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Baret F.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Weiss M.,French National Institute for Agricultural Research | Lacaze R.,HYGEOS | Camacho F.,EOLAB | And 3 more authors.
Remote Sensing of Environment | Year: 2013

Essential climate variables such as LAI or FAPAR are required for the monitoring, understanding and modeling of land surfaces at the global scale. While several products were already developed from the current medium resolution sensors, the few validation exercises currently achieved highlighted significant discrepancies and inconsistencies. The objective of this study is to develop improved global estimates of LAI, FAPAR and FCOVER variables by capitalizing on the development and validation of already existing products. In a first step, the performances of the MODIS, CYCLOPES, GLOBCARBON and JRC-FAPAR products were reviewed. The MODIS and CYCLOPES products were then selected since they provide higher level of consistency. These products were fused to generate the improved LAI, FAPAR and FCOVER values that were later scaled to closely match their expected range of variation. Finally, neural networks were trained to estimate these fused and scaled products from SPOT-VEGETATION top of canopy directionally normalized reflectance values. The resulting GEOV1 products are associated to quality control flags as well as quantitative estimates of uncertainties. Performances of the GEOV1 products are finally evaluated in a companion paper. The GEOV1 products are freely available to the community at www.geoland2.eu from 1999 up to present, globally at 1/112° spatial sampling grid at the dekadal time step. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.

Menut L.,Laboratoire Of Meteorologie Dynamique | Mailler S.,Laboratoire Of Meteorologie Dynamique | Dupont J.-C.,Institute Pierre Simon Laplace | Haeffelin M.,Institute Pierre Simon Laplace | Elias T.,Hygeos
Boundary-Layer Meteorology | Year: 2014

Radiative fog formation is a complex phenomenon involving local physical and microphysical processes that take place when particular meteorological conditions occur. This study aims at quantifying the ability of a regional numerical weather model to analyze and forecast the conditions favourable to radiative fog formation at an instrumental site in the Paris area. Data from the ParisFog campaign have been used in order to quantify the meteorological conditions favorable to radiative fog formation (pre-fog conditions) by setting threshold values on the key meteorological variables driving this process: 2-m temperature tendency, 10-m wind speed, 2-m relative humidity and net infrared flux. Data from the ParisFog observation periods of November 2011 indicate that use of these thresholds leads to the detection of 87 % of cases in which radiative fog formation was observed. In order to evaluate the ability of a regional weather model to reproduce adequately these conditions, the same thresholds are applied to meteorological model fields in both analysis and forecast mode. It is shown that, with this simple methodology, the model detects 74 % of the meteorological conditions finally leading to observed radiative fog, and 48 % 2 days in advance. Finally, sensitivity tests are conducted in order to evaluate the impact of using larger time or space windows on the forecasting skills. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.

Brewin R.J.W.,Plymouth Marine Laboratory | Brewin R.J.W.,National Center for Earth Observation | Melin F.,European Commission - Joint Research Center Ispra | Sathyendranath S.,Plymouth Marine Laboratory | And 3 more authors.
ISPRS Journal of Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing | Year: 2014

Satellite ocean-colour sensors have life spans lasting typically five-to-ten years. Detection of long-term trends in chlorophyll-a concentration (Chl-a) using satellite ocean colour thus requires the combination of different ocean-colour missions with sufficient overlap to allow for cross-calibration. A further requirement is that the different sensors perform at a sufficient standard to capture seasonal and inter-annual fluctuations in ocean colour. For over eight years, the SeaWiFS, MODIS-Aqua and MERIS ocean-colour sensors operated in parallel. In this paper, we evaluate the temporal consistency in the monthly Chl-a time-series and in monthly inter-annual variations in Chl-a among these three sensors over the 2002-2010 time period. By subsampling the monthly Chl-a data from the three sensors consistently, we found that the Chl-a time-series and Chl-a anomalies among sensors were significantly correlated for >90% of the global ocean. These correlations were also relatively insensitive to the choice of three Chl-a algorithms and two atmospheric-correction algorithms. Furthermore, on the subsampled time-series, correlations between Chl-a and time, and correlations between Chl-a and physical variables (sea-surface temperature and sea-surface height) were not significantly different for >92% of the global ocean. The correlations in Chl-a and physical variables observed for all three sensors also reflect previous theories on coupling between physical processes and phytoplankton biomass. The results support the combining of Chl-a data from SeaWiFS, MODIS-Aqua and MERIS sensors, for use in long-term Chl-a trend analysis, and highlight the importance of accounting for differences in spatial sampling among sensors when combining ocean-colour observations. © 2014 International Society for Photogrammetry and Remote Sensing, Inc. (ISPRS).

