Hydrobiology

Brisbane, Australia

Hydrobiology

Brisbane, Australia
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Cresswell T.,CSIRO | Cresswell T.,RMIT University | Cresswell T.,Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation | Simpson S.L.,RMIT University | And 4 more authors.
Aquatic Toxicology | Year: 2014

The potential sources and mechanisms of cadmium bioaccumulation by the native freshwater decapods Macrobrachium species in the waters of the highly turbid Strickland River in Papua New Guinea were examined using 109Cd-labelled water and food sources and the Australian species Macrobrachium australiense as a surrogate. Synthetic river water was spiked with environmentally relevant concentrations of cadmium and animals were exposed for 7 days with daily renewal of test solutions. Dietary assimilation of cadmium was assessed through pulse-chase experiments where prawns were fed separately 109Cd-labelled fine sediment, filamentous algae and carrion (represented by cephalothorax tissue of water-exposed prawns).M. australiense readily accumulated cadmium from the dissolved phase and the uptake rate increased linearly with increasing exposure concentration. A cadmium uptake rate constant of 0.10. ±. 0.05. L/g/d was determined in synthetic river water. During depuration following exposure to dissolved cadmium, efflux rates were low (0.9. ±. 5%/d) and were not dependent on exposure concentration. Assimilation efficiencies of dietary sources were comparable for sediment and algae (48-51%), but lower for carrion (28. ±. 5%) and efflux rates were low (0.2-2.6%/d) demonstrating that cadmium was well retained by M. australiense. A biokinetic model of cadmium accumulation by M. australiense predicted that for exposures to environmentally relevant cadmium concentrations in the Strickland River, uptake from ingestion of fine sediment and carrion would be the predominant sources of cadmium to the organism. The model predicted the total dietary route would represent 70-80% of bioaccumulated cadmium. © 2014.


PubMed | Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation, RMIT University, Austral Radioecology and Hydrobiology
Type: | Journal: Aquatic toxicology (Amsterdam, Netherlands) | Year: 2014

The potential sources and mechanisms of cadmium bioaccumulation by the native freshwater decapods Macrobrachium species in the waters of the highly turbid Strickland River in Papua New Guinea were examined using (109)Cd-labelled water and food sources and the Australian species Macrobrachium australiense as a surrogate. Synthetic river water was spiked with environmentally relevant concentrations of cadmium and animals were exposed for 7 days with daily renewal of test solutions. Dietary assimilation of cadmium was assessed through pulse-chase experiments where prawns were fed separately (109)Cd-labelled fine sediment, filamentous algae and carrion (represented by cephalothorax tissue of water-exposed prawns). M. australiense readily accumulated cadmium from the dissolved phase and the uptake rate increased linearly with increasing exposure concentration. A cadmium uptake rate constant of 0.10 0.05 L/g/d was determined in synthetic river water. During depuration following exposure to dissolved cadmium, efflux rates were low (0.9 5%/d) and were not dependent on exposure concentration. Assimilation efficiencies of dietary sources were comparable for sediment and algae (48-51%), but lower for carrion (28 5%) and efflux rates were low (0.2-2.6%/d) demonstrating that cadmium was well retained by M. australiense. A biokinetic model of cadmium accumulation by M. australiense predicted that for exposures to environmentally relevant cadmium concentrations in the Strickland River, uptake from ingestion of fine sediment and carrion would be the predominant sources of cadmium to the organism. The model predicted the total dietary route would represent 70-80% of bioaccumulated cadmium.


Cresswell T.,CSIRO | Cresswell T.,RMIT University | Cresswell T.,Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation | Smith R.E.W.,Hydrobiology | And 2 more authors.
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2013

