Hygiene and Quality of Poultry and Pig Products Unit

Ploufragan, France

Hygiene and Quality of Poultry and Pig Products Unit

Ploufragan, France
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Souillard R.,Avian and Rabbit Epidemiology and Welfare Unit | Woudstra C.,Food Safety Laboratory | Le Marechal C.,Hygiene and Quality of Poultry and Pig Products Unit | Dia M.,Avian and Rabbit Epidemiology and Welfare Unit | And 4 more authors.
Avian Pathology | Year: 2014

Between 2011 and 2013, 17 poultry botulism outbreaks were investigated in France. All cases were associated with Clostridium botulinum type C–D. Presence of C. botulinum was studied in seven areas: poultry house, changing room, ventilation system, surroundings, animal reservoirs, water, and feed. Swabs, litter, soil, darkling beetles, rodents and wild bird droppings, feed and water samples were collected. The presence of C. botulinum type C–D in the environment of affected flocks was detected in 39.5% of the 185 samples analysed by real-time polymerase chain reaction. C. botulinum type C–D was reported in each area. Four areas were more frequently contaminated, being found positive in more than one-half of farms: darkling beetles (9/11), poultry house (14/17), water (13/16) and surroundings (11/16). After cleaning and disinfection, the ventilation system and/or the soil (in the houses and the surroundings) returned positive results in four out of eight poultry farms. Consequently, darkling beetles, the drinking water, the ventilation system and the soil in the surroundings and the houses were identified as the main critical contaminated areas to consider in poultry farms to prevent recurrence of botulism outbreaks. © 2014 Houghton Trust Ltd.


Fondrevez M.,Hygiene and Quality of Poultry and Pig Products Unit | Fondrevez M.,European University of Brittany | Minvielle B.,Swine Epidemiology and Welfare Unit | Labbe A.,Hygiene and Quality of Poultry and Pig Products Unit | And 9 more authors.
International Journal of Food Microbiology | Year: 2014

The prevalence of pathogenic Yersinia enterocolitica in French slaughter-aged pigs was estimated by sampling 3120 pigs from 96 batches in 16 slaughterhouses from January 2010 to February 2011. Respectively, 36 batches (20 pigs/batch) and 60 batches (40 pigs/batch) were considered during the cold period and the warm period. Tonsils were swabbed before the chilling step. Pathogenic Y. enterocolitica was detected after enrichment in ITC and streaking on CIN and YeCM media. Typical isolates were confirmed as Y. enterocolitica and biotyped by biochemical tests as described in the ISO 10273:2003 method.Of the tested pigs, 13.7% (CI95% [10.1-17.3]) were found positive for pathogenic Y. enterocolitica and 74.3% (CI95% [64.8-83.8]) of the pig batches contained at least one positive pig. The percentage of positive pigs per batch was generally low; 60.3% of positive batches contained fewer than 5 positive pigs. The prevalence of the pathogen at the batch level remained unchanged throughout this one-year study, but the prevalence in pigs was significantly higher during the warm period than during the cold period. Biotype 4 was the most prevalent biotype among the 827 isolated strains (91.9% of the isolates), followed by biotype 3 (7.25% of the isolates). Six isolates were of biotype 5 and one of biotype 2. Biotype 4 was found in all the 16 participating slaughterhouses, biotype 3 in ten slaughterhouses and biotype 5 in four.This study provides valuable recent figures for the prevalence of pathogenic Y. enterocolitica in French pigs. It also highlights the seasonal aspect of the carriage of this pathogen by pigs, a pattern which differs from those in other countries. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Woudstra C.,Anses French Agency for Food | Le Marechal C.,Hygiene and Quality of Poultry and Pig Products Unit | Le Marechal C.,European University of Brittany | Souillard R.,Hygiene and Quality of Poultry and Pig Products Unit | And 13 more authors.
Applied and Environmental Microbiology | Year: 2015

We report the development of real-time PCR assays for genotyping Clostridium botulinum group III targeting the newly defined C. novyi sensu lato group; the nontoxic nonhemagglutinin (NTNH)-encoding gene ntnh; the botulinum neurotoxin (BoNT)- encoding genes bont/C, bont/C/D, bont/D, and bont/D/C; and the flagellin (fliC) gene. The genetic diversity of fliC among C. botulinum group III strains resulted in the definition of five major subgroups named fliC-I to fliC-V. Investigation of fliC subtypes in 560 samples, with various European origins, showed that fliC-I was predominant and found exclusively in samples contaminated by C. botulinum type C/D, fliC-II was rarely detected, no sample was recorded as fliC-III or fliC-V, and only C. botulinum type D/C samples tested positive for fliC-IV. The lack of genetic diversity of the flagellin gene of C. botulinum type C/D would support a clonal spread of type C/D strains in different geographical areas. fliC-I to fliC-III are genetically related (87% to 92% sequence identity), whereas fliC-IV from C. botulinum type D/C is more genetically distant from the other fliC types (with only 50% sequence identity). These findings suggest fliC-I to fliC-III have evolved in a common environment and support a different genetic evolution for fliC-IV. A combination of the C. novyi sensu lato, ntnh, bont, and fliC PCR assays developed in this study allowed better characterization of C. botulinum group III and showed the group to be less genetically diverse than C. botulinum groups I and II, supporting a slow genetic evolution of the strains belonging to C. botulinum group III. © 2015, American Society for Microbiology.


