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Kielce, Poland

The need of surface soil removal during reclamation of the former underground landfills makes environmental monitoring difficult to perform. Environmental quality assessment after reclamation is very important because it provides information about: (1) the efficiency of remediation, (2) the rate of biodegradation of contaminants which were not removed during reclamation works and (3) the possible migration of contaminants from soil and permeable host rocks to surface waters and groundwaters. The concept of geoindicators, which was introduced to facilitate the assessment of environmental changes, can help assess environmental quality at sites previously subjected to reclamation. The groundwater quality is usually used as a geoindicator of inorganic contaminants. This concept was applied to find changes in organochlorine pesticide concentrations in groundwaters after toxic pesticide burial ground reclamation. The aim of this study was to monitor the concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and their metabolites in groundwaters at the former pesticide landfill site after its remediation. The study showed that very high concentrations of organochlorine pesticides and their metabolites in a contaminated soil had a small influence on pesticide concentrations in groundwaters and that this influence decreased in time. It has been 2 years since reclamation of the landfill took place, and the concentrations of organochlorine pesticides in groundwaters dropped to acceptable levels within the current environmental quality standards. © 2012 The Author(s). Source

Migaszewski Z.M.,Jan Kochanowski University | Galuszka A.,Jan Kochanowski University | Migaszewski A.,Hydrogeotechnika
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment

The principal objective of the current study was to elucidate the potential influence of acid mine drainage (AMD) pond on neighboring farmer's wells in the Podwiśniówka area (south-central Poland), using North American Shale Composite (NASC)-normalized rare earth element (REE) concentration profiles. The well waters generally displayed a distinctly positive Eu anomaly similar to that of parent rocks and AMD sediment. In contrast, the AMD pit pond water exhibited the typical roof-shaped NASC-normalized REE concentration pattern with a strong positive Gd anomaly. The low pH (mean of 2.9) of this pond water is induced by oxidation of pyrite that occurs in quartz veins and rocks exposed in the abandoned Podwiśniówka quarry. The principal source of REEs in turn is a crandallite series of aluminum-phosphate-sulfate (APS) minerals (gorceixite with florencite and Ce-bearing goyazite) that prevail in most clayey shales. These data indicate that the REE contents of the AMD pit pond and well waters are linked to bedrock mineralogy and lithology, but not to pyrite mineralization. The diverse REE patterns of NASC-normalized REE concentrations of the AMD and well waters may suggest complex sorption and desorption processes that occur at the rock-water interface influenced by different pH, Eh, temperature, and other factors. This is evidenced by a presence of strong positive Ce anomaly in the rocks, a lack of Ce anomaly in the AMD water and sediment, and the dominant negative anomaly of this element in the well waters. Variations in correlation coefficients (r2) of REE concentrations between the rocks and the well waters may also result from a different contribution of quartzites, clayey shales, or tuffites to the REE signal of well waters as well as from mixing of shallow groundwater with infiltrating rainwater or meltwater with different REE profiles. © 2013 The Author(s). Source

Migaszewski Z.M.,Jan Kochanowski University | Galuszka A.,Jan Kochanowski University | Michalik A.,Jan Kochanowski University | Dolegowska S.,Jan Kochanowski University | And 3 more authors.
Aquatic Geochemistry

The paper presents the results of determinations of stable S and O isotopes of dissolved sulfates and O and H stable isotopes of waters from three ponds, that is, Marczakowe Doły acid pond, Marczakowe Doły fish pond and Podwiśniówka acid pit pond, located in the Holy Cross Mountains (south-central Poland). The δ34SV-CDT and δ18OV-SMOW of SO4 2- in waters of three ponds (n = 14) varied from -16.2 to -9.5 ‰ (mean of -13.6 ‰) and from -8.1 to -3.2 ‰ (mean of -4.8 ‰), respectively. The mean δ34S-SO4 2- values were closer to those of pyrite (mean of -25.4 ‰) and efflorescent sulfate salts (mean of -25.6 ‰), recorded previously in the Podwiśniówka quarry, than to sulfates derived from other anthropogenic or soil and bedrock sources. The SO4 2- ions formed by bacterially induced pyrite oxidation combined with bacterial (dissimilatory) dissolved sulfate reduction, and presumably with subordinate mineralization of carbon-bonded sulfur compounds, especially in both Marczakowe Doły ponds. In addition, the comparison of δ18O-SO4 2- and δ18O-H2O values indicated that 75-100 % of sulfate oxygen was derived from water. Due to the largest size, the Podwiśniówka acid pit pond revealed distinct seasonal variations in both δ18O-H2O (-9.2 to -1.6) and δD-H2O (-29.7 to -71.3) values. The strong correlation coefficient (r 2 = 0.99) was noted between δ18O-H2O and δD-H2O values, which points to atmospheric precipitation as the only source of water. The sediments of both acid ponds display different mineral inventory: the Marczakowe Doły acid pond sediment consists of schwertmannite and goethite, whereas Podwiśniówka acid pit pond sediment is composed of quartz, illite, chlorite and kaolinite with some admixture of jarosite reflecting a more acidic environment. Geochemical modeling of two acid ponds indicated that the saturation indices of schwertmannite and nanosized ε-Fe2O3 (Fe3+ oxide polymorph) were closest to thermodynamic equilibrium state with water, varying from -1.44 to 3.05 and from -3.42 to 6.04, respectively. This evidence matches well with the obtained mineralogical results. © 2013 The Author(s). Source

