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Galea H.R.,Hydrozoan Research Laboratory | Schories D.,Austral University of Chile | Schories D.,University of Rostock | Forsterra G.,Pontifical Catholic University of Valparaiso | Haussermann V.,Pontifical Catholic University of Valparaiso
Zootaxa | Year: 2014

A large collection of shallow-water hydroids from various Chilean provinces, ranging from Taltal (25° S) in the North, to the Strait of Magellan (53° S) in the South, was studied, and a total of 30 species are discussed in the present report. Of these, eleven are new to science: Candelabrum valdiviensis, Halecium erratum, H. humeriformis, H. maximum, H. modestum, H. platythecum, Hydrodendron chilense, Sertularella asymmetra, S. curta, S. pauciramosa, and Symplectoscyphus semper. The nominal species Halecium flexile Allman, 1888, included for many decades in the synonymy of H. delicatulum Coughtrey, 1876, is resurrected based on distinctive features displayed by its newly discovered female gonothecae. A thorough discussion is provided on several morphologically related species of the genus from various localities around the world, and data on the nematocyst complement are emphasized, allowing the distinction of an as yet undescribed species, H. tristaniensis, from Tristan da Cunha, South Atlantic, and the resurrection of H. balei Fraser, 1911 from southern Australia. Halecium tehuelchum (d'Orbigny, 1842), a poorly known species considered as of doubtful validity, is redescribed based on fertile material of both sexes. A discussion on the taxonomy of several members of the genus Hydrodendron Hincks, 1874, including the first comprehensive account of their cnidome, is provided. The male and female gonothecae of Halopteris plumosa Galea & Schories, 2012 are described for the first time. A discussion on the genus Silicularia Meyen, 1834 is provided, and three subantarctic species are provisionally recognized based on the material in hand, viz. S. bilabiata (Coughtrey, 1875), S. rosea Meyen, 1834, and S. hemisphaerica (Allman, 1888). Four hydroids are new records for Chile: Halecium corrugatissimum Trebilcock, 1928, Parascyphus simplex (Lamouroux, 1816), Symplectoscyphus unilateralis (Lamouroux, 1824), and Aglaophenia divaricata Busk, 1852, the last two being accompanied by comments on their synonymy. Two additional hydroids are only tentatively identified, viz. Hebella cf. scandens (Bale, 1888) and the allusive benthic stage of Phialella falklandica (Browne, 1902). Copyright © 2014 Magnolia Press.

Galea H.R.,Hydrozoan Research Laboratory | Schories D.,Austral University of Chile
Zootaxa | Year: 2012

Twenty one species of shallow-water, benthic hydrozoans, belonging to nine families and fourteen genera, were found in a collection gathered from King George Island, South Shetland islands, during 2010 and 2011. Hydractinia angusta Hartlaub, 1904, Staurocladia charcoti (Bedot, 1908), Candelabrum penola (Manton, 1940), Orthopyxis norvegiae (Broch, 1948), and Silicularia pedunculata (Jäderholm, 1904) are redescribed. Additional notes are provided on Schizotricha turqueti Billard, 1906. Sertularella gaudichaudi (Lamouroux, 1824) is recognized as one of the most widely-distributed member of its genus in Antarctic waters. Taxonomic notes and updated synonymy are provided for some species. Copyright © 2012 · Magnolia Press.

Galea H.R.,Hydrozoan Research Laboratory | Schories D.,Austral University of Chile
Zootaxa | Year: 2012