Le Marechal C.,Hygiene and Quality of Poultry and Pig Products Unit | Le Marechal C.,European University of Brittany | Ballan V.,Hygiene and Quality of Poultry and Pig Products Unit | Ballan V.,European University of Brittany | And 17 more authors.
Anaerobe | Year: 2016

Diagnosis of avian botulism is based on clinical symptoms, which are indicative but not specific. Laboratory investigations are therefore required to confirm clinical suspicions and establish a definitive diagnosis. Real-time PCR methods have recently been developed for the detection of Clostridium botulinum group III producing type C, D, C/D or D/C toxins. However, no study has been conducted to determine which types of matrices should be analyzed for laboratory confirmation using this approach. This study reports on the comparison of different matrices (pooled intestinal contents, livers, spleens and cloacal swabs) for PCR detection of C. botulinum. Between 2013 and 2015, 63 avian botulism suspicions were tested and 37 were confirmed as botulism. Analysis of livers using real-time PCR after enrichment led to the confirmation of 97% of the botulism outbreaks. Using the same method, spleens led to the confirmation of 90% of botulism outbreaks, cloacal swabs of 93% and pooled intestinal contents of 46%. Liver appears to be the most reliable type of matrix for laboratory confirmation using real-time PCR analysis. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.


Souillard R.,Avian and Rabbit Epidemiology and Welfare Unit | Souillard R.,European University of Brittany | Le Marechal C.,Hygiene and Quality of Poultry and Pig Products Unit | Le Marechal C.,European University of Brittany | And 17 more authors.
Veterinary Microbiology | Year: 2015

Ten cattle farms located in an area with a recent history of poultry botulism outbreaks were investigated to evaluate the occurrence of toxigenic C. botulinum in healthy cattle. Environmental samples in the 10 cattle farms and bovine fecal contents in farms with a confirmed environmental contamination were collected. Detection of C. botulinum toxin genes C, D, C/D, D/C and E was performed using real-time PCR. 4.9% (7/143) of the environmental samples collected in the 10 investigated cattle farms were positive for C. botulinum type C/D. Theses samples (boot-swabs in stalls and on pasture and water of a stream) were collected in 3 different farms. One cow dung sample and 3 out of 64 fecal contents samples collected in a single farm were also positive for C. botulinum type C/D. This study demonstrates that cattle are probably indirectly contaminated via poultry botulism in the area and that they can be intermittent carrier of C. botulinum type C/D after poultry botulism outbreaks in mixed farms. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


PubMed | Veterinary Diagnostic Laboratory, LABOCEA, Avian and Rabbit Epidemiology and Welfare Unit, Hygiene and Quality of Poultry and Pig Products Unit and University Paris Est Creteil
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Genome announcements | Year: 2015

Animal botulism is mainly associated with Clostridium botulinum group III strains producing neurotoxin types C, C/D, D, and D/C. In this report, we present the draft genome sequences of fourteen strains of Clostridium botulinum producing type C/D and two strains producing type D/C isolated in France, and one strain producing type D/C that originated from New Caledonia.


Gerzova L.,Veterinary Research Institute | Babak V.,Veterinary Research Institute | Sedlar K.,Brno University of Technology | Faldynova M.,Veterinary Research Institute | And 9 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2015

One of the recent trends in animal production is the revival of interest in organic farming. The increased consumer interest in organic animal farming is mainly due to concerns about animal welfare and the use of antibiotics in conventional farming. On the other hand, providing animals with a more natural lifestyle implies their increased exposure to environmental sources of different microorganisms including pathogens. To address these concerns, we determined the abundance of antibiotic resistance and diversity within fecal microbiota in pigs kept under conventional and organic farming systems in Sweden. Denmark, France and Italy. The abundance of sul1, sul2, strA, tet(A), tet(B) and cat antibiotic resistance genes was determined in 468 samples by real-time PCR and the fecal microbiota diversity was characterized in 48 selected samples by pyrosequencing of V3/V4 regions of 16S rRNA. Contrary to our expectations, there were no extensive differences between the abundance of tested antibiotic resistance genes in microbiota originating from organic or conventionally housed pigs within individual countries. There were also no differences in the microbiota composition of organic and conventional pigs. The only significant difference was the difference in the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes in the samples from different countries. Fecal microbiota in the samples originating from southern European countries (Italy, France) exhibited significantly higher antibiotic resistance gene abundance than those from northern parts of Europe (Denmark, Sweden). Therefore, the geographical location of the herd influenced the antibiotic resistance in the fecal microbiota more than farm's status as organic or conventional. © 2015 Gerzova et al.


