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Zhao L.,East China University of Science and Technology | Xia W.,Jiangnan University | Zhao H.,Hydrochem Engineering Shanghai Co.
Desalination and Water Treatment | Year: 2011

A model which can be applied to explore the impact of variables of couple-membrane system on the capital costs and operating costs is presented, in industrial filtration and sodium hydroxide recovery of the alkali wastewater from chitin production plants, for investment and operating costs of stainless steel ultrafiltration membrane (SSF) and alkali tolerant nanofiltration membrane (NF). The permeate flux models of SSF and NF set previously for these raw alkali wastewaters were used to simulate the filtration process. According to previously industrial experiments and actual investment data supplied by membrane manufacturers, the cost models were developed. Data used in simulations had been selected from previously pilot studies. For a normal design capacities (100 m3/day), the trend of operating costs increases depends greatly on the module number of SSF. The total cost is the sum of capital costs and operating costs. Among the costs compositions, the capital costs of SSF is about 62% while that of NF is only 27%, and the operating costs is less than 11% of the total cost. The capital and operating costs decrease as the capacity of plants increase. The total cost decreases linearly with the increase of membrane permeates flux. © 2011 Desalination Publications. Source

Zhao L.,Jiangnan University | Xia W.,Jiangnan University | Zhao H.,Hydrochem Engineering Shanghai Co. | Zhao J.,Hydrochem Engineering Shanghai Co.
Desalination and Water Treatment | Year: 2010

In this study, we used several methods to examine the membrane structure of a kind of alkali-stable nanofiltration membrane, as well as the effect of pH on its permeability, retention, and structure. A novel alkali-stable nanofiltration membrane was studied. Its retention and flux behavior could be related to its charge, its swelling properties and its pore size distribution. The filtration performed was of uncharged glucose, salt solutions, and caustic sodium solution. A novel artificial neural network-based model was generated to simulate the permeate flux and retention behaviors. Our experimental data were compared with the model outputs. A Spiegler-Kedem model was also examined in this study. Our results showed that the membrane pore diameter was about 0.36 nm, and had a negative surface charge. In addition, the membrane opened significantly at high pH, a finding which can be attributed to the chemical nature of the polymer chains in the membrane skin layer. The correlation factor of the artificial neural network model was 0.9918, which was a little higher than that of Spiegler-Kedem model, indicating that both models are suitable to predict this membrane system. © 2010 Desalination Publications. Source

Zhao L.,Jiangnan University | Xia W.,Jiangnan University | Zhao H.,Jiangnan University | Xu Z.,Hydrochem Engineering Shanghai Co. | And 2 more authors.
Desalination and Water Treatment | Year: 2010

A semi-empirical cross-flow ultrafiltration (UF) model of stainless steel membrane that can predict permeate flux as a function of treatment time with alkali wastewater in chitin production was studied. A tubular stainless steel membrane supplied by Hyflux® (Singapore) was employed. Alkali wastewater from chitin deproteination process with 3.4% NaOH (W/W) and 1.7% protein and its hydrolysate was used as the feed liquid. The permeate flux of the pure water was performed under different conditions and the membrane resistance was obtained, and the growth models were developed and analyzed. The resistance that leads to the flux decline was measured, and the model predictions were compared with the experimental data obtained from pilot plant operation. Results showed that the growth model could used to predict the flux decline of SSM very well, and the correlation coefficient was determined as 0.9892. © 2010 Desalination Publications. Source

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