Stolaki S.,Ecole Polytechnique - Palaiseau | Haeffelin M.,Ecole Polytechnique - Palaiseau | Lac C.,CNRM GAME | Dupont J.-C.,University of Versailles | And 2 more authors.
Atmospheric Research | Year: 2015

Despite the knowledge gained on the physical processes dominating the formation, development and dissipation of radiation fog events, uncertainties still exist about the role of the microphysical processes related to aerosol characteristics. The objective of this work is to analyze the sensitivity of fog to aerosols through their impacts on the fog droplets. A radiation fog event that formed on 15/11/2011 at the SIRTA Observatory near Paris in the context of the 2011-2012 ParisFog field campaign is the basis of this study. The selected case is one that initially forms a few hundred meters above the surface and within half an hour lowers down to the surface. A combination of SIRTA's sophisticated observations and 1D numerical simulations is employed with the aim of better understanding the influence of thermodynamics and microphysics on the life-cycle of the fog event and the degree to which aerosol characteristics such as concentration of potentially activated aerosols, size and solubility affect its characteristics. It results that the model simulates fairly well the fog life cycle, with only one half hour advance in the onset and one hour in the dissipation at the surface. The quality of the reference simulation is evaluated against several in-situ and remote sensing measurements. A numerical sensitivity analysis shows that the fog characteristics are strongly influenced by the aerosols. Doubling (halving) the cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) number translates into a 160% increase (65% decrease) in the production of fog droplets, and a 60% increase (40% decrease) of the liquid water path (LWP). The aerosols influence up to 10% the fog geometrical thickness. The necessity for more detailed local forcings that will produce better thermohygrometric conditions in the upper levels above the formed fog layer is underlined, as well as the addition of microphysical measurements in the vertical that will allow to improve two-moment microphysics schemes. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.

Garnier A.,Science Systems And Applications Inc. | Garnier A.,NASA | Garnier A.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Pelon J.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | And 9 more authors.
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology | Year: 2013

This paper describes the version-3 level-2 operational analysis of the Imaging Infrared Radiometer (IIR) data collected in the framework of the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observations (CALIPSO) mission to retrieve cirrus cloud effective diameter and ice water path in synergy with the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) collocated observations. The analysis uses a multisensor split-window technique relying on the concept of microphysical index applied to the two pairs of channels (12.05, 10.6 μm) and (12.05, 8.65 μm) to retrieve cirrus microphysical properties (effective diameter, ice water path) at 1-km pixel resolution. Retrievals are performed for three crystal families selected from precomputed lookup tables identified as representative of the main relationships between the microphysical indices. The uncertainties in the microphysical indices are detailed and quantified, and the impact on the retrievals is simulated. The possible biases have been assessed through consistency checks that are based on effective emissivity difference. It has been shown that particle effective diameters of single-layered cirrus clouds can be retrieved, for the first time, down to effective emissivities close to 0.05 when accurate measured background radiances can be used and up to 0.95 over ocean and land, as well as over low opaque clouds. The retrieval of the ice water path from the IIR effective optical depth and the effective diameter is discussed. Taking advantage of the cloud boundaries retrieved by CALIOP, an IIR power-law relationship between ice water content and extinction is established for four temperature ranges and shown to be consistent with previous results on average for the chosen dataset. © 2013 American Meteorological Society.

