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De Michele C.,Polytechnic of Milan | Zenoni E.,HydroMeteorological Service | Pecora S.,HydroMeteorological Service | Rosso R.,Polytechnic of Milan
Journal of Hydrology

The annual maximum amount of rainfall over a fixed duration, area, and level of occurrence is generally described by intensity-duration-area-frequency (IDAF) curves. The annual maxima analysis can provide poor estimates of quantiles associated to high return periods when the sample size is short. Here, IDAF curves are derived analytically from the statistical properties of event maxima of rainfall intensity in area and duration, which are assumed scale invariant in time and space and Lognormal distributed, with a Poissonian chronology of rain events. The event maxima methodology is applied to the Reno basin, Emilia-Romagna, Italy, and its IDAF curves are compared in terms of goodness-of-fit to those obtained through the annual maxima analysis, showing better performances. In particular, we found that the absolute difference, in %, between model and data, is 20% in average, and 7% in standard deviation, using the method based on the event maxima analysis, while it is 27% in average, and 12% in standard deviation, using the method based on the annual maxima analysis. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. Source

Alves L.,HydroMeteorological Service | Seulall B.,HydroMeteorological Service | Mitchell Z.,HydroMeteorological Service | Samaroo K.,HydroMeteorological Service | Cummings G.,HydroMeteorological Service
Natural Hazards

In the present study, diagnostic studies were undertaken using station-based rainfall data sets of selected stations of Guyana to understand the variability of rainfall. The multidecadal variation in rainfall of coastal station Georgetown and inland station Timehri has shown that the rainfall variability was less during the May-July (20-30%) of primary wet season compared to the December-January (60-70%) of second wet season. The rainfall analysis of Georgetown based on data series from 1916 to 2007 shows that El Niño/La Niña has direct relation with monthly mean rainfall of Guyana. The impact is more predominant during the second wet season December-January. A high-resolution Weather Research and Forecasting model was made operational to generate real-time forecasts up to 84 h based on 00 UTC global forecast system (GFS), NCEP initial condition. The model real-time rainfall forecast during July 2010 evaluation has shown a reasonable skill of the forecast model in predicting the heavy rainfall events and major circulation features for day-to-day operational forecast guidance. In addition to the operational experimental forecast, as part of model validation, a few sensitivity experiments are also conducted with the combination of two cloud cumulus (Kain-Fritsch (KF) and Betts-Miller-Janjic (BMJ)) and three microphysical schemes (Ferrier et al. WSM-3 simple ice scheme and Lin et al.) for heavy rainfall event occurred during 28-30 May 2010 over coastal Guyana and tropical Hurricane 'EARL' formed during 25 August-04 September 2010 over east Caribbean Sea. It was observed that there are major differences in the simulations of heavy rainfall event among the cumulus schemes, in spite of using the same initial and boundary conditions and model configuration. Overall, it was observed that the combination of BMJ and WSM-3 has shown qualitatively close to the observed heavy rainfall event even though the predicted amounts are less. In the case of tropical Hurricane 'EARL', the forecast track in all the six experiments based on 00 UTC of 28 August 2010 initial conditions for the forecast up to 84 h has shown that the combination of KF cumulus and Ferrier microphysics scheme has shown less track errors compared to other combinations. The overall average position errors for all the six experiments taken together work out to 103 km in 24, 199 km in 48, 197 km in 72 and 174 km in 84 h. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

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