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Stolaki S.,Ecole Polytechnique - Palaiseau | Haeffelin M.,Ecole Polytechnique - Palaiseau | Lac C.,CNRM GAME | Dupont J.-C.,University of Versailles | And 2 more authors.
Atmospheric Research | Year: 2015

Despite the knowledge gained on the physical processes dominating the formation, development and dissipation of radiation fog events, uncertainties still exist about the role of the microphysical processes related to aerosol characteristics. The objective of this work is to analyze the sensitivity of fog to aerosols through their impacts on the fog droplets. A radiation fog event that formed on 15/11/2011 at the SIRTA Observatory near Paris in the context of the 2011-2012 ParisFog field campaign is the basis of this study. The selected case is one that initially forms a few hundred meters above the surface and within half an hour lowers down to the surface. A combination of SIRTA's sophisticated observations and 1D numerical simulations is employed with the aim of better understanding the influence of thermodynamics and microphysics on the life-cycle of the fog event and the degree to which aerosol characteristics such as concentration of potentially activated aerosols, size and solubility affect its characteristics. It results that the model simulates fairly well the fog life cycle, with only one half hour advance in the onset and one hour in the dissipation at the surface. The quality of the reference simulation is evaluated against several in-situ and remote sensing measurements. A numerical sensitivity analysis shows that the fog characteristics are strongly influenced by the aerosols. Doubling (halving) the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number translates into a 160% increase (65% decrease) in the production of fog droplets, and a 60% increase (40% decrease) of the liquid water path (LWP). The aerosols influence up to 10% the fog geometrical thickness. The necessity for more detailed local forcings that will produce better thermohygrometric conditions in the upper levels above the formed fog layer is underlined, as well as the addition of microphysical measurements in the vertical that will allow to improve two-moment microphysics schemes. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source


Brewin R.J.W.,Plymouth Marine Laboratory | Brewin R.J.W.,National Center for Earth Observation | Melin F.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra | Sathyendranath S.,Plymouth Marine Laboratory | And 3 more authors.
ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing | Year: 2014

Satellite ocean-colour sensors have life spans lasting typically five-to-ten years. Detection of long-term trends in chlorophyll-a concentration (Chl-a) using satellite ocean colour thus requires the combination of different ocean-colour missions with sufficient overlap to allow for cross-calibration. A further requirement is that the different sensors perform at a sufficient standard to capture seasonal and inter-annual fluctuations in ocean colour. For over eight years, the SeaWiFS, MODIS-Aqua and MERIS ocean-colour sensors operated in parallel. In this paper, we evaluate the temporal consistency in the monthly Chl-a time-series and in monthly inter-annual variations in Chl-a among these three sensors over the 2002-2010 time period. By subsampling the monthly Chl-a data from the three sensors consistently, we found that the Chl-a time-series and Chl-a anomalies among sensors were significantly correlated for >90% of the global ocean. These correlations were also relatively insensitive to the choice of three Chl-a algorithms and two atmospheric-correction algorithms. Furthermore, on the subsampled time-series, correlations between Chl-a and time, and correlations between Chl-a and physical variables (sea-surface temperature and sea-surface height) were not significantly different for >92% of the global ocean. The correlations in Chl-a and physical variables observed for all three sensors also reflect previous theories on coupling between physical processes and phytoplankton biomass. The results support the combining of Chl-a data from SeaWiFS, MODIS-Aqua and MERIS sensors, for use in long-term Chl-a trend analysis, and highlight the importance of accounting for differences in spatial sampling among sensors when combining ocean-colour observations. © 2014 International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Inc. (ISPRS). Source


Menut L.,Laboratoire Of Meteorologie Dynamique | Mailler S.,Laboratoire Of Meteorologie Dynamique | Dupont J.-C.,Institute Pierre Simon Laplace | Haeffelin M.,Institute Pierre Simon Laplace | Elias T.,HYGEOS
Boundary-Layer Meteorology | Year: 2014