Haeffelin M.,Ecole Polytechnique - Palaiseau | Dupont J.-C.,Ecole Polytechnique - Palaiseau | Boyouk N.,Hampton University | Baumgardner D.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | And 3 more authors.
Pure and Applied Geophysics | Year: 2013

Fog is an atmospheric phenomenon that has important environmental consequences related to visibility, air quality and climate change on local and regional scales. The formation of radiation fog results from a complex balance between surface radiative cooling, turbulent mixing in the surface layer, aerosol growth by deliquescence and activation of fog droplets. During the ParisFog field experiment, out of 16 events forecasted for radiation fog, activated fog materialized in seven events, while in five other events the visibility dropped to 1-2 km but haze particle size remained below the critical size of activation. To better understand the conditions that lead to or do not lead to sustained fog droplet activation, we performed a comparative study of dynamic, thermal, radiative and microphysical processes occurring between sunset and fog (or quasi-fog) onset. We selected two radiation fog events and two quasi-radiation fog events that occurred under similar large-scale conditions for this comparative study. We identified that aerosol growth by deliquescence and droplet activation actually occurred in both quasi-fog events, but only during <1 h. Based on ParisFog measurements, we found that the main factors limiting sustained activation of droplets at fog onset in the Paris metropolitan area are (1) lack of mixing in the surface layer (typically wind speed <0.5 ms-1), (2) relative humidity exceeding 90 % throughout the residual layer, (3) low cooling rate in the surface layer (typically less than -1 °C per hour on average) due to weak radiative cooling (0 to -30 Wm-2) and near zero sensible heat fluxes, and (4) a combination of the three factors listed above during the critical phase of droplet activation preventing the transfer of cooling from the surface to the liquid layer. In addition, we found some evidence of contrasted aerosol growth by deliquescence under high relative humidity conditions in the four events, possibly associated with the chemical nature of the aerosols, which could be another factor impacting droplet activation. © 2013 Springer Basel.

Muller D.,Helmholtz Center Geesthacht | Krasemann H.,Helmholtz Center Geesthacht | Brewin R.J.W.,Plymouth Marine Laboratory | Brockmann C.,Brockmann Consult | And 12 more authors.
Remote Sensing of Environment | Year: 2015

The Ocean Colour Climate Change Initiative intends to provide a long-term time series of ocean colour data and investigate the detectable climate impact. A reliable and stable atmospheric correction procedure is the basis for ocean colour products of the necessary high quality. In order to guarantee an objective selection from a set of four atmospheric correction processors, the common validation strategy of comparisons between in-situ and satellite-derived water leaving reflectance spectra, is extended by a ranking system. In principle, the statistical parameters such as root mean square error, bias, etc. and measures of goodness of fit, are transformed into relative scores, which evaluate the relationship of quality dependent on the algorithms under study. The sensitivity of these scores to the selected database has been assessed by a bootstrapping exercise, which allows identification of the uncertainty in the scoring results. Although the presented methodology is intended to be used in an algorithm selection process, this paper focusses on the scope of the methodology rather than the properties of the individual processors. © 2015 Elsevier Inc.

Garnier A.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Pelon J.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | Dubuisson P.,Lille University of Science and Technology | Faivre M.,University Pierre and Marie Curie | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Applied Meteorology and Climatology | Year: 2012

The paper describes the operational analysis of the Imaging Infrared Radiometer (IIR) data, which have been collected in the framework of the Cloud-Aerosol Lidar and Infrared Pathfinder Satellite Observation (CALIPSO) mission for the purpose of retrieving high-altitude (above 7 km) cloud effective emissivity and optical depth that can be used in synergy with the vertically resolved Cloud-Aerosol Lidar with Orthogonal Polarization (CALIOP) collocated observations. After an IIR scene classification is built under the CALIOP track, the analysis is applied to features detected by CALIOP when found alone in the atmospheric column or when CALIOP identifies an opaque layer underneath. The fast-calculation radiative transfer (FASRAD) model fed by ancillary meteorological and surface data is used to compute the different components involved in the effective emissivity retrievals under the CALIOP track. The track analysis is extended to the IIR swath using homogeneity criteria that are based on radiative equivalence. The effective optical depth at 12.05 mm is shown to be a good proxy for about one-half of the cloud optical depth, allowing direct comparisons with other databases in the visible spectrum. A step-by-step quantitative sensitivity and performance analysis is provided. The method is validated through comparisons of collocated IIR and CALIOP optical depths for elevated single-layered semitransparent cirrus clouds, showing excellent agreement (within 20%) for values ranging from 1 down to 0.05. Uncertainties have been determined from the identified error sources. The optical depth distribution of semitransparent clouds is found to have a nearly exponential shape with a mean value of about 0.5-0.6. © 2012 American Meteorological Society.

