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Ako A.A.,Kumamoto University | Ako A.A.,Hydrological Research Center Yaounde Cameroon | Shimada J.,Kumamoto University | Hosono T.,Kumamoto University | And 5 more authors.
Environmental Geochemistry and Health | Year: 2011

Groundwater quality of the Banana Plain (Mbanga, Njombe, Penja-Cameroon) was assessed for its suitability for drinking, domestic, and agricultural uses. A total of 67 groundwater samples were collected from open wells, springs, and boreholes. Samples were analyzed for physicochemical properties, major ions, and dissolved silica. In 95% of groundwater samples, calcium is the dominant cation, while sodium dominates in 5% of the samples. Eighty percent of the samples have HCO 3 as major anion, and in 20%, NO 3 is the major anion. Main water types in the study area are CaHCO 3, CaMgHCO 3, CaNaHCO 3, and CaNaNO 3ClHCO 3. CO 2-driven weathering of silicate minerals followed by cation exchange seemingly controls largely the concentrations of major ions in the groundwaters of this area. Nitrate, sulfate, and chloride concentrations strongly express the impact of anthropogenic activities (agriculture and domestic activities) on groundwater quality. Sixty-four percent of the waters have nitrate concentrations higher than the drinking water limit. Also limiting groundwater use for potable and domestic purposes are contents of Ca 2+, Mg 2+ and HCO 3 - and total hardness (TH) that exceed World Health Organization (WHO) standards. Irrigational suitability of groundwaters in the study area was also evaluated, and results show that all the samples are fit for irrigation. Groundwater quality in the Banana Plain is impeded by natural geology and anthropogenic activities, and proper groundwater management strategies are necessary to protect sustainably this valuable resource. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

Ako A.A.,Kumamoto University | Shimada J.,Kumamoto University | Hosono T.,Kumamoto University | Ichiyanagi K.,Kumamoto University | And 3 more authors.
Journal of African Earth Sciences | Year: 2012

Hydrochemical and environmental isotopic ( 2H, 18O and 3H) data were used to investigate the hydrogeochemical and isotopic characteristics of groundwater within Mbanga, Njombe and Penja (Banana Plain). Hydrogeochemically, the groundwaters are mainly Ca-HCO 3, Ca-Mg-HCO 3, Ca-Na-HCO 3, and Ca-Na-NO 3-Cl-HCO 3 water types. The groundwater chemistry may be adequately explained by the incongruent dissolution of silicate and alumino-silicate minerals, impact of anthropogenic activities and cation exchange between the groundwaters and clay minerals. The isotopic contents of groundwaters ranged from -4.2‰ to -2.1‰ for δ 18O, from -23.4‰ to -10.6‰ for δD and from 0.6 to 1.4 TU for tritium. In the conventional δD-δ 18O diagram, the distribution of data points indicates that the groundwaters are of meteoric origin and have not been affected by evaporation. Environmental isotopes ( 18O, 2H and 3H) indicate mixing between recent and old groundwaters; the latter were recharged under more humid climatic conditions than that at present or from higher elevations. Groundwater in Mbanga, Njombe and Penja are of meteoric origin, young and are still in the early stage of geochemical evolution. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Ako Ako A.,Kumamoto University | Ako Ako A.,Hydrological Research Center Yaounde Cameroon | Shimada J.,Kumamoto University | Eyong G.E.T.,Hydrological Research Center Yaounde Cameroon | Fantong W.Y.,University of Toyama
Water Science and Technology | Year: 2010

Cameroon has been fully engaged with the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs) since their inception in 2000. This paper examines the situation of access to potable water and sanitation in Cameroon within the context of the Millennium Development Goals (MDGs), establishes whether Cameroon is on the track of meeting the MDGs in these domains and proposes actions to be taken to bring it closer to these objectives. Based on analyzed data obtained from national surveys, government ministries, national statistical offices, bibliographic research, reports and interviews, it argues that Cameroon will not reach the water and sanitation MGDs. While Cameroon is not yet on track to meet the targets of the MDGs for water and sanitation, it has made notable progress since 1990, much more needs to be done to improve the situation, especially in rural areas. In 2006, 70% of the population had access to safe drinking water and the coverage in urban centres is 88%, significantly better than the 47% in rural areas. However, rapid urbanization has rendered existing infrastructure inadequate with periurban dwellers also lacking access to safe drinking water. Sanitation coverage is also poor. In urban areas only 58% of the population has access to improved sanitation facilities, and the rate in rural areas is 42%. Women and girls shoulder the largest burden in collecting water, 15% of urban and 18% rural populations use improved drinking water sources over 30 minutes away. Cameroon faces the following challenges in reaching the water and sanitation MDGs: poor management and development of the resources, coupled with inadequate political will and commitment for the long term; rapid urbanization; urban and rural poverty and regulation and legislative lapses. The authors propose that: bridging the gap between national water policies and water services; recognizing the role played by Civil Society Organizations (CSOs) in the attainment of MDGs; developing a Council Water Resource Management Policy and Strategy (CWARMPS); organizing an institutional framework for the water and sanitation sector as well as completion and implementation of an Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) plan, would bring Cameroon closer to the water and sanitation MDGs. © IWA Publishing 2010. Source

Ako A.A.,Kumamoto University | Ako A.A.,Hydrological Research Center Yaounde Cameroon | Eyong G.E.T.,Hydrological Research Center Yaounde Cameroon | Nkeng G.E.,National School of Public Works
Water Resources Management | Year: 2010

Cameroon is blessed with abundant water resources. Rapid population increase, unplanned urbanisation, intensive industrial and socio-economic development have led to poor and unsustainable management of these resources. Integrated Water Resources Management (IWRM) is a promising approach in ensuring sustainable management of Cameroon's water resources. It entails management of water for various purposes and not for a single purpose which therefore involves different stake holders aiming at achieving sustainable water resources management. This paper seeks to evaluate recent efforts to implement in IWRM in Cameroon by examining the institutional framework for IWRM in Cameroon, conditions for the implementation of IWRM and proposes reforms for improving IWRM in Cameroon. The paper concludes that reforms such as public participation at local council levels, recognition of water as both an economic and a social good, putting IWRM within the larger context of Integrated Natural Resource Management (INRM) and the exploitation of mathematical models within hydrological basins will improve IWRM in Cameroon. © 2009 Springer Science+Business Media B.V. Source

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