This report supplements a series of earlier accounts on the hydrozoan fauna of Chile, and discusses 34 species of hydroids and one hydromedusa. The available collection was gathered from three distinct biogeographical regions: the southern border of the Peruvian Province around Punta de Choros, the southern Intermediate Zone around Corral, and the northern and southern parts of the Magellan Province, around Reloncaví Sound and in the Strait of Magellan, respectively. All the species are fully illustrated and, when necessary, data on the cnidome composition are provided. Six species, Halecium annuliforme, Sertularella curvitheca, Sertularella mixta, Symplectoscyphus patagonicus, Halopteris plumosa, and Clytia reloncavia, are described as new. The gonothecae of Halecium fjordlandicum Galea, 2007, Symplectoscyphus magellanicus (Marktanner-Turneretscher, 1890), and Campanularia hartlaubi (El Beshbeeshy, 2011) are described for the first time, while those of Kirchenpaueria curvata (Jäderholm, 1904) were rediscovered and are accurately redescribed. Morphological differences between C. hartlaubi and C. lennoxensis (Jäderholm, 1903), two species with similar trophosomes, are highlighted. Large, fertile specimens of Halecium pallens Jäderholm, 1904, as well as a female colony of Hydractinia parvispina Hartlaub, 1905, allowed new redescriptions to be made. Due to insufficient taxonomic information on several species created more than a century ago, two Chilean records are doubtfully assigned to Sertularella implexa (Allman, 1888) and Sertularella lagena Allman, 1876, respectively, the former represented by fertile specimens, and thus allowing the first description of its gonothecae. The long history of the confused taxonomy of South American "Symplectoscyphus subdichotomus (Kirchenpauer, 1884)" is now entirely settled. All the available records are confidently assigned to the synonymy of Symplectoscyphus filiformis (Allman, 1888), whose sexual dimorphism of gonothecae, first indicated by Totton (1930), is confirmed in light of the present material. Five species represent new records for the country: Staurocladia vallentini (Browne, 1902), Samuraia tabularasa Mangin, 1991, H. pallens, Sertularella blanconae El Beshbeeshy, 2011, and Symplectoscyphus paraglacialis El Beshbeeshy, 2011, the latter two being redescribed. Due to the scarcity of available material and the lack of gonophores of both sexes, six species of Eudendrium Ehrenberg, 1834 could be identified to genus only. Similarly, a species of Sertularella Gray, 1848 and two belonging to Symplectoscyphus Marktanner-Turneretscher, 1890, are awaiting reliable identifications based on fertile specimens. A species of Clytia Lamouroux, 1812 could not be determined to species in the absence of life cycle studies. Copyright © 2012 · Magnolia Press.

Galea H.R.,Hydrozoan Research Laboratory | Ferry R.,University of the French West Indies and Guiana
Revue Suisse de Zoologie | Year: 2015

The present report supplements a series of earlier accounts on the hydrozoan fauna of the French Lesser Antilles, and discusses 16 species of hydroids from Martinique. Of these, five are new to science: Hydractinia promiscua, Halecium plicatum, Dynamena bimorpha, Antennella quaterna and Monostaechas bertoti. The medusoid gonophores of Ralpharia gorgoniae Petersen, 1990 are described in detail. The female gonothecae of Halecium labiatum Billard, 1933, recorded for the second time, are redescribed. Characters of the trophosome and the cnidome composition allowed a reliable identification of Halecium lightbourni Calder, 1991, a species whose previously unknown gonothecae are here described for the first time. A reexamination of the type of Dynamena tropica Stechow, 1926 proved that it is conspecific with D. crisioides Lamouroux, 1824. Sertularia notabilis Fraser, 1947 is included in the synonymy of S. hattorii Leloup, 1940, and arguments for doing so are provided. The so called variety pusilla Ritchie, 1910, associated for a long time with Hincksella cylindrica (Bale, 1888), is raised to species, as H. pusilla (Ritchie, 1910), and their distinguishing characters are emphasized. Clytia edentula Gibbons & Ryland, 1991 is found for the second time, extending its known range of distribution.

This report supplements an earlier account on the hydroids of the Guadeloupe archipelago, and records 31 additional species of thecates. Among them, Halecium calderi sp. nov., Antennella armata sp. nov., and Antennella incerta sp. nov., are described. Laomedea tottoni Leloup, 1935 is redescribed and reassigned to the genus Clytia Lamouroux, 1812. Its synonymy is broadened upon inclusion of Clytia laxa Fraser, 1937. Hebella venusta (Allman, 1877) is considered valid based on comparison with related species, and its gonotheca is described for the first time. Two sympatric varieties of Sertularella diaphana (Allman, 1885), easily separable morphologically and by their cnidome composition, are discussed. Sertularella ornata Fraser, 1937 is recorded for the second time and is fully redescribed. Its name is actually a junior synonym of S. fusiformis (Hincks, 1861) f. ornata Broch, 1933, and it is here referred to as S. fraseri nom. nov.Sertularia thecocarpa Jarvis, 1922, Sertularella minuscula Billard, 1924, Sertularella parvula Mammen, 1965, and Sertularia stechowi Hirohito, 1995 are placed in the synonymy of Sertularella tongensis Stechow, 1919, the latter being transferred to the genus Sertularia Linnaeus, 1758. Sertularia ephemera nom. nov. is proposed as a replacement name for Sertularia tongensis Stechow, 1919. Aglaophenia postdentata Billard, 1913 is confidently recorded from the Atlantic for the first time. Dentitheca dendritica (Nutting, 1900) is redescribed, and additional notes on Macrorhynchia clarkei(Nutting, 1900) are provided. All the species discussed herein are new records for the study area. Illustrations are given for each species and data on the nematocyst complement and size of capsules are given when necessary. The number of hydroid species reported from the study area is raised to more than eighty. Hydroids of the Caribbean are moderately well known faunistically, though continuous discovery of new species is likely, the species composition being certainly richer than currently reported. Copyright © 2010. Magnolia Press.

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