Sanchez J.,University of Valencia | Camacho F.,University of Valencia | Lacaze R.,HYGEOS | Smets B.,Flemish Institute for Technological Research
International Archives of the Photogrammetry, Remote Sensing and Spatial Information Sciences - ISPRS Archives | Year: 2015

This study investigates the scientific quality of the GEOV1 Leaf Area Index (LAI), Fraction of Absorbed Photosynthetically Active Radiation (FAPAR) and Fraction of Vegetation Cover (FCover) products based on PROBA-V observations. The procedure follows, as much as possible, the guidelines, protocols and metrics defined by the Land Product Validation (LPV) group of the Committee on Earth Observation Satellite (CEOS) for the validation of satellite-derived land products. This study is focused on the consistency of SPOT/VGT and PROBA-V GEOV1 products developed in the framework of the Copernicus Global Land Services, providing an early validation of PROBA-V GEOV1 products using data from November 2013 to May 2014, during the overlap period (November 2013-May 2014). The first natural year of PROBA-V GEOV1 products (2014) was considered for the rest of the quality assessment including comparisons with MODIS C5. Several criteria of performance were evaluated including product completeness, spatial consistency, temporal consistency, intra-annual precision and accuracy. Firstly, and inter-comparison with both spatial and temporal consistency were evaluated with reference satellite products (SPOT/VGT GEOV1 and MODIS C5) are presented over a network of sites (BELMANIP2.1). Secondly, the accuracy of PROBA-V GEOV1 products was evaluated against a number of concomitant agricultural sites is presented. The ground data was collected and up-scaled using high resolution imagery in the context of the FP7 ImagineS project in support of the evolution of Copernicus Land Service. Our results demonstrate that GEOV1 PROBA-V products were found spatially and temporally consistent with similar products (SPOT/VGT, MODISC5), and good agreement with limited ground truth data with an accuracy (RMSE) of 0.52 for LAI, 0.11 for FAPAR and 0.14 for FCover, showing a slight bias for FCover for higher values.

Dupont J.C.,IPSL | Haeffelin M.,IPSL | Stolaki S.,LMD | Elias T.,HYGEOS
Pure and Applied Geophysics | Year: 2016

The data from suite of in situ sensors, passive and active remote sensing instruments dedicated to document simultaneously radiative and thermo-dynamical processes driving the fog life cycle at the SIRTA Observatory (instrumented site for atmospheric remote sensing research) near Paris during two periods of 6 months are analysed. The study focuses on the analysis of the relative role of key physical processes and their interactions during fog formation, development and dissipation phases. This work presents, from analysis of detailed observations, the range of values that critical parameters have to take for fog and quasi-fog formation. In our study, we consider fog (horizontal visibility lower than 1 km, a dataset of 300 h) and quasi-fog (horizontal visibility ranging from 1 to 2 km, a dataset of 400 h) events induced by radiative cooling (53 events) and stratus lowering (64 events). For the radiative fog events, (with radiative cooling during prefog conditions), we note that the longwave net radiative flux (around −60 ± 5 W/m2) induces a cooling of the surface layer. The vertical structure of this cooling is controlled by dynamics, that is, wind shear and horizontal and vertical velocities. In case of very low mixing (wind speed below 0.6 m/s), the thermal stability is very strong with a temperature inversion around 3.5 °C for 10 m and a humidity gradient reaching 10 % preventing vertical development of the fog layer. For stratus-lowering fog events, the altitude of the stratus layer, the vertical mixing and the absolute value of humidity are driving parameters of the fog formation. Our statistical analysis shows that a stratus cloud with a cloud base around 170 m and with a small cloud-base subsidence rate of 50 m/h leads to fog, whereas a stratus cloud with a base around 800 m agl, with a larger cloud-base subsidence rate of 190 m/h conducts to quasi-fog situations with an important increase of the stratus liquid water path. © 2015, Springer Basel.

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