PubMed | Brno University of Technology, Instituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale delle Venezie, Veterinary Research Institute, Technical University of Denmark and 2 more.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: PloS one | Year: 2015

One of the recent trends in animal production is the revival of interest in organic farming. The increased consumer interest in organic animal farming is mainly due to concerns about animal welfare and the use of antibiotics in conventional farming. On the other hand, providing animals with a more natural lifestyle implies their increased exposure to environmental sources of different microorganisms including pathogens. To address these concerns, we determined the abundance of antibiotic resistance and diversity within fecal microbiota in pigs kept under conventional and organic farming systems in Sweden, Denmark, France and Italy. The abundance of sul1, sul2, strA, tet(A), tet(B) and cat antibiotic resistance genes was determined in 468 samples by real-time PCR and the fecal microbiota diversity was characterized in 48 selected samples by pyrosequencing of V3/V4 regions of 16S rRNA. Contrary to our expectations, there were no extensive differences between the abundance of tested antibiotic resistance genes in microbiota originating from organic or conventionally housed pigs within individual countries. There were also no differences in the microbiota composition of organic and conventional pigs. The only significant difference was the difference in the abundance of antibiotic resistance genes in the samples from different countries. Fecal microbiota in the samples originating from southern European countries (Italy, France) exhibited significantly higher antibiotic resistance gene abundance than those from northern parts of Europe (Denmark, Sweden). Therefore, the geographical location of the herd influenced the antibiotic resistance in the fecal microbiota more than farms status as organic or conventional.


Kerouanton A.,Hygiene and Quality of Poultry and Pig Products Unit | Kerouanton A.,European University of Brittany | Rose V.,Hygiene and Quality of Poultry and Pig Products Unit | Rose V.,European University of Brittany | And 4 more authors.
Foodborne Pathogens and Disease | Year: 2013

In France, Salmonella enterica serotypes Typhimurium and Derby are the most often isolated serotypes in pigs. Moreover, serotype Derby usually ranks between third and fourth in prevalence among human isolates in France. The aim of this study was to evaluate the genetic relationships between human and pig Salmonella Derby isolates based on their pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) patterns after XbaI, BlnI, and SpeI restriction and on their antimicrobial resistance profiles. The 196 studied isolates were isolated in 2006 and 2007: 73 from fattening pigs, 27 from pork, and 96 from humans. Forty-four PFGE XbaI patterns were identified. A major pattern (SDX01) was identified for 96 isolates (49%). This pattern was common to pig, pork, and human isolates. Among the 146 isolates tested for their antimicrobial resistance, 84.2% (n=123) showed resistance to at least one antibiotic and 69.2% (n=101) were simultaneously resistant to at least streptomycin, sulfonamides, and tetracycline. Most of the isolates that are resistant to these three antibiotics also displayed the major SDX01 pattern. The use of two other restriction enzymes on a part of the panel (155 isolates) brought a significant increase in the discriminatory index, in particular for SDX01 strains. As Salmonella Derby is essentially isolated from pigs, and major resistance and PFGE patterns of isolates from pigs and pork were very similar to human isolates, human salmonellosis due to Salmonella Derby may be related to pigs. © 2013, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


PubMed | Hygiene and Quality of Poultry and Pig Products Unit
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The Veterinary record | Year: 2013

The population of Salmonella found at various stages of pig production in France was characterised to analyse the distribution and spread of Salmonella in the pig production chain. We serotyped and genotyped by PFGE 174 isolates collected from breeding pigs from breeding farms, 163 collected from breeding pigs from production farms, and 325 collected from fattening pigs. Forty-seven serovars and 110 genotypes were identified. The major serovars were S Derby (263 isolates) and S Typhimurium (162 isolates). The percentage of S Derby isolates decreased slightly through the production system (44.3, 41.1 per cent and 36.5 per cent) and 79.1 per cent of the S Derby isolates were distributed in the five genotypes common to all three stages. The percentage of S Typhimurium isolates was high for slaughter pigs (40.8 per cent) and 43 of the 46 S Typhimurium genotypes were only identified at this stage. Distributions of S Derby and S Typhimurium between breeding and fattening pigs were different. S Derby was found throughout the pig production pyramid, suggesting that this serotype may be transmitted by the transfer of animals between herds. The presence of multiple S Typhimurium genotypes in fattening pigs suggests that there were many sources of contamination at this stage, with fattening pigs having higher levels of exposure and/or sensitivity to this serotype.

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