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Kielce, Poland

Lebkowska M.,Warsaw University of Technology | Zborowska E.,Warsaw University of Technology | Karwowska E.,Warsaw University of Technology | Miaskiewicz-Peska E.,Warsaw University of Technology | And 4 more authors.
Ecological Engineering | Year: 2011

Research was conducted to estimate impact of the multiple bioaugmentation on the treatment of soil contaminated by fuels - diesel oil and aircraft fuel. The bacteria used to inoculate the remediation plots were isolated from the polluted soil and proliferated in field conditions. The amount of biomass applied to the polluted soil was set to ensure the total number of bacteria in soil 10 7-10 8cfu/g d.w. The multiple inoculation of soil with indigenous bacteria active in diesel oil and engine oil (plot A) degradation increased bioremediation effectiveness by 50% in comparison to the non-inoculated control soil and by 30% in comparison to the soil that was inoculated only once. The multiple inoculation of soil with indigenous microorganisms was then applied in bioremediation of the soil polluted with double high concentration of diesel oil (soil B) and in bioremediation of the soil polluted with aircraft fuel (soil C). The process efficiency was 80% and 98% removal of TPH for soil B and C, respectively. © 2011 Elsevier B.V.

Obiri-Nyarko F.,Hydrogeotechnika Sp z oo | Kwiatkowska-Malina J.,Warsaw University of Technology | Kasela T.,Hydrogeotechnika Sp z oo
Water Science and Technology: Water Supply | Year: 2015

Laboratory batch experiments were performed to: (i) select two individual and two mixtures of potential reactive materials for permeable barriers to treat groundwater contaminated with benzene and soluble lead (Pb2+); (ii) investigate the involved contaminant removal mechanisms; and (iii) determine the permeability and assess the environmental compatibility of the selected materials. Five individual reactive materials (zeolite, diatomaceous earth, brown coal, compost, and zero-valent iron as control) and four mixtures (compost:brown coal, compostzeolite, compostmulch, and mulch:diatomaceous earth) in different ratios were investigated. Benzene and Pb2+ were investigated separately using Pb2+/benzene spiked deionized water. Zeolite and brown coal were selected as individual materials for Pb and benzene based on their removal efficiencies. For the material mixtures, compostbrown coal (1:3) and compostzeolite mixtures (1:3) were selected for Pb, whereas compostzeolite (1:1) and compostbrown coal (1:5) were selected for benzene. The sequential extraction of Pb from these selected reactive materials showed that Pb was held mainly in the exchangeable fraction (52%-76%). Benzene was removed by biodegradation and sorption, with the latter contributing most to its removal (60%-99%). The selected materials were compatible with the environment considering the amounts of toxic metals leached from them, and their permeabilities were in the range of 4.2×10-5-2.14×10-3 ms-1. © IWA Publishing 2015.

Obiri-Nyarko F.,Hydrogeotechnika Sp z oo | Kwiatkowska-Malina J.,Warsaw University of Technology | Malina G.,AGH University of Science and Technology | Kasela T.,Hydrogeotechnika Sp z oo
Journal of Contaminant Hydrology | Year: 2015

The feasibility of using geochemical modelling to predict the performance of a zeolite-permeable reactive barrier (PRB) for treating lead (Pb2 +) contaminated water was investigated in this study. A short-term laboratory column experiment was first performed with the zeolite (clinoptilolite) until the elution of 50 PV (1 PV = ca. 283 mL). Geochemical simulations of the one-dimensional transport of the Pb2+, considering removal processes including: ion-exchange, adsorption and complexation; the concomitant release of exchangeable cations (Ca2 +, Mg2 +, Na+, and K+) and the changes in pH were subsequently performed using the geochemical model PHREEQC. The results showed a reasonable agreement between the experimental results and the numerical simulations, with the exception of Ca2 + for which a great discrepancy was observed. The model also indicated the formation of secondary mineral precipitates such as goethite and hematite throughout the experiment, of which the effect on the hydraulic conductivity was found to be negligible. The results were further used to extrapolate the long-term performance of the zeolite. We found the capacity would be completely exhausted at PV = 250 (ca. 3 days). The study, thus, generally demonstrates the applicability of PHREEQC to predict the short and long-term performance of zeolite-PRBs. Therefore, it can be used to assist in the design and for management purposes of such barriers. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Obiri-Nyarko F.,Hydrogeotechnika Sp z oo | Grajales-Mesa S.J.,AGH University of Science and Technology | Malina G.,AGH University of Science and Technology
Chemosphere | Year: 2014

Permeable reactive barriers (PRBs) are one of the innovative technologies widely accepted as an alternative to the 'pump and treat' (P&T) for sustainable in situ remediation of contaminated groundwater. The concept of the technology involves the emplacement of a permeable barrier containing reactive materials across the flow path of the contaminated groundwater to intercept and treat the contaminants as the plume flows through it under the influence of the natural hydraulic gradient. Since the invention of PRBs in the early 1990s, a variety of materials has been employed to remove contaminants including heavy metals, chlorinated solvents, aromatic hydrocarbons, and pesticides. Contaminant removal is usually accomplished via processes such as adsorption, precipitation, denitrification and biodegradation. Despite wide acknowledgment, there are still unresolved issues about long term-performance of PRBs, which have somewhat affected their acceptability and full-scale implementation. The current paper presents an overview of the PRB technology, which includes the state of art, the merits and limitations, the reactive media used so far, and the mechanisms employed to transform or immobilize contaminants. The paper also looks at the design, construction and the long-term performance of PRBs. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

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