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Guyard-Nicodeme M.,CNRS Laboratory of Microbiology Signals and Microenvironment | Guyard-Nicodeme M.,Hygiene and Quality of Poultry and Pork Products Unit | Gerault E.,CNRS Laboratory of Microbiology Signals and Microenvironment | Platteel M.,Biogalenys SAS | And 7 more authors.
Journal of Applied Toxicology | Year: 2015

Most animal experiments on cosmetics safety are prohibited and since March 2013, this obligation includes sensitization tests. However, until now there has been no validated alternative in vitro method. In this work, 400 compounds used in the cosmetic industry were selected to cover the greatest diversity of structures, biological activities and sensitizing potential. These molecules were submitted to a series of tests aimed at reproducing essential steps in sensitization and to distinguish between sensitization and irritations, i.e., transcutaneous permeation (factor A), haptenation (factor B), sensitization cytokines production (factor C) and acute toxicity (factor D). The transcutaneous diffusion was measured on human skin explants using Franz cells. Haptenation was tested in solution on human serum albumin. Sensitization cytokine production was investigated by measurement of interleukin-18 release by keratinocytes. Acute toxicity was determined using an 3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide75 cell viability test. As only sufficiently stable, soluble and detectable compounds are usable, 33, 72, 68 and 68 molecules were finally tested on factors A, B, C and D, respectively, and 32 were completely screened by the four factors. The individual correlation of the four factors with the reference in vivo tests was limited but the combination of these factors led to a correlation between in vivo and in vitro assays of 81.2% and the safety of the test (risk of false negative) reached 96.8%. The techniques employed are simple and inexpensive and this model of four tests appears as a promising technique to evaluate in vitro the skin sensitization potential of unknown molecules. © 2014 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Source


Bertelloni F.,University of Pisa | Chemaly M.,Hygiene and Quality of Poultry and Pork Products Unit | Cerri D.,University of Pisa | Le Gall F.,Hygiene and Quality of Poultry and Pork Products Unit | Ebani V.V.,University of Pisa
Acta Microbiologica et Immunologica Hungarica | Year: 2016

The fecal samples from 213 captive reptiles were examined, and 29 (13.61%) Salmonella enterica isolates were detected: 14/62 (22.58%) from chelonians, 14/135 (10.37%) from saurians, and 1/16 (6.25%) from ophidians. The isolates were distributed among 14 different serotypes: Miami, Ebrie, Hermannsweder, Tiergarten, Tornov, Pomona, Poona, Goteborg, Abaetetube, Nyanza, Kumasi, Typhimurium, 50:b:z6, 9,12:z29:1,5, and a non-motile serotype with antigenic formula 1,4,[5],12:-:-. Salmonella typhimurium and 50:b:z6 isolates showed the spv plasmid virulence genes, responsible of the capability to induce extra-intestinal infections. In some cases, pulsed field gel electrophoresis revealed different profiles for the strains of the same serotypes, showing different origins, whereas a common source of infection was supposed when one pulsotype had been observed for isolates of a serovar. Twenty-seven (93.10%) isolates showed resistance to one or more antibiotics. Ceftazidime was active to all the tested isolates, whereas the highest percentages of strains were no susceptible to tigecycline (93.10%), streptomycin (89.66%), and sulfonamide (86.21%). © 2016 Akadémiai Kiadó, Budapest. Source


De Cesare A.,University of Bologna | Valero A.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Perez-Rodriguez F.,University of Cordoba, Spain | Chemaly M.,Hygiene and Quality of Poultry and Pork Products Unit | Manfreda G.,University of Bologna
Food Control | Year: 2015