Radiative fog formation is a complex phenomenon involving local physical and microphysical processes that take place when particular meteorological conditions occur. This study aims at quantifying the ability of a regional numerical weather model to analyze and forecast the conditions favourable to radiative fog formation at an instrumental site in the Paris area. Data from the ParisFog campaign have been used in order to quantify the meteorological conditions favorable to radiative fog formation (pre-fog conditions) by setting threshold values on the key meteorological variables driving this process: 2-m temperature tendency, 10-m wind speed, 2-m relative humidity and net infrared flux. Data from the ParisFog observation periods of November 2011 indicate that use of these thresholds leads to the detection of 87 % of cases in which radiative fog formation was observed. In order to evaluate the ability of a regional weather model to reproduce adequately these conditions, the same thresholds are applied to meteorological model fields in both analysis and forecast mode. It is shown that, with this simple methodology, the model detects 74 % of the meteorological conditions finally leading to observed radiative fog, and 48 % 2 days in advance. Finally, sensitivity tests are conducted in order to evaluate the impact of using larger time or space windows on the forecasting skills. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht. Source


Garnier A.,Science Systems And Applications Inc. | Garnier A.,NASA | Garnier A.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Pelon J.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology | Year: 2013

This paper describes the version-3 level-2 operational analysis of the Imaging Infrared Radiometer (IIR) data collected in the framework of the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) mission to retrieve cirrus cloud effective diameter and ice water path in synergy with the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) collocated observations. The analysis uses a multisensor split-window technique relying on the concept of microphysical index applied to the two pairs of channels (12.05, 10.6 μm) and (12.05, 8.65 μm) to retrieve cirrus microphysical properties (effective diameter, ice water path) at 1-km pixel resolution. Retrievals are performed for three crystal families selected from precomputed lookup tables identified as representative of the main relationships between the microphysical indices. The uncertainties in the microphysical indices are detailed and quantified, and the impact on the retrievals is simulated. The possible biases have been assessed through consistency checks that are based on effective emissivity difference. It has been shown that particle effective diameters of single-layered cirrus clouds can be retrieved, for the first time, down to effective emissivities close to 0.05 when accurate measured background radiances can be used and up to 0.95 over ocean and land, as well as over low opaque clouds. The retrieval of the ice water path from the IIR effective optical depth and the effective diameter is discussed. Taking advantage of the cloud boundaries retrieved by CALIOP, an IIR power-law relationship between ice water content and extinction is established for four temperature ranges and shown to be consistent with previous results on average for the chosen dataset. © 2013 American Meteorological Society. Source


Garnier A.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Pelon J.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Dubuisson P.,Lille University of Science and Technology | Faivre M.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology | Year: 2012

The paper describes the operational analysis of the Imaging Infrared Radiometer (IIR) data, which have been collected in the framework of the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) mission for the purpose of retrieving high-altitude (above 7 km) cloud effective emissivity and optical depth that can be used in synergy with the vertically resolved Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) collocated observations. After an IIR scene classification is built under the CALIOP track, the analysis is applied to features detected by CALIOP when found alone in the atmospheric column or when CALIOP identifies an opaque layer underneath. The fast-calculation radiative transfer (FASRAD) model fed by ancillary meteorological and surface data is used to compute the different components involved in the effective emissivity retrievals under the CALIOP track. The track analysis is extended to the IIR swath using homogeneity criteria that are based on radiative equivalence. The effective optical depth at 12.05 mm is shown to be a good proxy for about one-half of the cloud optical depth, allowing direct comparisons with other databases in the visible spectrum. A step-by-step quantitative sensitivity and performance analysis is provided. The method is validated through comparisons of collocated IIR and CALIOP optical depths for elevated single-layered semitransparent cirrus clouds, showing excellent agreement (within 20%) for values ranging from 1 down to 0.05. Uncertainties have been determined from the identified error sources. The optical depth distribution of semitransparent clouds is found to have a nearly exponential shape with a mean value of about 0.5-0.6. © 2012 American Meteorological Society. Source

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