The fast-flowing and highly turbid Lagaip River (0.5-10 g/L suspended solids) in the central highlands of Papua New Guinea receives mine-derived metal inputs in both dissolved and particulate forms. Nearest the mine, metal concentrations in suspended solids were 360, 9, 90, 740 and 1,300 mg/kg for As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn, while dissolved concentrations were 2.7, 0.6, 3.1, 0.1 and 25 μg/L, respectively. This creates a significant metal exposure source for organisms nearer the mine. However, because the Lagaip River is diluted by a large number of tributaries, the extent to which mine-derived metals may affect biota in the lower catchments is uncertain. To improve our understanding of the forms of potentially bioavailable metals entering the lower river system, we studied the partitioning and speciation of metals within the Lagaip River system. Dissolved and particulate metal concentrations decreased rapidly downstream of the mine due to dilution from tributaries. As a portion of the particulate metal concentrations, the more labile dilute acid-extractable forms typically comprised 10-30 % for As and Pb, 50-75 % for Cu and Zn, and 50-100 % for Cd. Only dissolved Cd, Cu and Zn remained elevated relative to the non-mine-impacted tributaries (<0.03, 0.5 and 0.3 μg/L), but the concentrations did not appreciably change with increasing dilution downriver. This indicated that release of Cd, Cu and Zn was likely occurring from the more labile metal phases of the mine-derived particulates. Chelex-labile metal analyses and speciation modelling indicated that dissolved copper and lead were largely non-labile and likely complexed by naturally occurring organic ligands, while dissolved cadmium and zinc were predominantly present in labile forms. The study confirmed that mine-derived particulates may represent a significant source of dissolved metals in the lower river system; however, comparison with water quality guidelines indicates the low concentrations would not adversely affect aquatic life. © 2013 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Australia.


Cresswell T.,CSIRO | Cresswell T.,RMIT University | Cresswell T.,Australian Nuclear Science and Technology Organisation | Smith R.E.W.,Hydrobiology | Simpson S.L.,CSIRO
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2014

Bioaccumulation of As, Cd, Cu, Pb and Zn by Macrobrachium prawns was observed to occur in the Strickland River downstream of a gold mine at Porgera, Papua New Guinea. This was despite the total metal concentrations of waters and sediments indicating no difference from reference sites within tributaries. To provide information on potential sources and bioavailability of metals to prawns, an extensive range of analyses were made on waters, suspended solids, deposited sediments and plant materials within the river system. Dissolved metal concentrations were mostly sub-micrograms per liter and no major differences existed in concentrations or speciation between sites within the Strickland River or its tributaries. Similarly, no differences were detected between sites for total or dilute acid-extractable metal concentrations in bed sediments and plant materials, which may be ingested by the prawns. However, the rivers in this region are highly turbid and the dilute acid-extractable cadmium and zinc concentrations in suspended solids were greater at sites in the Strickland River than at sites in tributaries. The results indicated that mine-derived inputs increased the proportion of these forms of metals or metalloids in the Strickland River. These less strongly bound metals and metalloids would be more bioavailable to the prawns via the dietary pathway. The results highlighted many of the difficulties in using routine monitoring data without information on metal speciation to describe metal uptake and predict potential effects when concentrations are low and similar to background. The study indicated that the monitoring of contaminant concentrations in organisms that integrate the exposure from multiple exposure routes and durations may often be more effective for detecting impacts than intermittent monitoring of contaminants in waters and sediments. © 2013 Her Majesty the Queen in Right of Australia.


Cresswell T.,CSIRO | Cresswell T.,RMIT University | Smith R.E.W.,Hydrobiology | Nugegoda D.,RMIT University | Simpson S.L.,CSIRO
Aquatic Toxicology | Year: 2014

Potential sources and kinetics of metal bioaccumulation by the three Macrobrachium prawn species M. australiense, M. rosenbergii and M. latidactylus were assessed in laboratory experiments. The prawns were exposed to two scenarios: cadmium in water only; and exposure to metal-rich mine tailings in the same water. The cadmium accumulation from the dissolved exposure during 7 days, followed by depuration in cadmium-free water for 7 days, was compared with predictions from a biokinetic model that had previously been developed for M. australiense. M. australiense and M. latidactylus accumulated significant tissue cadmium during the exposure phase, albeit with different uptake rates. All three species retained >95% of the bioaccumulated cadmium during the depuration phase, indicating very slow efflux rates. Following exposure to tailings, there were significant (. p<. 0.05) differences in tissue arsenic, cadmium, lead and zinc concentrations among species. Cadmium and zinc concentrations were increased relative to controls for all three species but were not different between treatments (direct/indirect contact with tailings), suggesting these metals were primarily accumulated via the dissolved phase. All species bioaccumulated significantly greater arsenic and lead when in direct contact with mine tailings, demonstrating the importance of an ingestion pathway for these metals. Copper was not bioaccumulated above control concentrations for any species. The differences between the metal accumulation of the three prawns indicated that a biokinetic model of cadmium bioaccumulation for M. australiense could potentially be used to describe the metal bioaccumulation of the other two prawn species, albeit with an over-prediction of 3-9 times. Despite these being the same genus of decapod crustacean, the study highlights the issues with using surrogate species, even under controlled laboratory conditions. It is recommended that future studies using surrogate species quantify the metal bioaccumulation characteristics of each species in order to account for any differences between species. © 2014.

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