Nilsson B.,Geological Survey of Denmark | Tzovolou D.,Institute of Chemical Engineering And High Temperature Chemical Processes | Tzovolou D.,University of Patras | Jeczalik M.,Hydrogeotechnika | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Environmental Management

A steam injection pilot-scale experiment was performed on the unsaturated zone of a strongly heterogeneous fractured soil contaminated by jet fuel. Before the treatment, the soil was stimulated by creating sub-horizontal sand-filled hydraulic fractures at three depths. The steam was injected through one hydraulic fracture and gas/water/non-aqueous phase liquid (NAPL) was extracted from the remaining fractures by applying a vacuum to extraction wells. The injection strategy was designed to maximize the heat delivery over the entire cell (10 m × 10 m × 5 m). The soil temperature profile, the recovered NAPL, the extracted water, and the concentrations of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the gas phase were monitored during the field test. GC-MS chemical analyses of pre- and post-treatment soil samples allowed for the quantitative assessment of the remediation efficiency.The growth of the heat front followed the configuration of hydraulic fractures. The average concentration of total hydrocarbons (g/kg of soil) was reduced by ∼43% in the upper target zone (depth = 1.5-3.9 m) and by ∼72% over the entire zone (depth = 1.5-5.5 m). The total NAPL mass removal based on gas and liquid stream measurements and the free-NAPL product were almost 30% and 2%, respectively, of those estimated from chemical analyses of pre- and post-treatment soil samples.The dominant mechanisms of soil remediation was the vaporization of jet fuel compounds at temperatures lower than their normal boiling points (steam distillation) enhanced by the ventilation of porous matrix due to the forced convective flow of air. In addition, the significant reduction of the NAPL mass in the less-heated deeper zone may be attributed to the counter-current imbibition of condensed water from natural fractures into the porous matrix and the gravity drainage associated with seasonal fluctuations of the water table. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Galuszka A.,Jan Kochanowski University | Migaszewski Z.M.,Jan Kochanowski University | Manecki P.,Hydrogeotechnika
Environment International

Obsolete pesticides were stored in Poland from the middle sixties until the late eighties of the 20th century mostly in underground disposal sites, called "pesticide burial grounds" or "pesticide tombs". The total amount of pesticide waste and packaging materials disposed of in these landfills exceeded 20. 000. Mg. Typically, the content of a pesticide tomb was dominated by organochlorine pesticides (comprising 10-100% of the total waste volume) with DDT as the prevailing compound. Other pesticide types, such as phosphoroorganic, carbamate insecticides, dinitrophenols, phenoxyacids, and inorganic compounds were stored in smaller quantities, usually not exceeding 10-20% of the total waste volume. With the growing awareness of the threats that these landfills posed to the environment, the first inventory for the whole country was made in 1993 and remediation was initiated in 1999. The total amount of waste, which had to be removed from the known pesticide tombs (hazardous substances, contaminated soils, construction materials etc.) was about 100. 000. Mg. According to the National Waste Management Plan, the reclamation of pesticide tombs was assumed to have been finished by the end of 2010, however, this goal has not been achieved. The aim of this review is to present a historical perspective of pesticide burial grounds in Poland with an emphasis on their creation, function, inventory, and remediation. Based on unpublished reports, and other published materials of limited availability written in Polish, this review may serve as a source of information for representatives of other countries, where remediation of pesticide burial grounds is still in progress. The experience gained over a ten-year period, when restoration of pesticide tombs was implemented in Poland, reveals that there are many obstacles to this action arising not only from technical, but also from economic and social issues. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. Source

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