Food safety standards in the European Union include microbiological criteria and targets in primary production. The current paper provides a strategy to elucidate risk-based metrics such a potential Food Safety Objective for Campylobacter used as benchmark to derive possible Performance Objectives for the pathogen in broiler carcasses tested after chilling. The Performance Objectives were developed using the EFSA data collected on broiler carcasses during the monitoring study performed in 2008 in the European Union according to the evaluation of the different risk factors included in the survey. The FSO for Campylobacter was set at-1.2log10cfu/g (~6cfu/100g). The Campylobacter concentrations after chilling resulting in a final concentration equal or below this proposed FSO were suggested as possible POs. The results obtained indicated that batches originating from previously thinned flocks can be more at risk of being colonized with Campylobacter. In fact, the estimated mean concentrations of Campylobacter on carcasses were 1.05 and 2.38log10cfu/g for non thinned and thinned flocks, respectively. Further, the impact of high Campylobacter contamination on carcasses (>2.5log10cfu/g) was shown since for those carcasses a reduction in PO values higher than 1.5log10cfu/g is needed to meet the FSO. In contrast no significant differences for PO values estimated were found between slaughterhouses with different capacity and for carcasses tested at different times from collection. This study provides a validated methodology for the estimation of risk-based metrics based on a quantitative approach allowing food safety authorities to develop specific microbiological criteria. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source


Guyard-Nicodeme M.,Hygiene and Quality of Poultry and Pork Products Unit | Guyard-Nicodeme M.,European University of Brittany | Rivoal K.,Hygiene and Quality of Poultry and Pork Products Unit | Rivoal K.,European University of Brittany | And 16 more authors.
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2015

Campylobacter was detected in 76% of broiler meat products collected in retail outlets during a monitoring plan carried out in France throughout 2009. Campylobacter jejuni was the most prevalent species (64.7% of products being contaminated). The 175 C. jejuni isolates collected were characterized. MLST typing results confirmed substantial genetic diversity as the 175 C. jejuni isolates generated 76 sequence types (STs). The ST-21, ST-45 and ST-464 complexes predominated accounting for 43% of all isolates.A class-specific PCR to screen the sialylated lipooligosaccharide (LOS) locus classes A, B and C showed that 50.3% of the C. jejuni isolates harbored sialylated LOS. The antimicrobial resistance profiles established using a subset of 97 isolates showed that resistance to tetracycline was the most common (53.6%), followed with ciprofloxacin and nalidixic acid (32.9%, and 32.0% respectively). All the tested isolates were susceptible to erythromycin, chloramphenicol and gentamicin. Clear associations were demonstrated between certain clonal complexes and LOS locus classes and between certain clonal complexes and antimicrobial resistance. This work paints a representative picture of C. jejuni isolated from poultry products circulating in France, providing data on STs, LOS locus classes and antibiotic resistance profiles in isolates recovered from products directly available to the consumer. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source


Allain V.,Avian and Rabbit Epidemiology and Welfare Unit | Allain V.,European University of Brittany | Chemaly M.,Hygiene and Quality of Poultry and Pork Products Unit | Chemaly M.,European University of Brittany | And 8 more authors.
British Poultry Science | Year: 2014

Abstract: 1. A study was conducted to estimate the prevalence and quantification by species of Campylobacter infection in broiler flocks at the end of the rearing period and to identify associated risk factors.2. A questionnaire about the rearing period was completed and caecal samples were collected from 121 broiler flocks in Brittany, France, during 2008.3. Campylobacter was isolated in 87 out of 121 flocks – a prevalence of 71.9% (95% CI, 63.7–80.1%), including 40.5% of Campylobacter jejuni and 29.8% of Campylobacter coli.4. The average concentration, in positive flocks, was 7.96 log10 cfu/g and ranged from 3.15 to 10.32 log10 cfu/g.5. The average concentration by species was: 7.57 log10 cfu/g for C. jejuni and 8.44 log10 cfu/g for C. coli.6. There was a seasonal effect, with increased risk of Campylobacter colonisation in June, July and August (odds ratio (OR) = 9.59, 95% CI 1.15–79.75).7. The other factors, associated with lower risk of Campylobacter colonisation, were the acidification of drinking water (OR = 0.33, 95% CI 0.13–0.86), antibiotic treatment at the beginning of the rearing period (OR = 0.20, 95% CI 0.07–0.55) and rodent control around the house (OR = 0.18, 95% CI 0.03–0.95).8. The results show that hygiene practices and biosecurity measures could lead to a reduction in Campylobacter colonisation. © 2014, © 2014 British Poultry Science Ltd. Source

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