyogo Agricultural Institute for Agriculture | Kato M.,Japan National Agricultural Research Center | Yoshida S.,Hyogo Agricultural Institute for Agriculture | Matsumoto I.,Hyogo Agricultural Institute for Agriculture | And 11 more authors.
Breeding Science | Year: 2011

Phytophthora stem and root rot, caused by Phytophthora sojae, is one of the most destructive diseases of soybean [Glycine max (L.) Merr.], and the incidence of this disease has been increasing in several soybeanproducing areas around the world. This presents serious limitations for soybean production, with yield losses from 4 to 100%. The most effective method to reduce damage would be to grow Phytophthora-resistant soybean cultivars, and two types of host resistance have been described. Race-specific resistance conditioned by single dominant Rps ("resistance to Phytophthora sojae") genes and quantitatively inherited partial resistance conferred by multiple genes could both provide protection from the pathogen. Molecular markers linked to Rps genes or quantitative trait loci (QTLs) underlying partial resistance have been identified on several molecular linkage groups corresponding to chromosomes. These markers can be used to screen for Phytophthoraresistant plants rapidly and efficiently, and to combine multiple resistance genes in the same background. This paper reviews what is currently known about pathogenic races of P. sojae in the USA and Japan, selection of sources of Rps genes or minor genes providing partial resistance, and the current state and future scope of breeding Phytophthora-resistant soybean cultivars. Source

Sugimoto T.,Hyogo Agricultural Institute for Agriculture | Yoshida S.,Hyogo Agricultural Institute for Agriculture | Kaga A.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science | Hajika M.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | And 9 more authors.
Euphytica | Year: 2011

The Glycine max (L.) Merr. cultivar Waseshiroge is highly resistant to several races of Phytophthora sojae in Japan. In order to determine which Rps gene might be present in Waseshiroge, 15 differential cultivars were challenged with 12 P. sojae isolates. None had a reaction pattern identical to that of Waseshiroge, indicating that Waseshiroge may contain a novel Rps gene. In order to characterize the inheritance of Waseshiroge resistance to P. sojae isolates, 98 F2 progeny and 94 F7:8 lines were produced from crosses between the susceptible cultivar Tanbakuro and Waseshiroge. Chi-square tests indicated that segregation fit a 3:1 ratio for resistance and susceptibility in two F2 sub-populations of 42 and 56 seedlings. This and a 46. 27:1. 46:46. 27 (or 63:2:63) ratio for resistance: segregation: susceptibility among the 94 F7:8 lines indicated that resistance was controlled by a single dominant gene. DNA analyses were carried out on Tanbakuro, Waseshiroge and the 94 F7:8 lines, and a linkage map was constructed with 17 SSR markers and nine new primer pairs that amplify marker loci linked to Rps1 on soybean chromosome 3 (linkage group N). The closest markers, Satt009 and T000304487l, map to locations 0. 9 and 1. 6 cM on each side of the estimated position of the Rps gene, respectively. The results showed that the Rps gene in Waseshiroge is either allelic to Rps1, or resides at a tightly linked locus in a gene cluster. A three-way-contingency table analysis indicated that marker-assisted selection with the two flanking markers could be used in the development of new resistant cultivars. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Sugimoto T.,Hyogo Agricultural Institute for Agriculture | Watanabe K.,Hyogo Agricultural Institute for Agriculture | Watanabe K.,Tokyo University of Agriculture | Yoshida S.,Hyogo Agricultural Institute for Agriculture | And 5 more authors.
Plant Disease | Year: 2010

The effect of calcium compounds [Ca(HCOO)2-A and Ca(NO 3)2] on the incidence of Phytophthora stem rot of soybean (Glycine max) cv. Tanbakuro was investigated in the field. Disease incidence in control plants in three fields naturally infested with Phytophthora sojae ranged from 11.7 to 52.0% at 140 days after transplanting. Independent of the pathotype diversity, 4 and 10 mM of the calcium compounds applied twice (prior to transplanting and 14 days after transplanting) significantly suppressed disease incidence and delayed onset. Ca(HCOO)2-A (Suicaru) was more effective than calcium nitrate for reducing disease incidence. In most cases, the calcium amendments increased plant height, number of nodes and pods, and seed yields, and reduced low-quality seeds. Scanning electron microscopy with fresh samples showed increased accumulation of calcium crystals around the cambium and xylem elements of soybean plants treated with 10-mM Ca(HCOO) 2-A and Ca(NO3)2. Mycelial penetration was inhibited at these sites. These results indicated that calcium-rich areas may be more resistant to invasion by P . sojae , and the calcium crystals may play an important role in calcium ion storage and its availability for those tissues to maintain long-term field resistance. © 2010 The American Phytopathological Society. Source

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